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Vol. Ill LEBANON, PA., JANUARY, 1902 

tF:nfi..l :,! •.!.. 1 


lll^ ulevcmh annual meeting oi ibe vit,n>r()US 'society in 
the intere-t> of "the Pennsylvania-Gern-ians met Ucto- 
ber J5. i*;Oi, at I larrisburi;-. The meeting- place was 
the citv"s I'.'.arJ of Tiade lUiiUlin-'. wliere a local com- 
mittee had made every arrani^ement essential to the 
conuort and convenience of its many guests, even to the servmg- ■ 
(!<' luncheon and the banquet. 

J-'.vervthing conspired to make this meeting a pronounced suc- 
cess, the arrangements, the social feature, the attendance and the 
excellent program for the entire day and evening. There were 
not a few who have attended all former meetings, who declared 
ihi> bv far the best in every respect. How could it help but be 
with such a committee of arrangements, such a large and talented 
.leathering and such a rich bill of intellectual fare as the prograni 

We cannot here give a list of the most shining lights in attend- 
ance, but must let it suffice to say that the best talent from among 
the learned professions, of which the State and beyond can boast, 
v.ere largelv present. Business men. judges, legislators. Congress- 
men, editors, college and seminary presidents and professors and 
many ladies joined these to fdl the large hall. There was a sprink- 
hng of visitors from the State Convention of the Daughters of the 
Kevi.lution. which had just been held in the city and adjourned 
the evening previous. 

The cliaracter of the rich feast of reason may be judged from a 
reprint of the Order of Proceedings. This was as follows: 

■''\f"r)i{)r^ .S"r.s\x-.''.?;/. -Invocation, Rev. Theodore E. Sciimauk. 
'' IX. T.ebanon ; Citv's Creeting, ^layor Jolm A. Fritchey, Harris- 
burg; Address of Welcome, Rev. David McConatighy Gilbert. 

Tin: i'i:\.\syi.\AMA-(n:uM \\\ 

D.])., ]Ian-isliur-: Response, 1^'v. F. j. F. Schantz, D.D.. Myers- 
town; I'resi'lent's Address, (With oliituary cnloi^-'y of William 
]lein-y Fglc. ALD.. .\.M., Ex-President of Society). Pn.f. Cliarles 
FVancis Ijinies, Carlisle ; (Jbituary Eulo.q-y of Rev. Thomas Conrad 
Porter, D.F)., LL.l)., late President of the Society, Rev. Joseph H. 
Dub])s. T).n.. LL.D., \ice-President, Lancaster; Secretary's Re- 
port, IF M. y[. Richards, Lel)an(in; Treasurer's Report, Julius F. 
vSachse, Philadelphia; Nomination and hdeclion of CMTicers. His- 
torical Pai)ers — The Pennsylvania-German Dialect, Jts Capabili- 
ties, Lee L. Grumhine. Esq., Lebanoii ; The Schwenkfelders in 
Pennsylvania, Prof. Howard W. Krielxl, Pennsbmg-. 

Aflcnioon Session. — The ]\Iennonitcs of Pennsylvania, Lee L. 
Grumhine. Lebanon ; The Music of the F'phrata Cloister. Julius F. 
Sachse, ] 'hila<ielphia, ( illustrated by a choir under the direction of 
Rev. J. F. (Jill, Mus. l)(ic. ) ; Greeting's fmrn his Imperi;il Majesty 
the l"lmperor oi (ierman\-, G. b". b\'id. Ivitschl, Imperial ( lerman 
Consul, Philadelphia ; Ci\il Life Among-st the Pennsylvania-Ger- 
mans, F-ton. William I'. Hensel, Lancaster. 

Evening Session. — The Picturescjue Side oi Pennsyhania-Ger- 
nian Life (_ illustrated b\- lantern slides), 7.30 p. m., W'. ]L Rich- 
ardson, Esq., Xorristown ; Reception, 8 to 9 P. ~M.; Panquet, 9 
to II P. M. 

There was not a dull moment in the conxention and the volume 
that will contain these proceedings and papers will be a very rich 
one.. Especially will manv look forward to the printed address 
and array of tine p'jcms in the vernacular b}' Lee I>. Grtimbinc. 

The worthy ancestry, the present actors and the coming genera- 
tions of this virile stock of the State's population are to be alike 
congratulated upon the achie\ements of this society, whose his- 
torians, biographers and ptjets will yet rank with the best in the 


Till-: thanks oi the b'ditor are herewith expressed to Revs. 
Gable and (ieorge for use of portrait cuts, and to ^Messrs. B. F. 
Owen, G. A. Schlechter and FL J. Smith for the kind loan of 
others tised m this number. 


Tin-: majority of subscribers are paid up to date. Some have 
credit for 1002. All will get credit in full for 1902 if a dollar be 
sent before April K-t. After that date, Si. 25. 


T is well known thai the patriarch of the Lutheran 
Church in America, Dr. Henry Melchoir Muhlen- 
herg. reared an illustrious family, through whose 
lives and labors his own g-reat fame shown forth 
with additional luster. It was through them that the 
honored name has been written upon the national 
muster-roll of the renowned, and transmitted to our day as among 
the most honored promoters of our civil, literary, scientific and 
ecclesiastical greatness as a nation. 

It is proposed during this year to sketch the lives of that illus- 
trious quartet of sons and son-in-law (Rev. Dr. J. C. Kunze ) that 
has made the name of Muhlenberg so widely known and so justly 
honored. We begin with the eldest. 

John Peter Gabriel was the baptismal name given to the first- 
burn of this distinguished family. Lie first saw the light of day 
at Providence, now Trappe, Montgomery county, Pa., October i, 
1746. The meagre accounts left to help one in delineating the 
childhood life of Mr. Muhlenberg's family are in the form of diary 
entries, where -some very tender and interesting events are record- 
ed concerning the mental unfolding and personal characteristics of 
all. Some of these are given in Dr. Manifs "Life of Muhlenberg." 
L.ut, remembering the character of their ])arentage and their rural 
environment, it should not be found a difficult task for the reader 
U- picture the early life of these children of loving and pious train- 
ing. \\> know that young Peter — by which name the first-born is 
generally known — had made sufficient progress in his studies to 
enter the Academy at Philadelphia, at the age of fifteen, the time 
of the familv's temper? ry removal to that city. Here he was a 
pupil under Dr. Win. Smith, first Provost of the University of 
Pennsylvania. In the spring of 1763 he, with his two younger 
brothers, Frederick .\. C and G. Henry Ernest— the former in 
bi^ f.iurteenth, the latter Imt in hi^. tenth year — was sent to Llalle, 

4 77/ /; /'/; A A SYL 1. 1 A / 1 -(1 Kh' 1/ . t A . 

Germany, where all were to ]^repare themselves for the Ci<xspel 
niiiiistrv at the same institution in whieh the father had stvulied. 
The father's diary-reeords speak of the anxiims parental eoneern 
felt at their departure, and discrihes the solemn manner of their 
partin,^". I'eter, heino- the eldest, was dblii^e*! l') exerei^c a sort of 
guardianship over his younger lirothers, althdUgh during the 
voyage to London they enjoyed the eom[)anionship of Chiei Jus- 
tice Alk-n, an intimate friend of Dr. Muhlenberg, who as fellow- 
passenger, took charge of the boys as far as England. Their 
arrival at school had been previously arranged for by correspond- 
ence, Dr. Ziegenhagen, of London, giving the matter much per- 
sonal concern. The following extract of a letter from Dr. Muhl- 
enberg to Dr. Ziegenhagen, dated October 2-j, 1763, gives a gen- 
eral outline of the l)oy"s character, and shows th.e father's appre- 
hensiiv,!. afterwards realized, that Peter w(,Mdd prove a trouble- 
some sul)iect : 

••My son, Peter, lias, alas! enjoyed but little care and control, on ac- 
count' ot my extensive ofticial duties, but he ha'^ had no evil example 
from his parents, and many reproofs and counsels. His chief fault and 
bad inclination, lia'; been fondness for hunting and fishing, but if our 
most reverend fathers at Halle observe any tendency to vice, I would 
huniblv beg that thev send him to a well disciplined garrison-town, undei 
the name of Peter \Veiser. before he causes much trouble or comi>laint 
]\[y pravers will follow him, and if his soul only is saved, be it in what 
condition it may I sliall be content. I well know what Satan wishes for 
me and mine." 

Peter could not endure the severity of discipline which prevailed 
at tlalle, and being constantly in trouble, peremptory steps were 
about to be taken to luring him to terms, when he found it expedi- 
ent to run away, ere the fr'st year of school-life had been complet- 
ed. He determined to devote himself to mercantile pursuits and 
accordingly, with his father's knowledge and direction, entered 
into an iron-bound engagement with a druggist. Xlemeyer by 
name, oi Liiljeck, Germany, to serve for a term of six years. P.ut 
for some unaccounted reason young Muhlenlierg grew tired of his 
long apprenticeship, after half of the long term had elapsed. 
Hence, one morning, without previous notice, he was numbered 
among the tuissing. 

He is next found, whither many young luen of Germany of that 
time naturally gravitated, in a military company. Here he is at 
once enrolled as S( -retary. This somewhat reckless procedure 
caused anxietv at Halle and grief to his parents, and efforts were 

<;f:\. jo//\ <;. I'KTF-R Ml Hi.KsnKnr.. 5 

,„.ulotor his rdease from his enijap^cnietit and return to his native 
connirv whicli plan was successfully earned out. 

Upon his return to America youno- Muhlenher^^ was placed ni 
the care of the Rev. C. M. Wrangel. father Muhlenherg s personal 
1 trusted friend, who was then Provost of the Swedish Luteran 
hurches and pastor of the ^^c... congregation at l^n adelph.^ 
Here Peter was carefullv instructed and so gently gu.led m nund 
and heart hv the powerful personal intluence of this godly tnan. 
that the previously son.ewhat wilful and u.consulerate youth 
henceforth devoted himself earnestly to the mterests of thrist s 
kingdom. Alreadv in 1768, while yet a student of theology, he is 
occasionallv entrusted with the supply of his teacher s pulpit and 
his maiden' efforts are said to have heen well received. He also 
occasionallv assisted his father and his preaching gave equal sat- 
isfaction among his own German brethren. It is recorded that by 
c^eneral request he took his father's place in St. Michae s pulpit 
on Good Fridav. 1768, where he preached to a large a"d curious 
congregation. 'His theme was -The Burial of Christ. he fath- 
er's feelings at a time are given in a letter to Rev. Drs. Ziegenha- 
gen and Francke. from which we quote : 

" "When my permission was made public, there was such a ':onc°"';fJ 
and throng in St. Michael's as never before had taken p ace a. hey to d 
me) since the church was erected. I did "^^^8^,^, ^\\^;. ^" ,^^ ^ .vkh 
my small chamber, feeling like a condemned publican "^"'^^f^^^"?-;'^'^' 
ars nr-ivine the Chief Shepherd and Bishop ol souls to defend this act 

S anvthim"of th ort, since I am slow to believe or trust in any good 
either nnn°elf or in n v own. save what God's grace and mercv give I 

ouTd not take It ill in'my brethren '" , pV^r'^li^'ed^ -fTe-oldta^ 
love to the cause, said to each other: 'God be prai»ed! if the old man 
Ihould depart Providence has sent us a young substitute who in case ot 
need may assist and comfort us! 

Thu/he graduallv became his father-s assistant and while this 
i-elationsliip\-xisted he preached at such points as Barren FIill 
IMkestown. Macungie and neigh.borhood. in Pennsylvania, and m 
New Germantown. and Bedminster. in New Jersey. In 1769 (June 
20) the Lutheran Svnod licensed him to preach and thereatter. for 
a year or two. he served the congregations on the Raritan in New. 
iJrsev. named above, as his father's substitute. Here his services 
were'duly appreci; ted an<l cjuite satisfactory. It is probable that 
he took to this New Jersey [.arisli his bride in 1 770. 

Tin: i'i:\\s r/. r.i .v/.i -(//;am/ i .v. 

Ill 1772 he receivLHl a call from the Lutheran congregation in 
Woodstock, \'a., in whicii vicinity a great many Lntherans of 
Pennsylvania had recently settled. ']~o accept this position the 
laws of the State required his re-ordination b}' the Church of 
Englaml, which necessitated his journeying to London. This he 
did at once, and was ordained April 2T,. 1772, at the Royal Chapel 
of St. James, the Lishoj) of London officiating'. Upon his return, 
lie settled with his }otnig famil}- at Woodstock — ha\ing married, 
Novemlier 6, 1770, Mi>s Anna luirhara ]\Ieyer. of Philadelphia — 
?.nd continued to serve the Lutheran Church of that place with 
g'reat acceptance imtil the outbreak of the Revolution. Legend 
has it that Washington once ])artook of communion here. 

-<• "ST'^aSS^Ki.iteiJ.o tOi^eL-k 





GOTT • ALEIN • DIE ■ EHR • 1767. 

He had always taken deep interest in civil as well as in Church 
aflfairs. The agitation which preceded the outbreak of the Revo- 
lution of ihe colonies, stirred his patriotic heart and swept him 
into tlie very local leadership of the American cause. The friends 
of liberty found in him a l)ra\e. intelligent and trustworthy guide. 
Lie kept hims«. If informed of the mo\ement and with a heart all 

(ii:.\. .]()}i\ a. ri'/ri'.R Mriii.i:\iii:i:(;. 7 

ai^l'iw wiih j.atrioiic fervor liis lips could not be sealed. His ser- 
liii'iis and pul)!ie addresses breathed a lufty sentiment in favor of 
inilependenee. llie community learned tei trust him as counsellor 
and rleeted liim, in TJ/-]. as chairman of the Committee of Safety 
of his count\-. a member of the X'irt^inia House of lluri^csses, anil 
in 1776 a deleg^ate to the State Convention. Here he became i)er- 
sonallv acquainted with Geori^e W'asliington, Patrick Henry and 
other eminent A'irginia Statesmen, whose lofty views he shared 
and whose close personal friendship he enjoyed and maintained 
durinf;- all the tr\ ing- years to come. It was at the earnest solicita- 
tion rf General \Va.<1hncton. who hail learned to know and admire 




iad^ii'^iSHky-jt i 


his ardent patriotism, that he was induced to accept a colonel's 

Antl now the soldier-preacher did a beautiful and impressive 
tiling that has come to be among the best remembered events of 
his life. Having received his military appointment he took public 
leave of his congregation in a most striking manner. One Sunday, 
>'d)'>ut the middle of January, t77'>, he preached an eloquent ser- 
nu)n on the wrongs this countrv had suffered from British tvrannv. 

s 77/7; /7;.v.\,s)/J i-vy i-(/7;am/.i.v. 

aiul closcxl with lliesc words: "'J'here is a time for all thinL;^ — a 
tinio to prcacli and a tii;ie to pray : hut there is also a time tu tight, 
and that time has now come."" Having preumisly donned a mili- 
tarv imiform, which was liid liy his clerical robes, he now, having 
closed the service with the henedicti()n, threw off his gown, and, 
at the church door, ordered the drum to he heat for recruits while 
making an appeal for \-olunteers, which was instantly responded to 
by nearly three hundred of his tltjck. Thi.s thrilling scene lias 
been thus described: 

"Tlicn followed a scene to wliich even the American Revolution, rich a? 
it is in bright exaini)!es of the patriotic devotion of the people affords 
no parallel. His audience, e.xcited in the highest degree by the impas- 
sioned words which had fallen frciin his lips, tlocked around him. eager 
to hf ranked among his followers. Old men were seen bringing forward 
their children, wives their lui.^hands, and widowed mothers their sons, 
sending them under his paternal care to fight the battles of their country. 
It must liavf been a noble sight, and the cause thus supported could not 

We are sorry that nc» print of the original church, in which these 
scenes were enacted, is extant. But we are enabled throtigh Mr. 
L. S. Walker, an iK^iored ofiicer of the present-day congregation, 
to give a view of the (jld communion cloth and service which Pas- 
tor Muhlenberg used and a print of the present church edifice,- 
third in ntmiber. with a part of the old graveyard, where this mili- 
tary company was formed. The story of this exchange of spiritual 
for carnal warfare is beautifully told also in T. Buchanan Read's 
fme poem, entitled "The Revolutionary Rising": 

"Out of the North the wild news came, 
Far flashing on its wings of flame. 
Swift as the boreal light which flies 
.-\t midnight through the startled skies. 
And there was tumult in the air, 
The fife's shrill note, the drum's loud beat. 
And through the wide land everywhere 
The answering tread of hurrying feet; 
While th.e first oath of Freedom's gun 
Came on the bla^t at Lexington; 
And Concord roused, no longer tame. 
Forgot lier old baptismal name. 
Macle bare lier patriotic arm of power, 
And swelled the discord of the hour. 

"Within its shade of elm and oak 
Tiie church of Berkley Manor stood. 
TJiere Sunday found the rural folk 
.-\nd some e.-^teemed of gentle blood. 
In vain their feet with loitering tread 
Passed 'mid the graves wliere rank is naucht, 
.All could not read the lesson taught 
In that republic of the dead. 

vi:-\. Jous (1. ririKU mi ni.i-MH-h'r,. 

•}IoNV sweet the hour ot Sabhatli talk 
The vale with peace and sunshine lulL 
Where all the happy people walk. 
Decked in their homespun ^ax and ^"'^J ; 
Where vouth's gay hats with blossoms bloom, 
\nd everv maid with simple art, 
Wears on her breast, like her own heart, 
A bud whose depths are all perfume; 
While every garments' gentle stir 
Is breathing rose and lavender. 

"The pastor came; his snowy locks 
Hallowed h.s brow of thought and care; 
And calmlv. as shepherds lead their flocks, 
He led into the house of prayei. 
Then soon he rose; the prayer was strong; 
The Psalm was warrior David s >ong; 
The text a few short words ot might— 
'The Lord of hosts shall arm the right! 
He spoke of wrongs too long endured, 
Of sacred rights to be secured; 
Then from his patriot tongue ot flame 
The startling words of Freedom came. 
The stirring sentences he spake 
Compelled the heart to glow or quake 
And. rising on the theme s broad wmg. 
And grasping in his nervous hand 
The imayinarv battle-brand 
In face ol death he dared to flmg 
Detiance to a tyrant king. 

"Even as he spoke, his frame, renewed 
In eloquence of attitude. 
Rose as it seemed a shoulder higher ;_ 
Then' swept his kindling glance ot hre 
From startled pew to breathless choir 
When suddenlv his mantle wide 
His hands impatient flung aside. 
And lol he met their wondrous eyes 
Complete in all a warrior s guise. 

"A moment there was awful pause— • • 
When Berklev cried. "Cease, traitor. Lease 
God s temple is the house of peace. 
The other shouted. 'Nay. not so. 
When God is with our righteous cause: 
His holiest places then are ours. 
His temples are our forts and towers 
That frown upon the tyrant toe; 
In this, the dawn of Freedoni s day. 
There is a time for fight and pray. 

"And now before -the open door— 
The warrior priest had ordered so— 
The enlisting trumpet's sudden roar _ 
Rang through the chapel o cr and o er. 
Its long reverberating blow. 

■ So loud and clear it seemed the ear 

10 niK VKS S HY lA AM A-(l E RM A^ . 

- Ot' dii-'ty (l(.atli must wake and hear. 
And tliere the startling- drum and fife 
I'ired the living witli fiercer hfe; 
While overhead, witli wild increase 
Forgerfing its ancient toll of peace 
The great bell swung as ne'er before. 
It seenied as it wnuld never cease 
And every word its ardor llung 
From oft its iidjilant iron tongue 
Was, ■ll'iir! 'll'ar! H'ar.'' 
*\\'ho dares?' — this was the patriot's cry, 
As striding from the desk he came — 
"Come out with me. in Freedom's Name 
For her to li\c! For her to die! 
A liundred liands fhmg up reply 
A lumdred voices answered "F 

Very soon Col. Muhlenberg' had raised what was known as the 
"German Regiment"" and which tnider his command as the Eighth 
Virginia, gained a reputation fdr discipline and valiant ser\ice. 
The part which he touk in the long ]\e\'olnti(inary contlict would 
alone fttrnish snflicient material for a long sketch. It is, however, 
within the limits ot our present account merely to give the most 
general record of that portion of Mr. Muhlenberg's life upon 
which his greatest fame rests. 

Having raised his regiment, Col. Muhlenberg at once marched 
to the relief of Siiftolk and later under General Lee to North Caro- 
lina, thence to Charleston, S. C. where his regiment participated 
in the l)attle of Sullivan's Island and all the Southern campaigns, 
winning many a laurel for gallant conduct and brave fighting. 
The Colonel was promoted to a I'rigadier-C^ieneralship, in 1777, in' 
recognition of his services in this Southern Campaign. 

Having now been raised tc the rank of a superior officer he took 
charge of all the continental troops of the \'irginia line then in that 
State. By order of Congress he was urged to hasten the recruiting 
of the several regiments and move northward to join the main 
army as speedily as possible. P.y May, 1777, he started his brigade 
for Morristown, X. J., then General Washington's headquarters. 
The campaign of this season was just opening, and General Muh- 
lenberg's brigade did gallant service in the skirmishing at ^lid- 
dlebrook, the bloody iield of r)randywine, and the various blows 
struck (alas! but futile) in defence of Philadelphia, the capital of 
the States. We must refer the reader to history and more tninute 
descri|>tions of the l^att es of T-rand) wine, Germantown, etc., to see 

<;k.\. jo/i.y a. i-i:ri:i! ii 

ilie ljra\c and cixditahle part plaxed b\' General IMuhlcnberg and 
Ill's excellent brigade during' tiiis _\ear. 

The General shared with tlie main army the indescribable pri- 
vations endured in their encam[)ment at \'alle}- b^orge during the 
severe winter of 1777-/8. During encampment here he woukl oc- 
casionally visit his father's family, spending the night there, and 
several times narrowly escajied being captured b}" iiritish scouts. 
He also spent a week in \ irginia, during the month c»f February, 
giving attention there to jiressing private business affairs. 

The campaign of 1778 opened with the General beginning his 
inarch towards Xew York, in company with the main army. His 
farmer residence in Xew Jersey, and consecjuent knowledge of lo- 
cal geography served him and the arm}- well. His brigade was 
under General Lee, and therefore moved as the vanguard of the 
main ami}'. At the Delaware the order of march was changed, 
which left General Muhlenberg's brigade under the major-general- 
ship of the ?^Iarquis de Lafaxette. The only significant occurrence 
in this march was the hard-fought l)aUle of Monmouth on June 
j8th, where, though Muhlenberg's bi'igade was si;)niewhat swal- 
lowed up in the mass of the contending ami}-, they }"et W(jn the 
praise of their opponents. As an English account says, referring 
to this division, "their second line jn-eserved a better countenance, 
and resisted a fierce and eager attack with great obstinacy. * * 
'J hey evinced a degree of recollection, as well as resolution, after 
^having been routed, rarely found in taking up a third position, 
which they maintained." A critic of the battle, however, claims 
that "'the Muhlenberg brigade never receded from the position in 
which it repulsed the enem}"s repeated attacks." 

I'>om Monmouth the American forces proceeded to Brunswick 
and from thence to I'aranmo and from thence to White Plains, N. 
^. After operations necessitated t'te breaking up of camp at 
\\ kite Plains, (jcneral Midilenberg, with his Mrginia brigade, 
was ordered to West Point, while his counsel on matters of winter 
•luarters, movements of the army, and plans of attacking the 
enemy were often sought and respectfully treated by his Coiii- 
inaiuler-in-Chief. During the winter of 1778-79, the army was 
scattered, and General ]\Iuhlenberg, having been stationed at 
^liddlebrook with h s division, where, dcsjnte the uncomfortable 
■situation of spending the winter in huts, this p(:)rtion of the army 

12 Tin: rr.wsYiA AMA-(;i;iniAy. 

g-encniUy had a gay time. IJcre the}- rciiKiined encanipod until 
the middle oi June, and the entire year of 1779 furnished little of 
interest in the life of Muhlenberg, save that his brigade and that 
of General Wayne's were detailed to strike a blow at the enemy 
at Stony Point, to whieli j)laee they had foreed their mareh in 
June, and in which exploit he acted his part well. 

The opening of the next winter found General Muhlenberg in 
quarters with the main army, at Morristown. The enemv now 
made a southern expedition and early in the winter he was sent to 
Virginia to assume chief command of that State. Now, for the 
first time, he was put on his own resources, to act upon his own 
discretion, having {previously alwa_\s served in a suliordinate 
capacity. ]\v the enemy's capture of nearly all the \'irginia line 
under Generals Woodford and Lincoln, he was obliged to raise, 
equip and discij)line almost :u\ entircl_\- new ami}- for the purpose 
of defen.ding his State. I'he success with which this task was 
performed was evinced 1)} the large and well-disciplined body of 
troops, who later, imder Lafayette, joined the Commander-in- 
chief before the entrenchments of Yorkto\\n. Llis selection for 
this, then critical and important duty, is the highest compliment 
paid General Muhlenberg's military ability and reliability that 
Congress and Cieneral Washington could have paid him. Thomas 
Jefferson, who was then Governor of X'irginia, placed the whole 
resources of the State into the hand of his friend, now military 
commandant, and thus greatly aided him in his Herculean task at 
that critical period, when the Old Dominion was passing through 
^ most crucial tests of her h yalty. \'oluntary enlistments proved 
ineffectual, and the Stale was constrained, at General Muhlen- 
berg's request, to pass a conscription law, which measure alone 
saved the State antl proliabl}- the cause of independence. 

The fall of Charleston, in Max-, and consequent developments, 
proved it necessary for the main American Army to luove south- 
ward and fight the battle of independence to a finish on a southern 
field. The conduct of General ]\Iulilenberg in all this critical 
period, whether at the head of the recruiting department or in 
command of a raw arm_\- repelling the invasion of the enemy, or 
of making soldiers out of militia, or personally suppressing mutiny 
among the dfficers Oi other divisi(.ns of the army, are all alike 
c -editable to the gallant patriot. 

,;,;,v. .;oHV <:. m-i-i; miiiikshuI':. " 

n-n.U-r at ^ orkloun. Ouicial - ^{ivclti' Mni«\ "1110 

.K, ,„M infanuy „f .he n.a.n arm ■ ' ' ;, ^,,^^^. ^„. „„ 

.„„..r e,f Wa.l,in8U.n s ar,n> ^^j ;"; ^ " „, „,„,, ,„ Ml 

., ^^^^^^^^^--^'^^^^If::^.. U,c cc nana of 

"• "«'" '"'".:;•,,::,,; 'it of s.on,nng- .„•: encny-s flanW 


^"^""- ■ „ ,„lvl the «ar though n.anv pcTSons in bigh 

This practicaliy ended the '" • . ^^.^,„,,, ,„ „,;„1, 

an.hority were of the op.n.on that ano.l, ""_;^.^^,,,,i„„,. General 

^'"•''r-'"--:- ■,,;: "v Ld, t -> appoi,ttea a. the P-ace ot 
rupKllv as p(>Ml)K- ^^ ^'^^" o mum-iI ditriu? that sum- 


mer trequently to MMt h ^ ta, > ' .^ ^,^^,,. l^eeping up a 

away. Nor ^vas tins an ulle po.t. 1\^^'^ ^^ . ;^^^^ Waslnng- 

ton. now in headquarters at \.^hn^^ ^ ^^^^ ^ .^.^^ 

- March, t;S3- ^^-^;.^^:;;:;:!a^;;rwlrU of collecting 

hv the comnnssioner;. at 1 at it. wuie. 

- reeruits an<l of other n>ihtary operation. ^[.,:,>r-enera1 hv 

Muhlenberg was promoted to ^l^^fj^^J^ rented 

ae, of Congre.s passed September 3'-\ '»- ;;'\^.^,^ ,,,„„,,„ ,Us- 

|,v length and hriUianey ol serviee. fhe a , w 

,.„ded, where General ^Vashingt..n s - J-^^^^,.,,^, ,^ 

?• --Hvered, .u^tbe o^e.^ nn e.n ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^_^^ ^,_^^^ ^^_^_ 

their pursuits ot pcaee. immh,-, 1,„,,..,denee 

., ;.,!,.« treasure of hbertv and nideptnoenei. 
cessorsthepiieelet.tiea.uie -.;,,, ;„ Woodstoek, \ a.. 

(ieu. Mtddeuberg returned to '"•'"■>, ;,„,,„, „£ ,|,c' 
, „ow found a iteeessary u> -u^^^^^^ 

irr':,,:::- as';;::";:: - ---ed. saymg .-. . ...u 

14 Tin: }'i:S S >i\ L\ AM A'd i: R M .\s . 

never do to mount the parson after the sohHcr." 

He tlierefore removed to 1 'enns) Ivania the following Xctvemher 
and in conseijuence of losses sustained, set ahout to reimhurse him- 
self h\ >eeu]ar husiness. J le was at the point of engaj;int;- in mer- 
cantile husiness in i'hiladelphia, with his hrother-in-law, when cir- 
cumstances de\eloped which made abandon tlie project. 
Leaving his family at the Irap^pe, I'a., where his aged father was 
still livmg, he start(xl out to see and locale the military boimty 
lands, received for his ser\ices during the war. These amounted 
to 13,000 acres, and intending to locate them u})on the C)hio, west 
of I-'orl Pitt, in the territory of Ohio, he set out on horseback to 
attend to the same. Leaving the Trappe hYbruarN- 22, 1784, ac- 
companied by Captain I'aske, and traveling \ia Reading, Lebanon, 
Harris I^Vrry, Carlisle, Ik'dford and J'ittsburg, his journey was 
most venturesome as evidenced 1)} the ver_\ interesting journal pre- 
served of the same, .\fter a most hazardtjus trip of four months 
he returned in safety and gave to Congress a lengthy report of his 
visit and doings. A second trip was necessary to finally settle 
these land warrants. He aN(> located lanos for his friend (jcneral 
Steuben in this second visit. It was upon the tract here selected 
that his sons settled later, who afterwards became prominent in 
the politics of that new State. May they not have ha<l their part 
in naming the southern metropolis of the State, after this settle- 
ment by the soldiery society of the Cincinnati? 

The Society of the Cincinnati, which was an organization in- 
tended to keep alive auK^ng the ofilicers of the Revolution the mem- 
ory of their common experience an.d to secure some sense of jus- 
tice at the hand of a favored country, for their sacrifices, enrolled 
the General as an active member, until violent attacks upon the 
safhe order made it expedient to withdraw. 

General ^Muhlenberg's score of years given t(j civil life, follow- 
ing the estaldishment of peace and con^titutional government are 
full of interest and fruitful in meritorious honors that crown his 
already conspicuous career. But we must confine the narration 
cf these to the veriest summary. 

In 17S5 he was elected by the people of Pennsylvania as \'ice- 
Presidcnt of the State, under the then existing constitution, with 
Benjamin Franklin as President. He was annually elected to this 
office until 17S8, the greater portion of which time the reins of the 

ai:\. JOHN a. ri:ri:h' mi iii.i:M'>i:h'(j'. is 

Slate's <;-ovcninK'nt were in his hand in conse(iuence of Dr. hrank- 
Vurs al)sence fron-i home on National husiness. ll was at this time 
that the insurrection of \\ yoniing occurred in consequence of the 
rival claims of the States of Connecticut and I'eimsylvania, and 
it became his unpleasant duty to suppress the same. History has 
told how wisely this was done. 

The question of the formation of a new national constitution 
also came up at this time, which was accomplished in a convention 
that met at Philadelphia and v. Inch, on the i/th of September, 
1787, consummated its work. There was considerable opposition 
to its adoption by the States. It is due largely to the exertions of 
General Muhlenberg and his brother, Frederick, (speaker of the 
State Convention called to act upon this question), who controlled 
the German element then in the ascendency, that the Keystone 
State was so speedy in its adoption, which greatly influenced the 
other States to do likewise. In 1788, eleven of the thirteen original 
States had adoi)ted the instrument, and the provisions of the same 
became operative. Accordingly an election for the first United 
States Congress was ordered, which took place in December of the 
same year. Roth the General and his brother, Frederick-, were. 
chosen as two out of eight representatives on the general ticket. 

When tliis Congress met and organized in New York City in 
the spring of 1781) — nearly a month after the time set (}\Iarch 
4th) on account of a lack of a quorum beforehand — Frederick A. 
Muhlenberg was chosen speaker, while the General served on 
several responsible committees in this first very important national 
assembly ; and in the light of future events his position on all 
grave questions then agitating this body was safe and sound. 

Just as General Muhlenberg contributed much, directly and in- 
directlv. to the adoption of the National Constitution in 17S7, so 
the adoption of the new State Constitution in 1790, wdiich was long 
regarded "bv good judges to be the best in the union, if not in the 
world," was in a great measure to be attributed to this strong 
friend of progress, the trusted champion of his German fellow- 

In December. 1793. the third I'nited States Congress assembled 
and General Muhlenberg was again a member, elected to repre- 
sent the Montgomery district of Pennsylvania, and he served 
until March, I7i;5. He again served on many important commit- 

16 THE PFWSYIA- {\!A-(lFh'M\\: 

tees, principally sncli as a])pcrtainc(l to niililarv affairs. He was 
also a Presidential elector from I'ennsylvania in 1797, and was re- 
elected to the Fourth Congress. 

\\''hen in 1798 the agg'ressions of hVance rendered the raising of 
an army necessary hy our cc)untry, placed under command of 
General Washington, that great commander presented to the 
Secretary of War, the name of General Peter ^Muhlenberg, among 
others, as worthy of a place as general officer — even at a time when 
the administration was in the hands of the political opponents to 
the strong republican of Pennsylvania. He took active and promi- 
nent part in the political turmoil of those troublesome times, 
known in IVmisylvania as the "Reign of Terror." resulting from 
political questions such as the contest between Jefferson and Burr, 
etc. When this questioti came into Congress for settlement Muh- 
lenberg again stood firmly, during thirt}'-six ballots by his old 
friend, Thomas JeiTerson, which course future events have justi- 
fied as having been wise and ]iatriotic. 

On the 18th of Februar_\-, 1801. his State Legislature elected him 
as a member of the United Slates Senate. He, however, served 
his countr)- but a few months in this capacity, since on the 30th 
of June of the same year he was offered by President Jetterson 
the post of Supervisor of the Internal Revenue for Pennsylvania, 
which he accepted. About a year later (Jul)', 1S02 i he was ap- 
pointed Collector of the f\trt of Philadelphia which important and 
lucrative position he held until his death, which occurred at his 
home, near that city, on the 1st of October, 1S07- — the 61 st anni- 
versary oi his birth. 

Air. Aluhlenberg was highly honored in life and death. Two 
States had learned to love and trust him. A'irginia's long list of 
patriots in that period were his intimate friends, while Pennsyl- 
vania regarded him as one of her firstborn sons. His death was 
most of all lamented by his own German countrymen, who had 
looked upon him as their special leader. He is one of the two 
Pennsylvanians whom the National Government honored by 
_ statues in the Capifal at Washington, D. C. 

He had a family of four children, three sons and one daughter. 
Two of his sons survived him, and both attained to some distinc- 
tion. Peter was a major in the army of the war of 1S12 with 
Great Britain, while IVancis to^k up residence in Ohio, and was 

(;i:x. j()f/.\ (1. 1'i:ti:r mi iiLi:\rj:i;(!. 


al'UTwards elected to tliat State's Legislature and meniher of the 
_'olli I'oiigress from ( )hio. A grandson served with distinction as 
a surgeon an.d medical director in the late Civil War. 

(ieneral .Muhlenherg's remains are interred in the i)eaceful vil- 
lage graveyard at the Tra[)pe, i'a., next the church, in which lie 
was l)ai)tized, where they rejiosc by the side of those of his hon- 
<ired father. His grave is marked 1)\' a simiile stone containing 
the follow ing epitaph : 




BORN OCT. I. 1746. DIED OCT. i. 1807. 







We are indebted t«j Mr. H. M. M. Richards for :Iic following genealog- 
ical table of General Mulilonberg's descendaius. 

i. Hk.nrv Muiii,eni;erg, born Oct. 9. 1775; died July 7, i8c6; 
no issue. 

II. Charles Freperuk Muiii.exderg, born Nov. 16, 177S; died ALay 
31. 1/95; uo issue. 

III. Hester Muhlenrerg, born .April i, 17S5: died July 21, 1S72: 
married April 10, 1810. Dr. Isaac Hiester, of Reading. — a distinguished 
practitioner and foremost citizen of his native county and adopted city. 
Their issue: 

1. Amu Midslcnbcrg Hiesta\ born Oct. 28. 1812: married John 
I'ringle Jones, a lawyer of Philadelphia; Deputy Attorney Gen- 
eral of Berks Co.; Judge of Third District. 

(a) John Pringle Hiester Jones. Had one son (b) John P. 

2. John Peter Muhlenberg Hiester, born May 3, 1815; died March 10, 
1834. No issue. 

3. William Muhlenberg Hiester, born May 15, iSiS; died August 16, 
1878; married Julia F. Roland. Pie was a lawyer at Reading bar, 
Pennsylvania State Senator and Speaker of Senate, 1852-55, and 
by Gov. Packer appointed Secretary of the Commonwealth, 1S5S- 


(,a) A son, born Feb. 20, J853; died March 20, 1853. 


Tin-: /'/; v\ syia .\ \i.\-<ii:h' 1/ 1 v 

(h) I>aac }Iic'Stcr. Ixnn January S. 1856: admitted Id Reading- 
bar. 1878. Sinjj;k\ 
4. Frdiicis Miihloiboi; I Hester, liorn March 11. iSjq: died April 9. 
1864: nianied l-".lta V. l.aunian. A noted physician of Reading:, Pa., 
suigeon in army. i8r>i. and Midical director. Dept. of Ohio. 

(a) Ge'»ri;e I.anmau Iliester. Born Mav 29, 18^7; died June 5. 

(b) Anna Huldenberg Iliester. born January 13, 1859; niarr 
Dr. H. Chnton McSherry; no issue. 

(c) ]'"d\\ardine Lauman Iliester. burn October 28, 186.3; married 
Jolm A. lloogcwerft ; (i) Have issue one son, Hiester. 

I\^ l^vrKK MrnLKNr.i-.R(;, born March 20, 1787; died Aug. 21, 1844; 
larried Sarah Coleman, "-^f Readin.g, Pa 



married Sarah Coleman, "-^f Readin.g, Pa. lie was captain Ot!'. 
Infantry 1811-14, and ^^lajor ,3T>t Regt. U. S. Infantry, 1S14-15. 
at Grand l'2c<>re. La., where his regiment was statidued. 

1. Cathariiii- .hiiia Miililciibcrf:. born Nov. 19, 1827; died Nov. 5, 
1894: tnarried her cousin. Rev. Frederick A. }iIuhlenbero-. D.D , 
LL. D. 

(a) Kriiest A. Muhlenberg, born May 9. 1850. Single. 

(b) William F, Muhlenberg, born Nov. 18. 1852; married his 
cousin, Henrietta Augusta Muhlenl>erg. A graduate of Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, and a iiracticing physician of Read- 
ing, Pa. Has three children, (i) Hiester Henry, (2) Frederick 
Augustus, (3) Augusta Elizabeth. 

(c) Peter Henrv Muhlenberg, born Nov. 20, 1854; died Sept. 
M. 1S57. 

(d) Frederick .\ugustus ^Muhlenberg, born Dec. 10, 1S56; died 
Sept. 16, i860. 

(e) Henry Melchoir Muhlenlierg. b<Trn April ii. i860. 

(f) Francis Benjamin Muhlenberg, burn August 8, 1864; mar- 
ried Margaret Orr. One child, Frances Edith. 

2. Mary Miilileiibcrg. born Aug. 6, 1832; died Aug. 25, 1S37. 

3. Elizabct'd Muhlenberg, born Jul\- 27, 1835. Single. 

4. Mary Ann Muhlenberg, born May 4, 1838, died Nov. 29, 1840. 

5. Franeis Peter Muhlenberg, born June 22. 1840; married ^^largaret 
G. Van Reed. Private Co. G, 1st I'eima. Vols. 1861. Brevet Ma- 
jor April, 1865. Resides Galesburg, :\Iich. 

(a) Mary B. Middenberg, born July 25, 1865; died March, 1866. 
(,b> Catharine .\. Muhlenberg, born Oct. 2;^. 1867; married 
• Fred. W. I-'ranklin. Have two clnldren (4) Margaret M., (2) 
. Francis M. 
(c) Elizabeth C. Muhlenberg, born Oct. 19. 1870. 

6. Sarah Muhlenberg, born April 29. 1843. Single. 

V. I'KAXc Ks SwAiXE M I'll! ERG, boru April 22, 1795; died 1832; 
married Mary Denny: no issue. Lawyer. Private Secretary of Gov- 

. ernor Joseph Hie>ter. niember Ohio Legislature. Member of 20fh 
Congress from Ohio. 

VI. }i[AKV .\.\.\K Ml Hi.KMiEKC, boru 1793: died 1805. 

(;i:\. .i()ii\ (;. i'i:ri:i; mi iilemuiihi. 19 


Imrst Protkst A(;ai.\st S[.a\kkv thi: Work or Pi-.nxsvia'a- 
MA-Cii-JO[AXS. — The country is proud of its liistor}- from 1861-65. 
'i'Jioui,'-}! it marks the period of one of the bbuidiest wars of history. 
it represents the euhiiination and favoral)le and final decision of 
tile long grow ing opp(isition to human slavery. This conflict as it 
was first carried on in forum, later on the held of carnage, has 
given many a man imperishable fame for wisdom and power in 
debate and for valor and heroism in bloodx conflict. The names 
of Pennsylvania-Germans are writ! en up()n the twij-fokl tablets 
of fame in this final settlement. P>ut it is to the everlasting glory 
of our stock that the first protest against negro slavery was made 
by them. This jmblic protest was written by that nolde-spirited 
German Quaker of Germantown, Prancis Daniel Pastorius, as 
early as 1688, and signed by him and a few of his fellow country- 
men. Of him W'hittier has sung and of him his race is proud. 
Tiirough the kindness of Mr. Horace J. Smith, of local German- 
town history fame, this magazine has been favored with a photo- 
graphic copy or reprint of this historic document the contents of 
which are here appended: 

This is to \^^ AIoxthlv Meeting Held at Richard Worrell's. 

TIicjc arc the reasons wliy we are against the trafhck ut men-body, as 
followetli. Is there any that would be done or handled at this manner? 
viz., to be sold or made a slave for all the time 01 his lite? How fearful 
and faint-hearted are many on sea, when they see a strange vessel. — be- 
ing afraid it should be a Turk, and they should be taken, and sold for 
slaves into Turkey. Now what is this better done, as Turks doe? Yae, 
rather is it worse for them, which say the}- are Christians; for we hear 
that i"^ most part of such negers are brought hither against their will 
and consent, and that many of them are stolen. Now. '■^"> they are black. 
We cannot conceive there is more liberty to have them slaves, as it is to 
have other white ones. There is a saying, that we shall dt)e to all men 
like as we will be done ourselves; makitig no difference of what genera- 
tion, descent or colour they are. And thuse who steal or robb men, 
an(J those who buy or purchase them, are they not all alike" Here is 
liberty of conscience. '''■' is right and reasonable; here ought to be like- 
wise liberty of >^ botly. e.xcept of evil-doers, "'•' is an other case. But to 
bring men, or to rob and sell them against their will, we stand 
against. In Europe there are many oppressed for conscience sake; and 
liere there are tlu^se oppressed '"'» are of a black colour. .And we who 
know that men must not committ adultery. — some do committ adulery, 
in others, separating wives from their husands and giving them to 
others; and some sell the children of these poor creatures to other men. 
All! doe consider well this thing, you who doe it, if you would be done 
at this manner? and if it is done according to Christianity? You sw- 
I'-T-s Hi>llaTi(! and Germ.u-'y in this thing. This makes an ill report in all 
tli'ise countries of Europe, where they iiear off. that >'' Quakers doc here 


THE i'i:\ xsvij.w J {-(;/: mi.w. 

■ hatulcl nu-n as tlicy Iiandd tluTc -- ca:tle. And t,,r that reason snnie have 
no iniiul ui inclniati..ii tc cc.nic hither. Aiui who sliall maintain this 
your cause or p eid tor it? Truly we can n.,t .]o so, except y-u sliall 
inform usjjctter hereol. viz.. that Ciin.tians have liberty to practise these 
tunos Iray u-hat thnig m the wnrl.! can he done worse towards us, 
than^iMnen sluuild rol. or steal u> away, and sell us for slaves to strauLre 
coun.nes; separating husbands imm their wives and children. Being 
now this IS not done in the manner we would be done at therefore we 
contradict and are against this trafhc uf mendnKly. And we who profess 
that It IS not huvtui to steal, must, likewise, avoul to purchase such as are stolen but rather help to stop this robbing and siealin- if 
possible. .And such men ought to be delivered out of ><-■ ha.ids of >e 
robbers, and set Irec as well as in fuirope. Then is Pennsvdvania to have 
a .good report, instead it hath now a bad one for this sake'in other coun- 
tiies. i^>-!K'cial y whereas --■ Europeans are desirious to know m what 
manner >e Quakers due rule m their province ;-and most of them <!oe 
look upon us with an envi.nis eye. But if this is done well, what shall 
we say is done e\il.-' 

If once these slaves ,-h u.^y say are so wicked and stubborn men) 
should joint themselves,— hght for their freedom,-and handcl their mas- 
ters and mastrrs.^es as they did handel them before; will these masters 
and mastrisses take the swnrd at hand and warr ayamst these poor sjaves 
licke. we are able to believe, some will not refuse to (K.e- or ha\e 'hese 
negers not as much right to tight fe,r their freedom, as v.m have to'keep 
tliem slaves.' ' ^ 

hnd It to be good to handel these blacks at that manner, we desire and 
require you hereby lovingly, that you may in f(,rm Us herein, which at 
this time never was done. vi/.. that Christians have such a libcrtv to do 
so lo the end we snail be satisfied in this p,.m:. and satisf^e likewise 
our good friends and acquaintances in our natif countrv. to whose it is 
a_ terror, or tairlnl thing that men should be handeled so in Pennsylva- 

16^''? is froni onr meeting at Germantown, held >- ,^ ot the 2 month, 
iCknS, to be delivered to the .Monthly .Meeting at Richard Worreks. 

Garret hendericks 
derick up dc graeft 
Francis daniell Pastmius 
Abraham u[) Den graef 

cm^NTve"^':";;'''-' V'"""^ ^t Dublm, ye sa-2 mo.. 1688. we havin in- 
;eiE.h tvH,. 'Vl ;'"■' '"^-"f-^^^^-ilJ' '-'"^1 considered oi it. we find it so 

weighty that we think it not expedient tor us to meddle with it here but 
do rather cmmit it to .- consideration of J- Qnarterlv .Meetin<^- 
y^ tenor of it being nearly related to >e Truth. 

On behalf of >- Monthly .Meeting. 
Signed. P. jo.^ Hart. 

This, above mentioned, was read m ,,ur Quarterlv Meeting at Phila- 

the'veartv^Nl 'r " ''^'T 'f ' "^'^ ^""^ '■•""' ^'•'-^"«- reconmiended o 
oned f -rM '""^^' "'^' ''',' "'"'"" •'"•^ ^'''"'^- '^'"^ f'^^- other two men- 
a t / f • l':^'^^■■•^''^• ^^""\to to >- above said meeting. ,t being 
a thing ot too great a weight lor this meeting to determine. 

Signed l)y order of ^ meeting. 

.-\nTI10NV .XfoRRLS. 
W X- ^'\^\^',^' ^f'-'-''^'' >tlMTK OX THK AlSOVK PkoTFST 

Kvi ' ■ -^'''■''"^- '''•'^' ''^ P.urlington the 5th day ot the 7th nK.nth, 

(iF.y. ./0//A (',. i'i:teii \n uLh:Mii:i;(i. 


A Papt-T being lierc prcMMitod by sciiic (lernian iMieiuls Cuiiccrniiii; 
flir Lawtulness and rnlawl'uliiess ol liuyinj; and keeping Negroes, It 
ua-; adjudged nut to t>e so proper for this Meeting to give a Positive 
liidgineiit "in tlie Ca>e. it having so General a Relatitjii to many otlier 
Parts and theretore at present they forl)ear It. 

W'c are plea-^ed io show otir readers a ettt of the h.)usc in which 
the above jn'otest a.Qainst sKavery was written and sii^iied by Tas- 
t'-ritis. It was the house of Jonas Kitnder and is now lunitltered 
5io';Germantown Avenue. ( )ur friend. Mr. Horace J. Sniitli. the 
enthusiastic antiquarian of ( ierniantown, jiroj^oses to have this 
property bouo-ht and (le(Hcate it to the Xe.j^^o Race of America, hy 
iK.niincr'it their -Independence MaU" and (levotin,<; it to Muscuin 

rind T iUrir,- ,^,1rr^,^^,>c <.y^ro\\- <Urh WOllhl 1 IC a lioblc ServicC Ot 

and Library purposes. Surel\- such wonhl l>e a noble 

lliis nnblc Gorman pioneer's abode and historic site. \'^\ 
nian of pubhic s|uiit and means shouhl second the motto 
hearty hurrah aii'l a hl)cral contriluition 

Every G,er- 

ni with a 


Poetic Gems 



Hurrali iVr dor wimer, hurrah fer der schiieh! 
Now rous niit "m schlitta. un tzaehl ni'r ken tzweh; 
Doh muss m'r sich duni'le schunscht geht dcr schneli week, 
Ferleicht bis uff niorya leit ollcs im dreck. 

Hurrah fcr der winter! der schHtta muss rous; 
Was will m'r om utta, was will m'r im hous? 
Uii druff mit do bella, schunsclit i-> ':> ken g'lahr, 
Der winter is kortz un die schlittabah rahr. 

Hurra!) t\r der winter! now geht'.s amohl ob. 
Wie schneller wic heiiwer; giddap! Sal un Bob. 
Wos robbla die bella, wos schpringa die geil; 
Des is aw mold g'lahra. des geht yoh wie'n pe'i!. 

Hurrah fer der winter! die luft is so Irisch; 
Wos mocha die lehia so 'n liebiich g'grisch! 
M'r huckt doh im sclditta wie douva im nescht. 
Die maid un die buhwa. wie immer— du waesch't! 

Hurrah fer der winter! so ebbcs is g'schposs; 

Die maid singa 'n licdel. die buhwa der boss;' 

Un geht's in die schnehbank un ^climeist's am., hi um 

Gehts drunner un drivrer, wos gebt m'r yoh drum. 

Hurrah fer der winter' mit eis un mit schneh; 
Im summer ferschmelst m'r un schotlt sich gons reh; 
Die wer.-cht sin now tzeitich. die eppel sin gehl, ' ' 

Doh geht m'r on's b'zucha. m'r dreftt's yoh^iet fehl. 

S'is immer tzu schofVa. yuscht s'hut ken so 'n eil. 
M'r duhfs mit maschina un schuhnt noh die geil: 
Die ovet sin long un die dawga sin kortz. 
Doh nemmt m'r sich's gute bis de futtzehta Martz. 

Hurrah fer dor winter! hurrali un hurrah! 
Now rous mit 'm cu'ter, un drutY m.t der frah; 
Un iuss 's m.dil klmgla bis olla Inmd blotYt. 
Der winter is doh un die arwet i^ g'schoftt. 



Am k'tztf Dag im nltv.' Johr Dann hccrt mer Rk-i ckr Sclilissel 

Sill (lio Baucrc in der btorc drclie 

Mit Oior uii mil FfJ.LTvicli. li> der Dchr, iin chilit all sehc 

ill k'ue ^if ufin Ci'unter hie. Dcr Mann voni llaii> nut J.iclu in 


Dcr Slorcinan fillt ihr Fnlvcrlidin Die Dclir utmaclic wo cr stand. 
\o\\ Sohiesspnlvcr, init kk^ena 

Korn, I'.r lad sic alle freindlich ei 

L'lii rc'cht das Neu Jolir alun- Un nenimt sie in sei Zininicr nei — 

schiessc, Sie ware froh hinci zu geh, 

Un dabei ah ihre Xochbere gricsse. .Mit kaltc h'icss un shteile Beh. 

Kanni ware die dunklc Schatte Do war Applejack un Cider 

g'fallc. I'll guter Whisky mit G'kreuter; 

Dann hot mer Flinte heere knallc h-n Neu Johr Shtick, un guter Wei, 

Hie un do. sic bei 7a\ rule. Vn siese Kuche nocii dabei. 
Hire I'Veiwilligkcit 7.U pruic. 

Dann hot mer's Xtu Johr Shtick 
Sie hen die alte Muschkcte g'lade g'gesse; 

Vn sin dorch kneedici Schnce Der Applejack mit Cila-;^^ gemcsse, 

g'bate. Do heert mer manchc G'shpass er- 
Schtill un ruliig wie en Maus zeele — 

Noch'm ncechste Bauerehaus. Kn inancher Neu Johr Si^ruch aus- 

Dort hen sie g'stanne iin diefe 

Schnee. ' Der Captain red' die Mommy ah. 

'Ma kalte Fiess un shteiic Beh; Un sagt zu seller gute Frah: 

Fn mancher hot sei blohse Olire "Ich wiiisch dir en glickliches Neu 
Un noch dabei sei Fiess vertrore. Johr 

Von do bis nans an's Schcierdohr, 

Der Captain hot sei Orders gewe. Fn Kodp voll Lice, en— Ban vol! 
Dann war no ,grad en anner lewe Grind, 

Bei de Schitz in seller Nacht— Un alle Johr en kleenes Kind." 
Sie ware all jo uf der Wacht. 

Zum Dady sagt derselbe Held. 

Sie erwarte all mit Shmerz zu (Ol)schon ihm's net sehr gut ge- 

schiesse. fellt): 

Doch wollte sie ken Blut vergiesse: ••Draum nix beses in dcim Schlof:. 

Clei wie sell ^^'ort is raus gekommc Krieg dir Kieh un schlacht die 
Hot mer die F'linte heere brumnie. ' Schof: 

Die Kugel-Bi.xe hen geknallt 

Schmeiss der Hund zum Fenstcr 

Dass uver Berg un Dahl geschallt : ^.,, kri'eg'en gute Magd in's Hans." 

I 'anil Iicn sie wieder triscli gelade — 

Schier so g^chwindt wie die Sol- i^,^, ^j.^,,, ,j;^, i,„„i,„e ah no nei 


Un krieee den Xeu Johr Siunich 

Der Captain In it en scheener dabei: _ _ 

5p,-^j,|, "Halt euch vun de bnwe irei. 

.\bgelese ohne Buch ^'" "Cin'Ht ?e net in's Zimmer nei: 

Dann hen sie 'n shcencs Liedle ^ olle sie euch karesiere. 

• <r'si,,i<^e Macht sie ]-)let7lich turt maslnere. 

b"r die .Mte un die Tungc. -^, , ,-, 

^'1 ae l)Uwc duht er '^ace 

\\'ie die Hund hen Pulver Wuin sie for en Spiichle frage: 

g'schnuppt "Die Mrcd sin wie die bese 

Sin 'iic unnig die Portch g'-^chluppt Schlangc, 

I n ware ruhig wie die ^ leise — "^ie welle all die Bnwe fange: 

'ieii 11(1 Xieinand \\ol!e bei-e. Dulit net oi't zu ihiic renne. 


TJIE I'lrXX SYLVAM A-G r: Ix' \r A .\. 

Un waim ihr duht, dahn lusst's 

■ J^iclU blL-lHU'." 

'S Ncu Johr Sluick war all ge- 

Dor \\ oi war all nut Glass ge- 

Dann >in >ie zn der l')<.hr hinaus 
L'li eiltc ni'ch'in lu-t-chste Ilaiis. 

Do war net alio Scliritt en Ilaus 

W'ic now, sonst wcer dcr Kuck- 

kuck draus; 
Waiin sic liette zn oft gcdrunkc 
W'ccrc ^a■ in dcr Schncc gesunkc. 

Sic wcere vcrfrorc wie en Gumnier; 
X<_)ht hett nianche Frah en knninicr 
I'l cm Herz. wenn hcinigcbracht, 
\'crt"rore in der Xeu Johr's Naelit. 

Onkkl Jr.FF. 


[V\n into German Ijv Rc\ . A. van 

Ach ware doch cin jedcr Tag liie- 

Ein W'orklang von des Himmels 

Und jedes \\'.iri. in Wahrhcit und 

im I'rieiJcn, 
Im Junklang mit dcm Ictsten 

Es kommt die Xachl. wenn sicli 

der Tag gcneigct, 
Dann fultrt ein Schritt ttnd dutch 

die Dunkelheit, 
Dorthin. wo sich das ew'ge Neii- 

jahr zeiget. 
Ant jcnen Sel'gen Hi'iirn dcr Ilerr- 


Ilerzcngriisse, Segens Wiinche 
Unsern Licben nali und fern; 
Dankcnd fiir die trcue tuhrnng 
Ini vergangen Jahr dcm Ilerrn. 
I\[6ge Er audi Icrner Icnken 
Freundlicli unserm Pilgcrlaut: 
Stets uns Scincn Frieden sclienken. 
Und uns tliun die Heimath auf. 
— From the Wilkesljarre Record. 


[Original in J^.iglish by unknown 

Oh to live so that any day wiili 

.Mi'j;ht be a prelude to the lite on 

To make each spukcii word, in 
truth and sweet ncs?. 

Fit the last good-bye! 

For the nii;ht cometh with its swiit 

Its one stej) through the silence 
safely trod. 

And then the glad New Year for- 
ever shining 

Upon the hills of God. 

Greetings new, yet old. we tender 
To our loved ones far and near. 
Tciining them in heart to render 
Thanks for all the tlyinp year. 
Trusting always Him who muldclh 
.\n our future's unknown way. 
Lcavin.L; all with Pliin wh<:i holdcth 
Time and chanaje beneath His ?wav. 


r.V 1)K. UKNRV HARllAUoil. 

Der Bauer Ratdorf war gar reich, 
Un schrecklich schtolz dabei; 

Es war ken Land im uanzc Deich 
Wie's Batdorf's Baucrei. 

Bei'ni r)atdorf war en deitscher 
Der war net iu>cht so dumm; 
Hot g'wi-st was letz is. un was 

' \v'as grad is, un wa> kiumm. 

'Tell hab." -agt Baid'^-f "u sci'm 
'T)as beschtc Land im Deich; 


I Translated by H. .V. S.] 
Old Batdurf as a wealthy man 

And hauiihty too wa- known. 
N't) better land lay rotmd him tlian 

The farm he called his own. 

.\ German servant Batdorf liad: 

•A fellow rather bright. 
Who could di^tinguish good and 

.\nd ktiew the rule of right. 

"T have," <o Batdorf ^aid one day. 

"The be^t kind far an<l nis:;!i. 
r am 'he richest man: iiiiw pray 

Tei! me the reason whv." 

I'OKTiv (;i:ms. 

\'iin (lir.ich nan inul wisse nieclu, 
\\ arum bin ich so reichr" 

"O, ja, ' sagt Hans, "das woes Ich 
"Loss here — wie? — waruni ?'' 
"Ich wees net, ob ich's saya soil — ■ 
])u sciilegscht niich sclUeif un 

"Dei Antwort is niir euevici, 
'S niacht mich g'wiss net bees; 

Ich bin die fett Mans ui d'r .Mielil, 
Die Katz am grosse" Kees! 

" 'Raus niit d'r Farb', mei' 
schniarter Knecht, 
Was niacht inich Herr vum 
Ich d(K'li dei' Meening wisse 
W'aruin bin ich so reich?" 

''W ell. wann ich muss, dann muss 
ich, dcnk, 
Ich dhu's gewiss net gern : 
Du hoscht die Schuld. wann icli 
dich krenk, 
.Mei' reicher Herr verzernl 

"AIs Krischtus in der W'ieschte 

Da kam der Satan na'h. 
I'n hot ihn dort vcrsucht sogar, 

I'.r soli ihn bete' a'. 

"Vn \van!i er's dliet. dann keem 
ihm zu 

D'r Reichdhum aller \\'e!t' 
D"r Heiland luit ihn ahgeillm': 

\\'ek. Satan, mit dei'm Geld! 

''Domols uarscht du net weit 
ewek — 
TIeerseht dcm Propos'l zu. 
J'all-eiit ut dei' Knie un rufscht 
gans keck: 
Herch, Satan, ich will's dhu! 

l^a-um sit>ebt (hi in fetter Weed. 

l n bi.clit D'r Herr im Deich; 
\\'"Mi m'r den Satan so ant)et'. 

1^ "I'h macht er Ecm gern 

Ah yes," said Jack, "I know that 

' ueli." 
"Let's hear then, if you do!" 
'1 cu.uDt that it IS sale to tell. 
1 ou II beat me black and blue." 

"Ha! do you think your answer 

Offend me or displease? 
I am the fat niou<e in the mill, 

The cat on the big cheese. 

"Speak out then boldly, never fear; 

Lord of the vale am I. 
'lis your opinion I would hear; 

Now just you tell me why." 

'If you command mc. I obey, 
Though much against my will. 

'i'ls your own fault, if what I say 
Will suit my master ill. 

"When Christ was in tlie desert 
The Lvil One drew near, 
And tempted Him to bow in 
And him as God revere. 

"The wealth of all the world should 

For this His fair reward. 
'O Satan, get away from me!" 

Replied our blessed Lord. 

"Wlieii thus his worship was de- 
^'on happened near to be; 
Ddwn on vf)ur knees, you boldly 
'List. Satan. I agree!' 

"That"^ whv vou stalk so liaught- 


Lord of the vale: for thev 
\\ ho Satan serve so willinglv. 
.'\re sure of haiulscnne pay?' 


Ttn: /'/.'.V-VM /.r.i.\y.i-r;/-;/.M/.LV, 


IBy ail ani)ii\ iiiuus autlnT.j 
Ich war am Sainsclulay lu dor 
For Bisncss un Plc^sir, 
Un dart haw ich zu schnc krigt 
En widdcrlich Gcdier. 

Es gucht wie 'n ]Monky ut re Stang 

Mit runde Redder dra', 
Ks hot en Schnawelkeplc ul, 

Un Unncrhosse a'. 

Des Dier reit iif de Strosse rum, 
Gcdresst — ei, 'sis en Schand! — • 

In Unnerhosse, Unnerhem, 
Un Wade gfillt mit Sand. 

Es gucht wie 'n alter Riinger- 

Sei Gsicht war sterns verhitzt; 
Sei Xas war rot. sei Buckel krumm. 

Un greisHch hot cr gschwitzt. 

Dann frog ich, eb's en Spinnrad 
\Vu der Babun do reit, 
Un krig for Antwart: ""S is jo 'n 
Des wissen alle LeitI" 


Bei eineni Wirthe. wunderniild 

Da war ich jiingst zu Gaste; 
Ein goldiier Apfel war sein Scliild 

An einem LTugen Aste. 

As war der gute Apielbaum, 
Bei dem ich eingekehret; 

Mit siisser Kost und frischein 
Hat er mich wohl geniihret. 

Es kanien in sein griines Ilaus 
Viel leiclittieschwingte Giiste; 

Sie sprangen frei und hieUen 
Und sangen auf das Bcste. 

Ich fand ein Bett zu siisser Ruh' 
Auf weichen griinen Matten; 

Der Wirth. er deckte selbst mich zu 
Mit seinem kiilden Schatten. 

Xnn fragt ich nacli der Scluildig- 

Da scluUteU' er den W'ipfcl. 
Gt'-^egnet sei er ,'ilk- Ztit, 

Von der Wurzel bis zuni Gipfel! 


[Translatujn b> H. A. S.J 
On Saturday 1 went to town 

For business and lur Inn, 
And tliere 1 met tlie ugliest beast 

I e'er set eyes upon. 

It seemed a monkey seated on 
A pole, with wheels thereto 

Attached; a little pointed cap 
He wore, and drawers — pooh! 

Why, "tis a burning shame the way 
This "critter" rides about— 

In undershirt and drawers clad, 
His calves with sand filled out! 

Just like an old orang-outang 
He looked — his nose artre. 

His face all flushed, his back all 
Whew, how he did perspire! 

"Is it a spinning-wheel that this 

Baboon is riding so?" 
I asked. The answer was: "Why, 

A bike, sir, don't you know'" 

[Alfred Baskerville, 1854.] 
I put up at an inn to dine. 

Mine host was trusty, staunch; 
A gohlen apple was his sign 
Upon a bending branch. 

ft was a good old apple tree 
In whose house I \n\t uj); 

Delicious food he offered me. 
With nectar filled my cup. 

.\nd shelter 'neath his green roof 
I'ull many a light-winged guest; 
They feasted, danced, nor cared for 
But sang and danced their best. 

I found a bed for sweet repose. 

The soft green grassy glade: 
Mine host himself around me 

His curtains' cooling shade. 

I asked him what T had to pay. 

He shook his verdant crowu. 
Mnv blessings till tlie laie'^t day 

Be o'er him showereil down! 

— From the Wilkesbarre Record. 

Historical Pilgrimages into 

... Pennsylvania-Germandom 



The editor has deliberately lianded over his company of historic pil- 
grims — himself included — to a young friend of his, whom, of all other 
.-icquaintances, he has preferred to act as guide in this number's trip of 
our army of student excursionists. The pilgrimage leads from Reading 
to the southern border-line of Berks, and includes many by-paths, in 
which the young literary aspirant is tolerably familiar. We have felt, 
therefore, that our historical automobile was perfectly safe with his dex- 
terous hand upon the lever and pilot's wheel. 

But I must relate an incident by way oi his introduction. As long ago 
as it takes for an infant to become a man, the editor was pastor of our 
guide's father's household. Their church was one of a large country 
parish, and it frequently became necessary to stop over-night before or 
after services. This home was a frequei\t stopping-place, and many are 

.^ ' ■ 


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.,oUfH. 1 ^ ^ 


THE i'EWSYlA AM,\.(;i:i>\l,\\, 

tlie nappy nuMuoiies. .still lin-erino- in the soul, of tliose sunnv, hygone 
days. This particular liouschol.l in (lucstion was an ideal one.' It had 
conilort. intelligence, culture. Christian nurture and true love. It con- 
sisted then of parents and five healthy, wide-awake and growing young 
_ children, of which number our guide was the youngest of three brothers'^ 
Tiiere never was a lark's nest in the meadow grasses, or a turtle dove's 
. in the forest tliicket, where there abode more domestic order, harmony 
and mutual consideration than m this home. Vet there wore childish 
pranks and tcasings. And so it chanced one day that the elder brothers 
had by some trick exasperated the younger, who chased them through 
the house till he caught the one ne.xt to him in age, and now looked non- 
plussed as the moment of revenge had come. With a two-fold force 
struggling in his childish soul, he exclaimed as he held his tormentor 
captive: ••Qh! 1 would just like to do something." The writer then 
knew that it was more an inner impulse— the result of early parental 
training — than the presence of the visiting preacher or the consciousness 
of physical weakness, that restrained him from exercising vengeance. 
As a result of that domestic nurture, the latent energies of ail these chil- 
dren have been direcied into useful and world-blessing activities, instead 
of gratifying personal feelings or revenge or other indulgences. They 
have all risen to bless the memory of a long since sainted father and to 
prove a strong tower of defence and arm of help to their ever devoted 
but widowed mother. Allow me to introduce to you, dear readers, our 
historical chaperon— the young man of this happy and favored childhood 
environment, Mr. Howard C. .Mohr. now of Reading, Pa. His article 
IS proof that he has learned since his childish outlnirst of indignation 
"to do something." 


One of the most charming pilgrimages thus far undertaken, leads 
from the City of Reading through southern Berks countv. affording 
glimpses ol the picturesque Schuylkill Valley, and sections 'rich in his^ 
toncal interest. 

At the very start, just outside of "the cit^ limits, we t^nd an old-time inn 
-the White House. For more than a century it ha. occupied a com- 
manding position on the mountain-..ide. overlooking the river and 
canal, and atfor^ling a magnificent view of the surrounding countrv. 
Onginally the White House inn comprised but one building-that 
which upon the west side of the road. About :;5 vears ago havmo 
became a tavonte fashionable resort, a larger building was erected on 
the upper side oi the road for the accommodation of guests. The prop- 
erty u^as a part of the •■Man.,r oi Penn's Mount," which extended to the 
bchuylkiU. In ,,>05 ,t was conveyed by the heirs of Isaac Levan to John 
Lotz. whose heirs sold it, including 32 acres of land, to General George 
M. Keim, in 183.', tor S500. ^ 

The surroundings of the inn were then greatlv beautified. In 1^34 
handsome walks and gardens uere laid out by a prole^sional landscape 
gardener-Ahcnael Hauser. Unfortunately, these have long been buried 

i,()\v\ Tin: sciii i.YKif.L vauj:)- 

I.v the cinder deposited near the inn from the nearl^v furnaces. General 
Keim di-^p..sed of tlie property in July, 1840. to Michael Spatz. The 
l^.tier con.lucted the tavern until July. 1846. vvhen he sold it to Martin 
1; Coleman for $1,400. The new propriet.^r enjoyed large patronage. 
there being an increasing number of la^hionablc personages registered. 
Upon tlic death of the landlord, his heirs conveyed the property to Jacob 
Mi^hler. for manv years proprietor of the Mi-hler House, now the Gen- 
ual, on I'enn Square. Reading. He purchased the White House in 
September. 1850. for $_',-'7o. He it wa^ who improved the inn by erecting 
the additional building on the opposite >ide oi the street. 

Among those who were charmed witli the place was Theodore Lauber, 
of Philadelphia, a brother of Peter, who conducted the big restaurant at 
the Centennial Exposition, in Philadelphia, in 1876. Finally he prevailed 







-■'•'t-i''-,-." ^" ' '-'S ?- 




:S*!rtCi:iSL; - 


upon Landlord Mishler. in March. 1856. to sell him the inn for $6,000. 
.\ short time after this, the additional building erected by Mr. Mishler 
was destroyed by tire. Lauber rebuilt it at once, and was amply repaid 
by having his hostelry continually crowded with guests from a distance. 
Upon his death, Herman Floto and Jacob Walter purchai^ed the tavern 
from his widow, in Mav. 1864. for $8,500. Jacol) Remack conducted the 
resort for a season or two. when Herman Marsdorf took charge of it as 
landlord for three years. His receipts, it is said, ran as high as $350 a 
day. and he was on the way to riches when he retired in i8bS to become 
proprietor ot the Lafayette House in Reading, where he also opened a 
theatre for tjie production of variety entertainments. Floto & Walter 
-old the White House to Xervin Tuetui. a Hazleton brewer, but the 
place as an attraction for tourists and health and pleasure seekers had 
viii.vided, aiKl m iw.) years Tuetui threw ui' liie iKirgain and sold out 
'hv stock to Fred. Maver. The buildings and real estate were ^old by 


Tin: rrwsYij a\j\-(;j:j-ii is^ 

Moto ^ Walt.r ... Isaac Eckcr,, and ,hc place I,a. been rented t., various 
landlords sn.ce ll,cn. The .nn ,s one. of the stopping-ph.ccs o„ the Xever- 
s.nk- Mountain Kadroad, and nnder tl,e nu.nagenuMU of J.andlord Law- 
rence continue.-, to be well patronized. 

The grandeur of the scenery fnnn this p<.nnt wa. fullv appreciated by 
Bayard Taylor, who ga\e this description: 

-We presently enierged ui>,.n a slope, whence a olorious landscape upon iny eyes. Xever had 1 seen or innigined anything s„ bea - 
t Ud. Ih, ^tately old town lay below, stretched at full length on an ,n- 
chned plane, rising ,rom the Scluulkdl to the base of the nnumtam- 

^' -^-H 



he river winding ,n abrupt curves, disclosed itself here and there 
hrough the landscape: hills of superb undtdation rose and .ell. m niter- 
l.nkmg hues, through the middle distance, Scull's 11,11 b,.ldlv detaching it- 
sel. ,n tront and i^ar in the north the Blue Ridge lined its dun wall against 
the sky. Ihe sinking sun turned the smoke of the town and the vapors 
ot the nver to golden dust, athwart which faintly gleamed the autumn 
olonng o. d.stant woods. The noises of the scene were softened and 
n ellowed, and above tiiem all. dear, sweet, and famt. sounded the buHe 
ot a boatman on the ca- a!. It was not ignorant adnur:n,on „n mv p^rt 
tor one tamihar wnh the grande>t aspect, of Xatur. n.u.t .till Jonfe.s 
is on this Mile ol the Atlantic are so nublv environed - 

that tew t. 

I)()\\.\ Tin: Si'lH Yl. KILL VALLl'A' 


We resume our JDurney and soon liavc traveled over the "White House 
road'" to. the \alley beneath, whieh was at one time densely populated by 
tlie Sehuylkill tribe of Indians, but is n<>\v dotted with beautiful farm';. 
Many of the risideiits of thi^ section luU'e collections of tomahawks and 
rare specimens cif Indian relics, i^lou^hed up in tlie fields from year to 
year ai.d found in the beds of springs and streams. 

Jonas De Turk's farm, upon which Xeversink Station is situated, was 
one of the sites of the numerous Indian Nillages. His fields along the 
Schuylkill are full of arrow-heads and relic-;, and his collection thus far 
consists of almost ten thou>and pieces, twenty of which are axes. The 

.. -' -; - •A v* "-^ * V , ■ ' '. VAV, 




^^^"^ Mim^^B 


late I'.zra High, of Poplar Xeck. al-^o had a fine collection. Many of 
tlie choice relics found in this section are now in p(Jssession of Prof. 
Levi Mengle, of the P>oys' High School faculty, Reading, who recently 
purchased the collection from ex-Congressman D. B. Brimner. 

Shortly after parsing the handsomely-appointed fartu of the High 
estate, at Poplar Xeck, we come to one of those quaint old covered 
bridges crossing the Schuylkill. At the "bridge house" we are told to 
help ourselves at tlie pump and have a refreshing drink of pure and 
sparkling water. A short distance beyond, at the roadside, stands a sub- 
stantia! school buildim of stone. What memories of other days and of 
H.arbaugh's fauKuis p'.em it calls up! 


77//; /'/.'AVM/.r.! \ / l-f,7v/.'l/.4.V, 

We arrive at Rid.s^^ewood withmit lurtluT incident, liaving nuw traveled 
a distance of abiail tliree miles. The scenery at tliis place is strikinf,^ 
and the place so healthsdnie that for fjuite a nuniher of >H-ais a sana- 
torium and sumnier rcMut was conducted on the liillside. Dr. Sclioll. of 
Reading, was the pi'oprietor uj) to a few years ago, when the property 
was purchased by the f'olish Catholic congreRrition, of the Berks capital 
and transformed into an ori)hans" home. As we glance up at the insti- 
tutinn we arc forcibly reminded of another Polish retreat upon a similar 
elevation. Chenstohova, which stoutly repelled the Swedish itivaders who 
swarmed in Poland, the story of which is given in the admirable his- 
torical nrivel, ""The Deluge,"' by flenryk Sienkiewicz. 

There are two railway stations at Ridgewood, as there are in the other 
villages along this road as far south as pjirdsboro. They are the Schuvl- 
kill X'alley Division of the I'ennsylvania system and the Wilmington & 
ColumI>ia Division of the Philadelphia & Reading sy.^tem. 


1* .■■^-. 




We continue on, passing well-kept farms and appreciating the public 
highway's good condition, this being the well-known "Schuylkill road." 
It is a p(M)ular drive for many Reading folks as well as residents of south- 
ern Berks. It skirts both the river and the canal, ami mxiii the latter we 
saw some of the remaining boats which still ply between Schuslkill 
Ha\en and Philadelphia, laden with coal. About a mile and one-half 
south of Ridgewood we come to a village named Seyfert's Station — so 
named because of the Seyfert iron-works located there. There are no 
ancient landmarks at this place, but a short distance further on we found 
an old grist mill, which fi)r many generations was one of the busiest 
industries in this section. It is located on the Beidler property, and is 
one of the most pictures(|ue scenes along this old road. 

Gibraltar is reached next, being about a mile south of Seyfert's Sta- 
tion. Tins community w;is settled more than one hundred years ago, 

now \ 'J hi: srm i.yki i,i, \ alley. 


.111(1 i'^ tt'iday unc of the prcttifst lianilrt.-> in ilu' cmuiiy. Scideltdwii was 
ill.- ori;j.iiial name of the place, beiiiy S(j nanieil after the Muner of the 
II Mil works loc.ited nearl)_\-. the forger heiii;.; known as "Do Well." 
Ainiin.LT tlie most [irominent resident^ still roiding here arc the Seidels, 
,.ind iiue of the oldest huildin.ys re- 
maining is o\\'ned by this family. It 
is liicati-d hut a sluirt distance stuuh 

\ y:0* 



of the rail\\a\- ^tatiim, and is greatl\' 

admired on acomint ul its (|iiaint ar- 

rhitec'nre. It is painted white, and a 

lu'etty iiiircli is built along the entire 

length of the front, making a most 

p'ea--ing elYect. Standing clo>o by, 

making the ct>mi)arison more effcc- 

ii\e, is the llanfI-^l'me new residence 

<A Mr. Harry Sei<lel. of Cclonia! 

-tyle and niMdtrn in every re-jiect. 

\ little further im -tands nn old dis- 

tdlery. \\hich wa^ in oiieralion about 

-e\enty-t'i\e years ago. Ilefore con- 
tinuing our journey, we \vi>h to re- 

ccir(l the fact that a postolVice was 

'■-tablished at Ciibraltar in iS_^6. The 
n;uiie of the village had I)een changed 

fruni Seideltown to Robeson and 

later to Gibraltar. 

" Robeson"' w;is then api)ropriated 

a- tlie name of the next locality, 
"ue mile to the south, in wiiich direction wc now wend our wav. And 
now comes into view beautiful St. John's church, standing upon an 
eminence a short distance below Gibraltar. For than a century 
have the zealous Reformed and Lutheran congregations worshiped here, 
tile present edihce having succeeded the original >anctuary in iSug. The 
present pastors arc Rev. Z. 11. Gable for the Lutherans, and Rev. J. \'. 
<-eorgo fur the Reformed. "S'ears ago the-e denominations allowed the 
i!-e of tlieir church at intervals to P.aptist and Episcopal clergymen. 

A hitle more than two miles further on we came to i'.Irdsboro— a thriv- 
liiu. growing town, where the main indu-try for more than one hundred 
■Hi'l hfty years has been manufacttiring in iron. William Rird, in whose 
honor the place was named, established the works in 1740 upon a tract 
<'t land along the Hay Creek, where the present plant is likewise located. 
He not only engaged in the iron bu.■^iness, but aLo erected a grist mill 
■'ind a saw mill. The Ltdians, wdio had villages in this vicinity, were 
a->t<.ni>hcd beyond measure, traditi(Mi inf(.rms us, when they saw the 
•ir^t wimhnills grind corn. Th.ey were at tir>t of the opinion that not 
"'e wind, but spirits uithin, g.tve them* their momentum. Some came a 
•■-'•"'■at diMance and sat tor hours close l)y to wcnder at and admire th.J 
^^ hiie man's no\elty. 


Till: I'KWSYI.] .1 \7.1-07;A'I/ l.V. 

William \V\\i\ liad the iiitcrt-sts of tlic comiiumity at Iicart and devoted 
much of liis time to jmMic affairs. He was one of the forenu)St men in 
the county, aii<i \v;<s -a .ureat friend and associate of the famous Conrad 
Weiscr. After liis deatli. his sun. Colonel .Mark Hird, succeeded him in 
Iiis business enterprise's and took a like interest in the welfare of the 
community. During the Re\-olution he became of f^M'eat service, being- 
one of the first to assi>t in organizing tr(;op> for the defense of the 

Ihe manuiaeture of nails, which has become quite an industry in the 
town. wa> first established by Colonel Mark Bird about ijyo. At that 
time the nails were cut I)y a machine and the lieads of the nails pnt on 
with a haiumer by hand. ,\ visit to the mills today reveals the latest 
improved niacitinery. tinning out finished nails at a marvelous rate. 

Tlie Colonial mansion of Colonel Bird is still standing and is in hrst- 
class condition, being !)uilt most substantially oi stone. The Colonel 
lived in fine style, his<lsome having been surrounded by 
beautiful iiark- m which deer were kept. The front of the mansion 
originally faced the Schuylkill. This was changed when the canal was 
built, but a lew paces from the front door, shutting off the view of the 
- — river. ICntrances were then 

built on the other side ot 
tlie mansion, wdiich now 
faces upon Main street. 
After Cohjnel Bird's death. 
the old homestead was 
transformed into an inn. 
and a century ago was an 
important stopping- place 
for travelers between I'hil- 
adelphia and Reading. It 
is now occupied as a resi- 
dence by Mr. James Henry 
and family. 

In 1794 Colonel Bird re- 
liutiuished his business en- 
terprises. James Wilscjii, his 
brother-in-law, succeeding 
i..m. Wilson was one of 
the signers of the Declara- 
tion of Independence. Two 
years later, John Louis Bird 
gained control, and at his 
death in 1799 was succeeded 
by Matthew Brooke, who 
afterward married his 
daughter. Matthew Bro(d<c 
was the father of the lire.-- 
tieorge I'rooke. who ua^ 
usiness bv his brother. 


cut head of 'lu !!n.,,k. Iron Compan\-, ^ 
as^iste(l m making -o great a success of the iron 
the late' I'.dward B.rookc. 


Tiie coiniminity today includes many families whose ancestors were 
among the first settlers, some of the names hein.i; as follows: Lincoln. 
.\lohr, Stanley, Laccy, Harrison, }Ial!n, Hart, Haas. Boone, Kerst, 
Kern, etc. 

While in Birdsboro, \vc had the pleasure of visiting at the home of 
Dr. George Hetrich, whose collection of relics and curios of bygone 
days is one of the finest in the State. The genial doctor kindly allowed 
Us to view his treasures, many of which are connected with the early 
history of this section. A large round platter, a rennsylvania-German 
gilt plate, is in excellent state of preservation. It was made at a pottery 
located m Exeter townshiii. this county, and contains an (ornamental 
(k>iyn in the centre, with an mscription below in German, which reads: 
"Tin- plate was made for Susannah Ruckman, February 18, 1S02." 
'i'here are three "grandfather" clocks, made by Joseph Fix, a famous 
clockmaker in Reading a century or mcjre ago. Copies of the "'German- 
town Zeitung" of 1764 and 1777 are in the collection and contain refer- 
ences to this section of the Commonwealth. There is a printed docu- 
ment, published iti 1764 by a do.^.en or so men of Pennsylvania "protest- 
ing against the appointment of Benjannn Franklin to the agency of this 
province." They accuse him uf "being obnoxions t(j His Maiesiy's in- 
terests in the province." One-half of the pajier is reserved for Franklin's 
answer, which he sets forth in his characteristic manner. The doctor 
also has a copy of the tirst. issue of the "Reading Advertiser." of 1796, 
together with other early publications. \'ery quaint, in<leed, is the 
almanac collection, consisting of a complete set from 1799 to date. They 
ongmated chietly from the old almanac town— Lancaster— and are 
prmted in German. A book greatly to be respected for its extreme age, 
as well as its sacred contents, is a "Fourth Volume of All the Books and 
Writings of Dr. Martm Luther." printed in Jena, Germany, in 1606. A 
German encyclopaedia, published in lOyj at Frankfort-on-the-I^Iain, is a 
massive volume. The typography is clear, and th- illustrations and 
«>rnamental designs are beautiful. E\cn Binner, of our day, could gain 
pointers in designing from this old volume. Both books were originally 
»u possession of the early settlers in the Schuylkill \'alley and were" care- 
fully preserved. It would take pages to comment upon the other inter- 
esting curios seen, ranging from the early fat lamps, or "fet amshels," to 
spinning-wheels, beautiful old mirrors, etc. W'e left highlv delighted 
null onr visit. 

As we pass on through the borough, we cannot but notice the excel- 
'--■"^c ot the streets. The citizens have just reason to pride themselves 
"l">n their condition. On the main street, which is a continuation of 
'be "river road," we noticed an old-time hostelry— the Washington House 
-v.hich was established several generations ago and still has a large 

^ \\e resume our journey— expecting to reUirn to Birdsboro when 
|''-|iy«ard bound-for the purpose of taking a side-trip or two to points 
I" !'-t..ric ;nter-j>t. Now we enter Union township, so n:imed because 
"" •'' union of two sections of territory (.about 7.500 acres), originally 


77/ /; i'i:\\s Yi. 1 .1 .\7 1 -cKirM.w. 

parts f>i Coventry to\vn>Iiii). Chc.-tcr county, and oi Robeson town-hip, 
Jk-rks cniinty. llan- Monson was tlic tirst t(.> acquire land in tlii- sec- 
tion, the wairaiu I'ein- i.-sucd in i'..S4. C)tlier settlers rapidly followcl, 
.nnd by tlu time the township was •■erected" -in 175J, the land Vvas pretty 

well occujiied. Monocacy. 
a small villaj^^e known also 
„„,,— <r>-Jw^''A as Mount Airy, is our first. 
* stopping-jilace. Here we 






Erected in 17 16 

were inloriued that this 
was at one time a thrivmt^ 
industrial locality, evidence 
of which may be seen by 
\ the ruins of the old .Al'on- 
f ocacy furnace. A "depart- 
, 1^ ment store," better known 
'I as a "general sLure" in 
"% rural districts, was estab- 
i lislied here ;i- early as 1812. 
\\'illiam Long being the 
proprietor. The Six- Penny 
Creek is a very cheerful 
stream whicli we noticed 
while "seeing the sights."' 
But thi.- little village isn't really as quiet as it would seem to be, for sud- 

denl\- we heard loud rei^orts. the earth trembled — and so did we. a liule • 

not knowing whether the Monocacy tribe of Indians had returned to take 
revenge upon the white land-grabbers, or whether a tleet of foreign men- 
of-war had sailed \.\\> the Schuylkill to capture the Berks C'uuity Dutch. 
\\'hile pondering over the .-ituation, a farmer came our way. and to our 
query, "AX'hat's the trouble"'" merely pointed to a building some distance 
away, and said, "The Fort." This astonished us still nK>rc and gave no 
relief to our unea.-e, the booming of mighty guns continuing. Not know- 
ing but that an enemy might have sighted us and might even now be 
training; a gun in "ur direction, we concluded to hoi.-t a tlag of truce and 
advanced toward the fort with a "kerchief bound to our old umbrel". 
Suddenly the guns ceased to roar, the doors opened, and instead of 
brigaiKJ.- \s"e found that the fort ivas 'iccupied by a company of men of 
our own kind, who ga\e us welcome. We jieerefl into the fort, and were 
astonished to see that it was "armed to the teeth" with cannon, lujt of 
the latest wire-wound pattern, it is true, but with great, massive imple- 
ments of war. Then we were told the true situation: That to this fort 
are seiU by the United States Government innumerable cannon which 
are of no further service. Here they are ciiarged with dynamite au'l burst' 
asunder into ciuivenient shapes for the scrap pile, from whence the}- are 
again shipped t" iro- -work- fi ir rec.i-i;ng jjurpose.-. We iK'\e- had any 
idea that there were -n many taniion di-po-ed of in this way; '.mt at this 
fiut we were informed tiiat tiiere are severcLl s.nidar plar.t.- in this ceuntry 

/;ou \ 'HI/: snn /,> a//,/, i .i /./,/;) 


fiT tlic las; time great iinplenKnts oi 

I'iacc, iii.i longer in (Imiht ai to 
eaniy \\a}- huw 
war iInpIc^u•^t^ 


lliat are contimially busy cliargii 

We turn away frum tlii, interesting ji'.a 
<iiu- safety, but womlcring in a SMUKwliat ilreaniy way ln.w many cen- 
turies will pa>s away beiorc .(// dca^h-dtaling war impIcnuMits ■^IwU li 
been rek-gated tu the serap-iWle. 

But we imagine that we hear a pretest from the editor: "Xo editorial; 
stick to your historical journey str.ry." So we pa,-^ .ui. A mile or two 
from Monocacy is Donglassville. in Amity tow ndiii*. Here we f.mnd so 
much ol interest that our iiotedjook was fdled with lac's and another 
was commenced. The oldest house in Pierks county is one of the attrac- 
tions. It stands on the cast bank of the Schuylkill River, close to the 
bridge, and tradition informs us it was used as a fr^rt : that the 
second-story windows answered the purpose of ])orrholes when the 
Indians attacked the white settlers. The building was erected m 171O, 
but is still very substantial. In the front wall is bml: a soapstone tablet^ 
oblong in shape, engraved, 

-J. M. I., 171O.- to indicate ^r»-^<r :'-"■',"""'"• V'^"' ''"■" '\;^ ^ 
that tlie building was erect- -' 
cd by Mounce Jones, the »; 
initial of the family name, y 
"J," being given first: that '■_ 
for Mounce. the Christian ij 
name, next: and lastly "T." 
the initial for Ingabo. the 
name of ^^r. Jones" wife. 
For many years the build- »■ 
ing was used as a ferry- 
house and taverri. for some 
time known as the "Landjs' 
Inn." Today it is used as a 
club-house by a number of 
Reading families, who 

spend part of the summer in this locality on pleasant days. It is a part 
of the i->ouglass estate, which is managed by Mr. R. T. Leaf. There is 
another old building nearby, erected in 1765, which was for' many years 
the mansion of George Douglass, Mr. Leaf's great-grandfather. In the 
attic there are large day-books and ledgers, showing charges fi.'r store 
gt-'ods sold, and credits, in pL>unds, shillings and pence, more than a cen- 
tury ago. These books were in in a stone store building which still 

When the old "White Horse li(jtel" at this place was remodeled some 
years ago, in tearing out closets and the thick stone walls of a large fire- 
place, the muster-roll of Captain Weiser's company of Revolutionary 
sf)ldiers, dated 1773, was found, and is still in possesion of a resident of 
the village. 

A postot'fice was established here in iSjo. The original name of the 
place was Molatron 01 .Morlatttni. It w;i.s settled by Swedes in 1701, but 
afterward Cierm;ins came in equally large nund.iers. The townshi;). which 
13 the oldest in the comity, was erected m 1719, 'Sciuire Geo. Boone making 



THE rnwsYiA \M \-r,i:ir]iA v 

the survey. The early settlers were Lutherans, ami they are credited 
witli having hinlt tlie first cluirch witliiii the houndaries of P.erks county. 
It was known as Molatton cluuch. and was huih of h)gs. The exact date 
of Its erection is not known, hut the time was prior to i7_>o. It was re- 
built m 17.36, tlie dimensions being 24x^,0 u-vi. Rev Gal)ricl Falck was 
then pastor. According to Rev. Dr. .Muhlenberg's account this i)a'-tor 
once had a hand to hand struggle with a Moravian emissary fur tlie pos- 
sessif)u of tln'> pulpit. In iS;,i the building was destroyed by fire, but it 
was not at tlint time in u>e. a stone church building having been erected 


«'-4'f7' rSiif 

i^ ) 

5- f 


■ >v i.-:4 



in i80(. The latter is .still standing, but has also been abandoned for a 
much finer edifice. 

The log church was often used as a place for holding confer- 
ences between the Indians and Government officials of the province. 
School was also held there for a time, one of tlic teachers being Francis 
R. Sltunk. who afterward became, Go\ernor of Pennsylvania. Both his 
parents are buried here. The school room had the old fashioned ar- 
rangement: the desk- were placed along the walls, the i.upil,-, sitting with 
thei.- backs to the teacher, who liad his desk planted in the centre of the 

1H)\\.\ THi:HCUl\LKII.I. VALI.i:). 39 

room. The cost of tuition was four cents a day. or ^-'.50 for tlircc 
months. SpcUinij. reading, writing and oritlinictio comprised the studies. 
.\ large wood stcne gave heat to the building. A stout switch also gave 
heat to unruly pupils. 

J'atriarch Muhlenberg preached here occasionally until August. 1761. 
l'"rom its organization until that time the congregation- had l)een Luth- 
eran in denomination, but shortly thereafter it I)ecame absorbed by the 
I'jiglish speaking element and connected witli the Protestant Episcopal 
C-hurch, Rev. Alex. Murray being placed in charge. It was tlie transition 
period of many German and Swedish Lutheran congregations to English. 
J-'.piscopalianism. The name then changed to St. Gabriel's church, which 
continues to thrive to this day, whose present rector is Rev. Samuel Mc- 
KKvee. In its earlier Episcopal histe->ry the venerable Bishop White, of 
Christ Church fame, Philadelphia, occasionally otiiciatcd here. He preach- 
ed the E.nglish sermon at the dedication of edifice in iSoi. In 1S80 
tneasures were taken by the rector. Rev. John Long, for the erection of 
a new editk-e. He. v.ith John Y. ^'ocluu and Jeremiah Vocom, com- 
1 riscd a buildiiig committee. Henry Me>schert contributed an excel- 
lent plot of ground, and work was commenced in iXSo. On the 19th of 
October of the same year the corner stone wa^ laid. The edifice wa- 
consecrated January 23. 1S84. It i^ a beautiful --tructure. having tine 
memorial windows, and iiuerior decorations. The total cost was about 
•f-'LOOO. The old and the new church stand close tr, each other. 

There are many graves in the old church yard, but many oi the to'.nb- 
stones have been obliterated by time and exposure to the weather. Here 
rest lIic remains of Andrew Robeson, a prominent land owner in Soutli- 
^rn Berks about 200 years ago. He died in i/iQ. aged 66 years. His 
grave is marked with a sand stone, which bears upon it this inscription: 

"Removed from noise and care 

This silent place I cliose: 
When death should end my years 

To take a sweet repose. 

Here in a peaceful place. 

My ashes- must remain; 
My Sa\ iour shall me keep 

And raise me up again." 

Andrew Robeson was a man of large wealth and of high esteem. Rob- 
eson township, through which we traveled en route to Birdsboro. was 
named in his honor. 

Before resuming our journey to the county line, a profitable side trip 
to Amityville is to be taken. It is onl}- a matter of several miles and 
through beautiful country. As we approach our destination there is 
exposed to view St. Paul's church, an imposing- edifice with a steeple i_'0 
feet high. It may be seen for miles around, standing as it does in a 
>n<)st conspicuous (lu-iition. St. Paul's is occupied by both L'.itheran 


77//; l'i:\\S)LVA MA-CKini.W. 

and KLi'iirnu'd congrc^aiions and dates back to 1753, wIkh a Id- Iiiiu>e 

\vas crcctcil tor rc'h.yi'Uis ])uri)o-c,- 
sclmul. Ill i/'.)') a new building' wa 

.■-.•->'«; .>-^.- 





as well as lor the openinj,'- oi a 
erected, at a cost of $2.3^5. It was 
consecrated in 1798. Tbe tind;er 
\\a^ brought, frotn Orwiysbnrg, 
Schuylkill county, and the roof 
made of cedar shingles. The pres- 
ent edifice was built in iS7_'. The 
corner-stone was laid .August 12 
of that year, and the building was 
consecrated AugU'^t 16 and 17. 
187,^ It has a seating capacity of 
Soo and a two thousand dollar 
bell. The services of both con- 
gregation> were almost wholly in 
German until [848, when luigli^h 
wa:i introduced, alternately witli 

Now we are ready to retrace 
our steps. Arriving at Dong- 
!ass\ille. after an e.xcellent d\u- 
ner at the hotel, we again re- 
siune our travels upon the 
trail, which, by the way. has been extensively tra\eled by Indian and 
white man for centuries. We would like nothing better than to ?it down 
for a while under yonder oak tree, to enjoy the charming scenery to its 
utmost and jirobably iot d<jwn .sentimental material for a historic novel, 
■ — with renns\l\ ania-German characters as the incenti\e. But again re- 
membering the editor's direction, '"stick to your story," we attempt to 
make a new record in covering distance and arrive at Union\illc, the 
last stopping place or rather the terminus of our journey, and the old- 
est hamlet visited on tliis trip. The land in this locality was originally 
owned by Abraham B rower. About 90 some years ago the first business 
'lace, a general store, was opened by John Brower. Abraham Brower 
was the proprietor of a fonndry which was in operation from 178O until 
his death in 18,50. His son-m-law, Augustus Leopold, continued the 
business for some time, small castings being the pr(jduct of the plant. 
John Brower had a factory where candle sticks, now highl_\' clieri>he<l. 
were manufactured, as well as lamps and coffee mills. He had si.k men 
employed and was very pr(jsperous, tiiis industry continuing until about 
1S32. In 1828 a postoftice was established and was called Brower's. bv 
which name it is still designated, although the name Unionville prevails 
also, the title being derived from the township in which it is situated — 

This was, years ago, a busy centre in boating interests. The Schuvl- 
kil! Navigation Company after constructing the canal ivuiw Philadel- 
phia to the coal regions, erected a boat _\ard here, and also had a farm 
close by, where the mules used on the canal were quartered in winter. 
Naturally budness was bn-k for the \ lUage, as the boatmen were large 

7>oii\v Tin: self I L) hiij, ] \f.i.i:y 


l>uyors and free siKiulers. Today, liowexer, instead of luiiidrLds of boats 
pavii^ating; this \vater murse. tliere are less tlian twu dnzen. 

We face about and are otY for Birdsboru. foregoing- the pleasure of 
sjiending some time along; the Mill Creek, a famous trout stream near 
the Chester county line. From r.ird'-l)Mr<i we hurry rm to Ranmstown, 
.smacking our lij>s over the prosjiects before us for historical dainties. 
We are directed to a point about one mile north of this place, and their 
behold the birthplace of the darin.g pioneer, Daniel Boone. E'xeter 
tounshiii. in which this landmark is located, was originallv a part of a 
tract of land grauttd in i6Sj by Penn to John Millington. of Shrews- 
bury, Kng. : tlic latter'? interests, however, became vested in Ra'ph Ashc- 
ton, of Philadelphia, and in 1730 250 acres were acquired by 'Squire 
r.oone, of Philadelphia county, father of our hero, Daniel. Until his 
17th year, Daniel resided in Exeter township, in which time he developied 
a great fondness for the forest. It is said that he knew the county and 
its surroundings in his youth as but few ohler persons did and was con- 
tinually striving to become a "sure shot" with his trusty rifle. Tradition 
informs us that his was an uneasy nature and that even as a boy he could 
.scarcely endur',- silting in schoi>l, Init would rather be out hunting in the 
h-uests. IJis education was, therefore, uot so extensive as his tather's. 
e\iilence of which was found in one of his early works of art, cut, boy- 
fa-~hion, into the bark (_<f a tree: 

D Boone 


It is related that upion one occasion, when a mere boy. Daniel dug 
himself a cave on the banks of the Schuylkill, three miles from home, 
and lived in it a week before being discovered by his friends. Though 
they passed the place rejjeatedly in their search, his woodcraft had con- 
cealed all signs of human habitation so completely that they could not 
tind it. 

Scjuire Boone, and family. Daniel included, left the township in 175a 
and migrated to North Carolina. In 1769 Daniel led a party into the 
unknown regions of West \'irginia (now Kentucky), where he dis- 
tinguished himself by his boldness, his wonderful experiences with the 
Indians, and his successful career as a pioneer. He was the most prom- 
inent character in the lirst steps of our civilization westward of the Al- 
leghanies. Notwithstanding his busy career, Daniel and iiis family loved 
the <dd hcane^tead iii l-^xeter township and visited it in 17.^8. Our Berks 
couiU}- hero died in Missouri, September JO, 1820, aged nearly 87 years. 


Til i: /'/■; \ A >v y/A .\.\IA-(; /; A' 1/ . i .V. 

each year, after his having arrived at nurture age being charged u-ith 
exatnig exploits and serviceable deeds for his countrv. Ifis' memory 
.s hjghly cherished, especially by the now densely popuKuted countv of 
Berks, which claims him as a son from among the most notable per- 
sonages in history. 

Twenty-f^ve years after his death, the State of Kentucky had the re- 
mains oi Colonel I'.oone exhumed ,n Missouri and brought back to 
Pranklord. where they were buned with appropriate services. Governor 
Morehead delivered a stirring and deserved eulogy upon the life and 
services ot -the tounder ot the Commonwealth of Kentucky " 

In the rotunda of the Capitol at Washington ,.. a bas-relief of a white 
man in leggms. hunting shirt and c<.onskin cap of a pioneer. One dead 
Indian lies at his feet. He is sinking his knife into the heart of another 




''That." savs the guide, -is an exploit of Daniel Hoone. an incident in 
his life upon the frontier." 

The Boones have been prominent through all the history of this sec- 
tion, and there are many prominent and re^pecte.l families of that name 
living here still. Samuel G. Boone, a descendant of the great pioneer 
resides in Reading, where he conducts a prosperous store He it was 
who had taken the picture of the Boone homestead pul)lislied herewith 
and was included in the photograph. 

About a mile below Lorane (formerly named Kxeter Station ) we en- 
ter upon new pleasures, being no less a place (,f interest than the 
birthplace and early home of the ancestor^ of President .Abraham Lin- 
coln. The immortal emancipator's great grandfather, also named -\bra- 
ham Lincoln, uas born here in i;jo and p,,.ssessed sterling qualities as a 
citi/en m public aii.l private life. Hi. was a prominent position m the 

/K)\\ \ rnHs<in ylkii.i. I'.uj.ii)'. rs 

political history of Berks county, and lie repcatcilly served tlic people in 
a most ahlc manner. In tlie .Assembly, from 178,^ to 17S6. he was recogniz- 
ed as one of the foremost men of the period in the State. Three years 
later he was chosen by the county as a delegate' to the C'oustitr.tional 
Convention in Philadeliihia and the ]>ul)lic records slu.iw that fiu" many 
similar important events he was chosen as the county's representative. 

Mordecai, his father, settled in Exeter township in 1731, removing here 
from New Jersey, to which place he had migrated from Massachusetts 
in 1717. He immediately commenced improving the land. He erected 
a house for his own use and shortly afterward was the prime mover in 
the erection of a Quaker house of worship near where the Friends' 
meeting house in Exeter now stands. He died before the age of 65 and 
was buried in the church yard adjoining the Exeter meeting house. 
Other anccNtors of Pre>ident Lincoln are also buried here. In the 
southern part of the county, not including Exeter, there are also quite 
a few prominent families bearing the name of Lincoln and doubtless are 
descendants of the same blood. Li the vicinity of Morgantown there 
are burial grounds containing the remains of members of the Lincoln 
family, some of whom are said to have been in api^earance remarkably 
similar to tlie martyred President. 

The Lincolns of Berks county, and i)articularly the late David Lincoln. 
whose family still resides at Hirdsboro. were participants in the success- 
ful operation of the ■"underground railway" during the da\ s of slavery 
and were among the foremost supporters of the anti-slaverv movement. 
David Lincoln, for this and other good qualfties, was held in high es- 
teem and a part of the residence section of Birdsboro has been named 
Lincolntown in his honor. 

Before leaving Exeter township we have decided to go south a little 
further to catch a glimpse of the ancient "Red Lion" inn. established in 
1760 and in continuous ojieration. Li its early history it was known as 
the "King George." but of course that wouldn't do after the coloni.=ts 
decided to shift for themselves without his guiding hand — or tlst. 

Now we have completed our mission and turn Readingward, knowing 
full well that a vast deal of historical material must still be left untouch- 
ed upon in the by-paths upon which we could not at this time enter. 
iome time we would like to hunt out the most minute historical points 
of interest in this section, and with this feeling in our heart wave fare- 
well to this beautiful valley and cry out cheerfully "Auf Wiedersehn I" 

Howard C. Mouk. 

Do OL'R readers iieetl Inig'gies or wagons of any description, sew- 
ing machines, pianos, organs at about half price, engravings or 
cuts of atiy description, the use of an A. Xo. I health or rest re 
sort, and get tlie very best for their money, then let them consult 
<'ur advertising pages. 



With "Bobs" 

and Kruger. 

15 V 

F. W. Un-er 

book itself, 


1 ic energy displayed in making tins book a nncsibilitr 
uhen one knows it. holds the mind of the reader 
captive u-ith aclmiration. so that he forgets to think of th.- 
Ihe author is a young Philadelphian. in the 
whose ancestry, on all lines, runs through the 

'"-'^^ •^trains of Pennsylvania-Ger- 

~^ man blood, but whose daring grit 
j in writing up the unfortunate ■'un- 
• pleasantness" that still disgraces 
the h^nglish name in South Africa, 
\yas nut excelled by any of John 
Hull s. or any Yankee corrcspond- 
enl (,.n the tield. Being on a trip 
of adventure m the Alaskan Klon- 
dyke at the outbrealc (..f the war. 
he hasteii> back, equips himself 
for a new clime and climate, lying 
towarrls the opposite pole, across 
the length, and width of an ocean, 
on another C(jntinent. to take up 
a new work altogether. He se- 
cures a position on the statT of 
the London "Daily Express": is 
present with Lord Roberts" earlv 
operations; is then sent secretlv 
to the Boer side, and fill's 
the unique position 
this F.nglish paper 
account of events 
now passed before 
personal experiences with both sides of 
Dark Continent. It is given as an eye- 


oi giving 

a graph.ic 

as they 

him. His 

book is a chatty narrative 
this unfortunate war in tl 

vvitness oidy couki give the narrative. but'Vo help the graphic' pen-«ketches 
he author turned kodaker. and so has his text illumined with over iso 
nalt-tones. As tar as we know, there were no Berks countv girls posincr 
tor these picture-groups of Boer ladies, as happened to another writer^ on 
the subject some tune since. The hook is well gotten out by Henrv T 
Coates & Co.. Publishers, Philadelphia; is 41-' octavo pages in size, 'and 
sells for ^2.00. 

Life Bevond This book consists of fourteen verv charming discourses bv 
the Grave. ■''"^' ^^'^•, ^^'"- f^- S. Hottman on the general subject of the 
..II 1 f .1 ■'ii'V''"'^^ ^^-y ^" -''^ *^"'' ^'^*-^ preaching of which were first 
caned torth bv the death 01 his own wife, to whose memorv he dedicates 
tie voUune. The sermons are argumentaiive in stvle and 'convincing in 
their conciisions ot the happy and blessed lite bevond for all God'-^ be- 
lieving children. The realms of reason, nature and'revelation are resorted 
to in the arguments produced, and the whole is b 
believer stronger assurances of this darli 
this life, and great comi <n of heart in the 

Its voice is >o,,ihing am. strengthening to the heart broken bv gru-f The- 
Lnion Press. Philadelphia; octa\o; ui ^ " 


^e, new di 
\s ot >ore 

' give every 

ire to attain 




r.ooh :\(nici:s. 45 

T- <: n IT t J Tlic rfputnlinii ot tlii-; author as a writer of 

Lives Qf the Hunted. ^^,^j^^,.^, l^^^^,.;^,^ ^^ e^iabl.^lKM l-ryond a (luil-hk-. 

lie has long ^ince placcil h.i- nann. on the ver} 
hii^hest notch of cxrelk'ncy in thi> tlepartnuMU 
of htfratiire i.iy hi^ niaya/ine articles am! Iii^ former liooks, c-pecially 
"Wihl An.niaU 1 Have Known," whirli la:ier ha^ had an unprecedented 
sale. 'riri> last xohiine of his jicii is ^oin.i;- to add to his fame — if that 
were i)o-.-!ble — a- it has addt-d to his u-efnliie-s. io.r it seems to he the 
mission of this intense Ir.ver of wild aninialdife ti.i defend the too otten 
defenceU s., I. rules and t>irds oi the mountains and torcsts and the un- 
tamed plains. He i- an illustrious apostle of the nnlained world of 
iinimals — tln/ugh it would seem all wiidness wa~ dissipated when he 
invades their natixc realms — as Anna Sewell i? that c>f the horse. He 
has c<.>ine so close to this kingdom of furs and feathers that he is lamiliar 
not only with their every track and call and habitat, but aU(j with the 
very motive and feelin.u of the animal-soul. He interpirets wild animal 
looks and aciions. groans aiul calls, and hence can readil_\- understand 
them and write their little episodes and epics. As W'hittier .sa\s: 

■'Himself to Nature's heart so near 
Tliat all her voices in his t-ar. 
Of beasi or bird, had meanings clear.'" 

This volume of the "Doings of Five Quadrupeds and Three Birds,' — 
a mountain ram. a bear, a (log, or rat. a coyote, the cock-sparrow. the 
tea! duck, and the chick. idee — is hist(_iry. i. e.. a true account. ( >nly such 
a close o'jserver as this entliu'^ia^tic animal student and frieml. could 
ever write such a history. It will doubtless make many friends for these 
dumb neighbors of man's, whose inhumanity has too long been their 
bitterest lot to bear. He touches the will not Ijv an appeal to reason so 
much as to sym[iathy. and if ever the animals can ri-e in their sphere 
sutlicienily to raise memorials to their benefactors. Mr. Stetcin-Thompson 
will ha\e his monument, upon which erection ten thousand living crea- 
ti;res will contribute their quota, and at whose unveiling all the feathered 
songsters will render their finest melodies. The stiiries themselves are 
highly interesring. If my reader has a lioy, for whom the evenings are 
dull and tlie up-town attractions have strong allurements, it is evident 
there is no copy of this book within his reach. The naive illustrations 
on every page of the wide-margined bool< by the autluM's own hand are 
perhaps the most charming and instructive part of the whole volume, 
wiiich is <:)ne of the tinest the Scribners have ever gotten out. J.arge 
Octavo. 3',x) pp. ?i.~5. 

TV,,, -M u 1 V 11 What this magazine in its "Historic Pilgrimage" 

The Mohawk Valley. .^^^_^.,^.^ ,. .ttcmiptmg to do. in a comprehensive 
t.\ \\. -Max tvei.l. ^^._^^^, ^^.j,|j .^,j ^,^^, valleys of Eastern Pennsylvania. 
\\here our German ancestors of a century and three-fourths ago took up 
tiieir pioneer homes, this son of the famous and lucturesque Mohawk 
region has done for that historic valley of upper Xeu York in a ntinute 
and most artistic way. The legends and history of this region for two 
hundred years — from i(>09 to 1780 — is uell and connectedly told. If the 
stirring scenes enacted here during the h'rench and Indian and the Revo- 
lutionary Wars had been hitherto neglected by writers of history or fic- 
tion, this present chronicler has done its local history ample justice and 
narrated in a most engaging way the tragic events and heroic deeds here 
enacted. He has woven the oft-told tales of legend and history into one 
of the finest books on local history we have ever seen. Xot a locality. 
from Schenectady to Rome, has been neglected — and each town has its 
riuuantic story of vary wars and each "bit <''i woodland has its wealth 
of prehistoric legend." Of course many characters of natiou.'d fame llgurc 
in the volume — the Indian, h'renclim.iii, i'.ir^lishm.'ni. Palatine and high- 


THE l't:\S s\l.\\MA.(;i:iniAS. 

bred American ^ ankee, all fi-ure i.i it— as tlieir stock -ave coloring to the 
stream ol history that lk.\ved up ami down the \ alley. Xot the least ot 
these are our own favorite Palatines, whose footpriius are well traced in 
this work. Cooper's "Last of Mohicans" liad at last its legitimate suc- 
cessor — hction complemented and interpreted by fact. 
_ Any one who knows the publications of the Knickerbocker Press 
Knows what success it has had in bringing out in the finest style its many 
volumes on history— as its Historic Mansions, Historic Towns and its 
Historic Romance Series. But in this work on the A[ohawk Vallev it 
has exci'edod every iormer effort. Its 450 large octavo pages have been 
tMiibellished with seventy of the handsomest full page illustrations from 
photographs by J. Arthur ^[aney in half-tone and photogravure which 
makes it a book of tine art as well as an interesting work on history 
1 he- work, neatly encased in a box. sells for $3.30 net, or $3.7:; by mail 
Cj. 1. I'utnam s Sons, Aew \ ork. 

Tiire and Chance. 

By ■ 
Elbert Hubbard. 

Ocme V Chance 

No one could have guessed that this Rovcroft King, 
who, m his "Philistine" is wont to flav preachers, 
roast lawyers and fry editors, storv-wnters and the 
rest of thinkers and actors indiscriminately, could be 
the author of a work so ful'l of patho.> 
and sound sense, as is contained in this 
narrative of John Brown, the hero of 
Osawatomie and Harper's Ferry. It is 
charming how he weaves into the plain 
linsey-woolsey robes of this rugged hero's 
life-story such a delicate and' attractive 
lace-work of sentiment and incident. 
The chief character of the romance 
stands ont like a bronze statue in a park, 
with every lineament clearly brought 
out, over which has been woven the dra- 
pery of a most delicate, gauze-like ro- 
mance. It is a volume of life-pictures, 
snap-shotted by a clear-cut camera from 
the history of this wonderful man. c(n-- 
ering the principal events of his check- 
ered life from childhood till he met his 
unhappy fate. The pictures pass Itefore 
the reader, peopled with other folk in such a variety of poses 
and predicament that the final whole is like unrolling the long 
scroll of a vitascope before one's eye. It is a question whether John 
Brown's life was ever more fascinatingly told, and the book must take 
high rank among the many modern books of historical fiction. There 
nay be hints on religion and love that are not orthodox, vet there is 
wisdom in the philosc-jphizing that is the setting to everv picture. To 
many the author is a mystery. He is hard to be^ taken. But whether he 

is or has been a knave, a hypocrite, a gambler or a corrunt politician 

as one might inter from the correct likenesses here drawn of these— no 
one that reads this book will call him a fool, or doubt his deep and right- 
eous love for the human kind. And as a delineator of character or a 
maker of pen-pictures, he certainly lias mastered his art. For the^e 
traits alone. "Davi.l Harum" has been left in the shade. This volume is 
gotten out by the Putman's, is a book of 4:^2 i2mo. pp.. and sells at $i.;o. 


The Life of Philip Scha£f. Tl.i^'-'i'ffli ^^'^ M'";'"*;''" '" ^''^' author, a copy of 

By Da^id S SclntY V'* work, published nearly five years ago, was 

'. '' ^'^ ' ■ inrnished us at special terms with thc\inder- 

standmg that our readers should be made ac(|uainterl with it^ existence 

HOOK \OTl('i:s. ■ 47 

,iiul contents. Since it came tr> hand, liow c\ cr, nnr time has been so 
jier^j-tently occupied witli otiier (hities tliat we find it impossible to i;ive 
a (li'.ci inmiate critique oi the hunk. It will be euough, however, to say wiierever one chances to take h'jld i;t' its pages, tiie current ot the 
lnograplier's sketch, seizes one with such a tenacity of interest that it is 
liiiind hard to break away. This life, which has cast one of the longest 
shadows on the plane of American religious history and the theological 
trend of the Christian Church in the last half-century, having its roots in 
Switzerland and tlie Universities of Germany, early transplanted to the 
hills of Pennsylvania, as professor in a literary and theological institute 
\\ithin the narrow confines of a then small denomination of German- 
Americans and tlieir oftspring, just awakening to a consciousness of 
their own mission, ihcnce gradually rising to the more influential thought 
and moulding center, as professor in Union Theological Seminary of 
\ew "^'ork City, is well outlined in the 29 chapters of the book, l-rom 
the earlier years to tlie last days this intkientially gigantic life is depicted 
— as only an able and discriminating son, who is himself a theological 
l)rofessor. could do it. We feel confident from the cursory examination 
given it that it will always pass as the standard life of this familiar theo- 
logical giant, whose name has been upon the lips of thousands of Penna- 
(iermans for a generation. Many, especially of the Reformed branches 
of the Church, w ill be glad to welcome this brother German-.\merican to 
tlieir fireside, and give many a long evening to him, now made possible 
through thi> voluminous biography, Charles Scribners Sons, New York. 
52(> large 8vo pp. ^3.00. 

History of Under this title Mr. James J. Hauser of Eniaus, Pa., has 
Lehigh County, collected into some ninety odd pages of an octavo pamph- 
Penn'a. let. a great deal of valuable history of this time-honored 

abode of so many Pennsylvania Germans. From the earliest treaties with 
llie Indiaiis to its present day statistics, the settlement, war history and 
record of names, internal improvements, education, soil, geography, 
county seat and boroughs, duties of oiricers and list of officers from its 
establishment as a county to present day, together with a list of most 
noted i)rofessional men. are all given. It is a very creditable work and its 
list of soldiers of all wars is itself worth the price of the book (50 cents; 
to any one interested. It should he much in demand. 

History of '^^^ recent pastor of this congregation, Rev. 

St. John's Reformed Church, ^^^"''>' "• K'inck. now of Reading. Pa., last 
of Lebanon Pa l'^^- "f^^" ^'^^ -*°^'' anniversary ot its estab- 

... hshment, in connecticin with the special tes- 

tivitics, gathered the material of its two-score years of historical life and 
now has brought it out in convenient book-form, beautifully printed and 
illustrated. It is a credit to the compiler and must be appreciated by 
every one in connection now (jr to be in the future. For sale by the con- 

Babby Redstart Crane &- Co.. publishers, of Topeka. Kansas, are pub- 
lishing a series of good booklets under the title oi 
I wentieth Century Classics and School Readings," of which this num- 
V>er is a collection of brief Bird Stories, written by that authority on 
birrl lore, the Rev. Dr. Leander S. Keyser, of .\tcliison. Kan. It ranks 
uith the best of his well-known stories. 

American Historv ^'^'V^ '^^ ^^''''"-'^^ ^ S""' l'"^'''-^''^^''^- *'{ ^'^V- J""'-^'; 

Lea*l-^t ' ■"''"' -''''"s'ng out m a bi-mnntlily series these Lolonial 

aiid Consiitutiiinal hi-torical leatlets at (>o cents a year. 

10 cents a eopy, now numbering 3O, a sample copy of which has reached 


Tin: i'i:\\s)L\ asi.\-(;i:r.\i.\s. 

-s. 1 hoy arc nulinu'iilar^- and (lociuncntary liisiury, dished up in fine 
and ciiii\ cni(.-nt lurni. 

IIiui. Albert J. lioveridgc, United States Senator t'roni liidiana, has 
spent some time in the I'ar East investigating commercial and political 
conditions, studying international relation^, appraising national resource^, 
and conierring with the men who are establishing the Eastern policy ot 
the huiojiean powers. Ihe vast amount of information thus secured at 
hrst hand Senator Beveridge embodied in a series <>, noteworthy papers 
wrhten for and recently pul)lished in ■'The Saturday Evening Post." of 
I'hiladeli)hia. Senator Hexeridge is a trained writer and a Trained ob- 
server and iie has infused extracirdinarv interest into subiects that might 
make dull reading if less brilliantly handled. 

To ce.ndense in a paragraph the announcement of "The ^'oulh's Com- 
panion" for 10,02 IS not easy. Not only will nearly two hundred story- 
writers contribute to the paper, but many ot the most eminent of living 
statesmen, jurists, men of science and of letters, scholars, sailors, soldiers 
and tra\elers. including three members of the President's Cabinet. Atid 
this is but a beginning of ih.e long list. A complete ann.iuncement v/ill 
be sent to any address free. 

As an advertising medium, "The Philadelphia Record" is one of the 
best propositions in the country; it having been awarded the third silver 
sugar bowl by "i'rinter's Ink," for being the paper east of Chicago which 
gives advertisers the best service in proportion to the rate cliarged. "The 
Record" is the pioneer one cent newspaper of the United Spates, and has 
by far the largest circulation in Philadelphia. 

The leading article in the January nunilx'r of "Country Life in Ameri- 
ca" is on California, by the editor of the luagaziiie, L. H. Bailey. There 
are fifty large photographs on many ^ubJects. from garden making and 
fruit growing, pleasant homes, estates, and great ranches, to the natural 
beauties and curiosities of the Pacific Coast, without omitting the popy- 
\vorts and Gila monsters. Among other articles are "The Country Life 
of California." by A. J. Wells; "The Story of a Great California Estate," 
by Charles Howard Shinu: "Plant Growing and Human Culture," by 
Prof. E. J. W'ickson; and "The Bounty of Califorma." 

''The World's Work" has a "Looking C)ut\vard" number for it? Jan- 
uary issue. "The period of exclusivene'^s is past," taken from President 
McKinley's last and famous Buffalo speech, is its clue. It deals witli 
American expansion as an interesting chai>ter of modern history. The 
magazine has a special cover in colors by Louis Rliead. 




^iiX J, I 

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Hon. Frederick Augustus C. Muhlenberg 

Born Jan. 2, 1 750 
D'.ED June 5. 1 SO I 



KKV. P. C. (HO LI.. A.M.'.T an I Piil.lislifr 

7> /•?«,<.■ ;■■;."" ;>.■/■ //<( 

,tr,l,i,; : ,<;■.•,- 


(/Vt //-(■'/■ IIK.IllhX 

Vol. Ill 


No. 2 

.Kmer.-'i :il llic l'M<t-omre al I..I.,ui.mi. Pa., :i- si.-riii.l-.:l;i'!^ mi 


("il-'RMAX prince in America! The Gennan En> 
]<er<ir"s ver}' br(.)lher, ami the kite ihustrious Queen 
of F,nL;!and"s veritai)le sjrand-son. and the present 
Kint,^ ami Emperor of Great Britain's leg-itimate 
nephew, and every American (ierman's first or 
thirty-second cousin! Xo wonder the huntini^ and banners tlv in 
the wintry breezes! Xo wonder the German bands plav and the 
S;mocr-r.unds siniLr 'Ti'l tbe ( iernian hospitality and Ilcrzlic'nkcit 
abound on e\ ery hand ! This magazine Joins the procession of 
i;reetini:^s and well-wishes! Only before it can tind a chance to 
speak, the illustrious and lii^allant visitor will have turned his foot- 
steps homeward. What a pity he could not stay and extend his vis- 
»t into Pennsylvania-( lermandom : take with us a trip on one of our 
historical pilgrima!L,^es, visit the old (an-man homesteads, churches, 
g^raveyards and industries which ( ierman immiorants planted in 
i-.astcrn Pennsylvania, long- before the bleeding Fatherland dreamt 
'U arising from its sutteriugs and diMuemberment and consolidate 
into a strong and united nation, that today makes everv other na- 
tion re'^pect its flag! Pit}-, the gallant prince could not sit down at 
"ue of the thovisands of hospitable I'eimsylvania-German firesides, 
eat the well-co<jked \iands from one of its well-laden boards, and 
oliat with its jiappy inmates in the vernacular. J'.ut doubtless his' 
tiear a[>proach made every lierman l)eisom swell w ith happv pride, 
<ind, if the anonymous poet's imagination was not too wild as ex- 
pressed in the folkjwing lines, written in anticipation oi his \-i->it 
and jniblislied in the l'hilade!i)hia Record — then there ha> been 
jubilation enough for visitor and visited. We apiieud the line-^ : 




\'cn Willie's bruder comes — Ach Gott, vat fun! 
Great juhel.and rejoicins vill he done, 
Und ve die IH'ut^ch \ill half all on der run, 
Ven Willie's hinder conu-sl 

No odder volk vill den hai any show. 
Und Dap:ocs. Irish, and Clunese may go 
A\a3' vay back und ^it dusvn far below, 
\"cn Willie's bruder ccnnesl 

"Den all der kleincs Dent>chen hands will play 
'"Die Wacht am Rhein'' und 'Teste P.urg" all day, 
L'nd ve shall haf chust allerdings our vay, 
Ven Willie's bruder comes! 

Ach Ilimmel, all der bier dot shall be drank 
^ ill be genug to till a grown-up tank. 
Und effry sausage mill vill bust its crank. 
\"en Willie's bruder comes! 

Du lieher Gott. chust picture up der crowd. 
A-shoutin", "Hoch der Kaiser!" clear und loud, 
Und Teddy standin' py der schift so proud, 
Ven Willie's bruder come.--! 

Und \en der schift ist named der "Alice R." 
\'ill be great celebrations near und far. 
Und saenger clubs vill all keep open bar, 
Ven Willie's bruder comes! 

Der schlechten dings Chorge Dewey said will not 
Be thought of. but as hasty tommy-rot. 
Und ole Von Diedrichs vill be clean forgot, 
Ven Willie's bruder comes! 

Ah, Gott sei Dank dot festival ist near. 
Gut Heinrich H. will soon be mit us here. 
Und ve vill drink dis country dry of beer, 
Ven Willie's bruder comes! 

We return thanks to the following kind friends who have as- 
sisted in securing views and cuts tised in ])resent issue viz. : J. F. 
Sachsc. ^Irs. II. M. Oakley, Rev. J. \\'. I'.arly, D. X. Schaeffer, 
W. n. Smith, Ui. A. Schlechter, Trot. W. W. Deatrick, H. K. 
Deisiier, Mrs. W". H. Egle and W. S. Ra}-, to all of whom we bo\y 
our profoundest appreciation. ' 


Let this stiffice to give notice to all in arrears for 1902, that 
after April lotJi their subscription, if unpaid, will he $r.25 instead 
of Si. 00, if paid before. 

Famous Pennsylvania-Germans 



|( )\\' that the i>o<Jitlc of I'ennsylvania arc heginning to 
hcttrr uinU'rstaiKl and api^rcciate what they owe to 
its earlv (ierman ininiigrants, aiul their descendants, 
for the material prosperit}' surrounding us on all 
sides, it cannot he out o^ phxcc to pa_\' that, among 
the sons oi our L'ommonweallh, none stand higher, in wtirth and 
deeds, than the Patriarch Jlenry ?^lelchior Mulvlenherg, and the 
families are few indeed which contain a longer list of illustrious 
descendants than can he counted among those who have sprung 
from his loins. 

His third child, and second son, Frederick Augustus Conrad, 
\\as horn at the Trappe. Montgomery county, the parental home, 
on January 2, 1750. in the early morning just after the first day 
of the new year had come to a close, dhe records of tlie old Au- 
gustus church, his father's charge, show that he was haptized on 
jaiuiar)- 13th, when he was given his name in Ikukm- of his father's 
♦"lid friends. Dr. Friedrich Michael Ziegenhagen, Court Preacher 
at London, and Professor Cotthilf Augustus I*"rancke, Director of 
the Halle Institution, and si^i of the elder Augustus tlermami 
IVancke, througii w hose instrumentality Henry Melchior Muhlen- 
herg was sent to America, hoth of whom appear as titulary spon- 
^'•rs while, the hahe's granclfather, Conrad \\ eiser, acted as the 
I'eal sponsor and as i»roxy for the other two. 

The lad gre\v u}i under the care of his parents, hut the father 
lully realizeil how meagre were the opportimities for education in 
tiiis country at the time, even in IMhladelphia, to which place he 
removed, widi lii> famil\', in the fall i>f 17O1, in response to the 
iirgent call of the < lermau Lutheran congregati(>n of that city. 
Accordingl}', it was resolved that Frederick, w ith his two hrothers, 
should he sent to Halle, and there |)repared im' their life wt)rk in 
'he ministr\- which it was never douhied thev would follow to the 

Un April 27. 1763. the tlirec boys— and boys they were indeed. 
Peter, the eldest, bein,:;- but sixteen years of age, while Henry, tb.e 
yoiuigest, was only ten- embarked on the paeket ship. Captain 
rjndden, at Philadelidna, for London, which they safelv reached 
on the 15th of June, and were kindly greeted and cared for by Dr. 
Ziegenhagen. After a short sojourn there they resumed, their jour- 
ney for Halle, via Rotterdam, finally arriving at their destination 
on Septeiuber 1st. 

Too young, and not sufficiently advanced for the University it- 
self, they first entered the preparatory department. However, 
with due diligence and under the fostering care of his god- 
father. Dr. Francke. bVederick, with his brother, Henry, made 
rapid progress, so mucli so that, m three years tune, they had per- 
fected themselves in the (German, I,atin. ( ireek and Hebrew 
tongues, and, at the cud of their course, extending over nearlv 
seven years, they had become finished classical and theological 
scholars, \\ith a fair knowledge of instrumental and vocal music. 
Indeed so th.^roughly had they applied themselves to their studies 
that they neaily lost command of the English tongue, and. so late 
as 1772, we find Frederick expressing his regret to his father, in 
a letter, tliat he could n()t master the English language as fully as ' 
he desired. 

Hie first sorrow which came to the young man occurred on the 
sixth anniversary of his arrival at Halle, and was (Kcasioned bv 
th^ death, on September 2, lyOq, of the Director. Gotthilf August 
Francke. It was then that he. apparently in cunection with his 
brother, Henry, gave expression to his feelings by the composition 
of a poem upon the decease of his friend, sponso'r and benefactor, 
which was so well receved by the faculty .)f the university that it 
was incorporated am.Mig the ■•Traiin- und Trost Schnftcn in the 
Dcnktnal dcr Sdiuidi'^cu Hochaclitung und Licbc to the late G. 
A. Francke. This interesting poem, which is a veritable literarv 
curiosity, has been unearthed and printed by Julius F. Sachse. 
Esq., in most creditable pamphlet form. 

Tn 1770, the two iu-others, accompanied by the Rev. John Chris- 
topher Kun/e, who was so(^n to become their brother-in-law, re- 
turned to tile land d tln-ir birtli, and, on October 25th of tlie .>;'ame 
year, Frederick wa> ordained i<, the ministry at the meeting'- of the 


Miiiistcriuni lieM in Reading:, after passing a highly orcchtahle ex- 
amination conchicted in Latin hy tlie Rev. J. L.' \ uigt. 

'J'he first spiritual work of the young pastor was done as the as- 
sistant of his l»rother-in-law. the Rev. Christopher Emanuel 
Sehulze. who had married his sister, }'"ve I'lli/.aheth, on Septenil)er 
_\^. 1766, and was serving the Tulpehoeken eharge. We, of this 
age of eomfort and eonvenienees. ean hardly realize what the 
godlv men of that da_\- were ealled upon to endure in the perform- 
ance of their ordinarx' duties. Some faint idea of their sacrifices 
inav l)e gained h\' a perusal of the account left hy hVederick of his 
trip from Tulpehocken to Shamokin (Sunhtiry), in the summer 
of 1771, to visit a little ilock of (icrnian Lutherans there located, 
who were without pastor or church. He tells of his lonely ride 
through the wilds of the lUue Mountains, and hex'ond, with his one 
companion, voung Conrad \\ eiser, the son of his L'ncle Frederick: 
how he passed Fort Kenry, already in a dilapidated condition, sur- 
rounded hy its many graves to remind him of the terrihle events 
which occurred fifteen years [)efore : of the heautiful view wliich 
stretchecl hefore him ironx the top of the ridge; of the steep an<l 
<Iangerous paths, in one instance a mere shelf of the mountain hut 
eighteen inches wide : of the fording of rivers and streams, and 
of the ap[)arently interminahle wilderness filled with its insects 
and wolves: of the motley crowd who listened so intently to the 
sermon which he preached them, and how devotitly they sang; of 
the sixty who partook of the communion from the tahle which 
stO(xl on the porch of the cahin and also served as his pulpit; and, 
imally. of the long journey back home again. 

Shortly after his return from Sham()kin he was joined in holy 
N\edlock. on Octolier 15. 1771, to Catharine Schafer. daughter of 
I'Vederick Schafer. a Philadelphia sugar refiner and member of the 
ve>try of Zion's Lutheran cluu'ch, whose acquaintance he made 
\^hile in that city. She was born 1750. and died 1835, thus sur- 
Mving him some thirt}-four years. 

Xot only did yomig Middenberg assist his brother-in-law at the 
1 uliMjhocken charge l)Ut also at SchaefFerstown. near Lebanon, 
and he seems to ha\e preached to Salem congregati<^n, of Lel)anon. 
•'N early as 1771. When the trouble between that congregation and 
'be Rev. John Casi)ar Si >e\er culminated, at the end of 1772. he 
became its pastor and we finil him recorded as such Ma\- 1. 1773. 

54 TJiK 1'H^^^^^YLVA^^lA-v,l■:l:MA^. 

In t!io suninu'r of 1773 tlic conn^Tci^ation of Conocochcai^ue. in 
Maryland, in\itc'l !'"iX'<lcricU', throui^ii tlie LutluTan Ministeriuni. 
to l)ei'onic their pastor. l)ut the request was n()t granted. A cal! 
was accepted hy him, however, from a (ierman congregation in 
New ^'ork City, which had secedetl from the old German 
Trinity church ( S(:iiUh\\est cc^rner of J'.roadway and Rector 
street) and w()rshii)ed at the northwest corner of Frankford and 
William streets. Their church was known as Christ or Swamp 
church, and liad i)een dedicated May i, 1767. Here he served, with 
his usual faitlifulness and activity and had the honor of forming 
the Xew Voric Ministerium just as his fatlier had the immortal 
honor oi forming a regular ministry in Pennsylvania. Mention 
is made, in a letter 1)\- ITederick to his father, of this conference, 
which \vas ap])ointed to meet in April, 1774. Dr. Kuuze, hi> 
hrother-indaw. when writing. December 13, iSoo, to Dr. Knapp. 
of Halle, regarding his removal to Xew York in 1784. says, "1 re- 
mained in coimcction with the Ministerium c>f Penns\lvania- 
though I reorganized the Ministerium (of Xew York) founded 
by ¥. A. Mulilenberg alread\' in 1773." * * * frcmi which it 
is supposed that hrederick .Muhlenberg removed to Xew York 
early in 1773, and that the Conference of 1774 was a second meet- 
ing of the Xew York }\linisterium. The Rev. Dr. Theodore \\. 
Schmauk, of Lel)anon, however, has pauluced records of Saleut 
church showing that lie must have served as its pastor during the 
greater part of 17; 3, and could not have left until the latter part 
of the year, or the beginning of the next. lie undoubtedly be- 
came pastor at Xew York ahout the beginning of 1774. organized 
its Ministerium in A[)ril. as he himself states, and Dr. Kunze is in 

Hardly had he begun to realize the possibilities of success 
which lay before him in his chosen tield of work when the storn^ 
of war broke over him. At once he heartily and prominentl}- es- 
poused the cause <if his c<Hmtr_\-, while it so happened that his co- 
iaborer. Rev. liernard Michael HausihI. jiastor oi Trinitv church. 
became a pronounced Tory. The evil da\ of the latter came after 
the city was evacuated 1)y the P.ritish, l)ut. in the meantime it be- 
came nec<\ssary for Vr. .\[uhlenl)erg to seek a place of safetv fi>r 
himself and his famii}- wlicn it became aj^parent tliat the cnem\" 
c 'Utemplated .>ebnng the place. Accor^lingl)-, in May, 177O, he 

JlOy. F};EDEl:irK A. C. MIJILKMn.RG. 55 

sent his wile to her parents, where tlieir third ohiM was horn, 
where, after hidcHnt^'' liis tlock a rehictant farewell, he followed, 
on July Jiid. two days hefore the Declaration of Independence, 
earryini;' with him the ])rayer of his cons^regation that he would re- 
turn to them when the storm had blown over. 

I'Vom rhiladclj)hia he removed to the home of his aged parents 
at the Trappe. where he arrived Angust i(j, and where, on Au- 
gust 23, he preached a ])arting sermon to Capt. Richards" com- 
pany, recruited in Xew Ijanover, on the text, "Be not ye afraid 
of them; remember the L(^rd, which is great and terril^le, and 
fight for your brethren. }our sons, and your daughters, your 
wives, and }-our houses." ( Xehemiah iv:i4). During 1777 he 
again removed, to the neighboring Xew Hanover (also called 
Falkner's Swani]) ) where he took charge of the Lutheran church 
ar.Jl also served the congregations of ( )Ie}-, Xew Goshenhoppen, as 
well as that at Reading, until the latter church was occiipied for 
hospital purposes. 

It was a dark time for the infant Republic, and one full of anx- 
iety to the subject of this sketch. With the defeat at I'>rand\\vine 
came the hostile occupation of Philadelphia, the wanton destruc- 
tion of his father-in-law's property l)y the r.ritish, and the flight of 
Mr. Schafer. with his family, to the country. PVederick's small 
house was overrun with fugitives, containing at one time eleven 
persons, including himself and wife, three children, maid and 
nurse, his brother's wife and child, with his sister, Mrs. Swaine, 
and her husband. 

The unsettled c(jndition of the country, filled with military 
camps, made ministerial work of but little avail, and before b^'ed- 
crick Muhlenberg entered his thirtieth year, he sat himself down 
to seriouslv consider whether his life vocation should not be given 
a diti'frent turn, to prevent failure. Most likely the close pntx- 
imity of his successful military brother. General Peter Muhlen- 
iKTg, whose camp at \'alley Forge he frequently visited, had 
much to do in shaping his decision. Pbj was anxious to serve his 
countr}- more activel\". Then, t(V). his father-in-law. and other 
friends, gave him encouragement to seek public ottice. The de- 
cision was reached gradually, and the change did n(U come at once, 
hut. d':>pite his fatlierV- counsel and wi-hes, he tinally made up his 
mind to abandon the ministr\- and to accept the candidac\' ottered 


THE PK\ysYI.]-AMj-c;j:i:Mjy_ 

fiini as niernlxT t(. Lon-iess. The Asseinhly of IVniisvIvania had 
tlirce vacancies U) fill and elected, on March 2, 1779, Frederick 
An^nstus Muhlenberg. Henry WynkcK.]) and J. McCleane. The 
term of the whole delegation expiring in the "same vear, in Xo- 
vember he was again elected for the full term, and took his seat 
on the thirteenth ot the same month. 

^ From that time his successful and honorable career u[)\vard con- 
tinued without intermission. As he had served his ("rod faithfully 
in the past so he now served his country. 

(-)n March 31, 1779. it was resolved by Congress to print its 
journal more fre.iuently. and to improve the records generally. 
iMuhlenberg was added to the committee appointed to superintend 
the publication of the journal, which was probably his first public 
duty. Immediately upon resun.iing his seat, on November 13th, 
lie was put on the Committee on the Treasury, showing tlie ap- 
preciation in which he must have been held by'his colleagues. His 
appointment as chairman of the medical committee virtually made 
hull Direclor-Ceneral of the military hospitals. It is to be re- 
gretted that space forbids the giving of even parts of his letters to 
his brother, Henry, which are filled with an in.teresting discussion 
of the events of the time and the doings of Congress." 

A\hile still a member of the National House of Representatives 
he was elected. October 10, 1780. a member of the Cieneral As- 
sembly of Pennsylvania, and. at the opening session of the same, 
November 3. 1780, chosen as its Speaker.^ To this responsible 
position he was called by the two succeeding Assem!)lies. on No- 
vember 9. ;78i and October 31. 1782. I'.eforJ his last term' had ex- 
pired he was elected into the Hoard of Censors, which was a sort 
of grand jury to sit in judgment over all the matters pertaining to 
the government of the Commonwealth. Their sessions lasted from 
November 10. 1783 to September 25. 1784. As a proof of the es- 
teem m which Muhlenberg was held we t^nd that he was at once 
called upon to act as the presiding officer of the I'.oartl. Their work 
was to determine the expediency of calling a convention to 
change the Constitution of Pennsylvania, on equal representation, 
etc. The result of their l.Mig and wearisome sittings was merely 
a disagreement, fnllowed bv no action at all. much to the disgust 
and discouragement of tlieir chairman. 

r>y this time a lonomnr .^-ems to have come over Muhlenber'r to 


return to the (juict of his lioyhood homo and to get away from the 
turmoil oi puhlie service. He declined a re-election to the As- 
seml)]\', he even declined, in 17S3. a call sent lum to return to the 
acti\e ministry and serve the Lutheran congregation at Ehcnezer. 
near Savannah. Clcorgia, whose pulj)it had heen vacated hy the 
<leath of Ivev. Christian Rahenliorst. lie wanted to settle down, 
surrounded In" those he loved, at the IVapjic. where his leisure 
moments could l>e spent in caring for the farm, his garden and his 
store, in which business interest he embarked in i7<Si. ()\\ March 
19, 1784, he was commissioned a Justice of the l^'eace for the dis- 
trict, serving until January 14, 1789. I'pon the formation of 
.Montgomery comity, in the fall of 1784, the Assembly api)ointed 
him Register of Wills and Recorder oi Deeds, September 21, 1784. 
He presided at the first cr)urt held in the county, on Septeml)er 

2>^, 1784. 

Thus passed several }ears, for him ([uiet and uneventful. In 
the meantime, however, great changes were taking place in the 
])olitical affairs of the nation. It had become necessary to replace 
the Articles of Confederation, no longer sufficient, by the Consti- 
tution, and this paper Congress was now presenting to the several 
States for ratification, \\dien I""rederick A.ugustus Muhlenberg 
was elected a <lelegate to the Convention which Pemisylvania 
called for this purpose, he knew he could not decline. The Con- 
\ention met at Philadelphia. September 21, 1787. and its first busi- 
ness was the election of a presiding officer. C)f sixty votes cast 
^iuhlenberg recei\ed thirty. Judge McKean twenty-nine, and Mr. 
IJray one. The question w hether one-half of the votes constituted 
a majority was waived by the adoption of a resolution io conduct 
Muhlenberg ti) the chair. Both he and his brother. Peter, then 
\ ice President of Pennsylvania, exerted themselves earnestly in 
behalf of ratification. The Constitution having been accepted 
Pennsylvania became entitled to eight representatives. Among 
■those elected by a goodly majority were the two breathers, Fred- 
crick on the so-called Anti-Federal ticket, and IV'ter on the b>deral 

riiere being no quorum present on March 4. 1789. the day set 
t'T the meeting of Congress in New York, it was not until April 
1 >t that an organi;'ation was effected, when, such was the prestige 
••'I Muhlenberg's name, he was cho.-^eu as its presiding officer, and 

5S TiiK Pi':y\syj.]\i\jA-(!i:];.yA.\. 

Frederick Aut;ustu.s Muhlenberi; became Speaker of the first 
House of l^epresenlatives of the lulled States. The fugitive had 
come back to his people of Xew York, not as tlieir l)eloved pastor, 
but as the patriot justly honored by his nation. 

He was also a member of tlie House of the Second, Third and' 
Fourth C'oni.,^resses. beini; again elected Speaker in the Third Con- 
gress, this time on the Anti-l'ederal or Democratic ticket (then 
called I\e[)ul)licans ). In this term }iluhlenberg strenuously op- 
posed the excise tax c»f two cents per pound on sugar refined in 
tile United States, but in ^ain. 

In the Fourth Congress Jay's treaty occupied a prominent place. 
The Senate ratified it on June 24, 1795, and it received the Presi- 
dent's approval. The resolutic)n in the House, granting an ap- 
projjriation for carrying out the provisions of the treaty, called 
forth an animated discussi(,)n and brought to the surface much op- 
position. The House, feeling that their rights, as the direct rep- 
resentatives of the people had been ignored, requested the Presi- 
dent to furnish them with all correspondence bearing on tlie 
treaty, which he declined to tlo claiming that the House had noth- 
ing to do with the conclusi<3n of treaties. Tlus news was handed" 
over to the Committee of the Whole, of which Muhlenberg was- 
chairman. After a long and stormy debate the vote was taken 
April 29, 1796, on the resolution granting an appropriation. There 
being forty-nine votes for and as many against it, upon Muhlen- 
berg devolved the deciding vote. Though not entirely satisfied 
with the paper he voted in favor of it. thus preventing what might 
have proven to l)e serious complications. The question then com- 
ing before the Ihjuse itself was adopted by a vote of fifty-one 
against f(Mt}-eight. 

With the adjo'jrnment of the b'ourth Congress ended his active 
political life. In the autumn of the year 1791) he was appoiiUed 
by Crovernor Mifflin, and continued by the recently elected gov- 
ernor, Thoiuas Mckean, to the place of Collector-! ieneral of the 
Pennsylvania Land < )fl'ice. made vacant by the removal of the in- 
cumbent for malfeasance. He removed to Lancaster, which, in 
1791), luul become the >eat of the State govermuent. Here he 
doubtless l(H)ked forward, with great hap[)ine>s. ti^ the ci>m[KuiiiMi- 
ship of his ])eli>ved brother, llenr\'. but. while \ et in the [jrime of 
his life, death endedi his earthh career of great usefulness on fune 



5. t8oi. His remains lie Iniried in llio graveyard of Trinity Lu- 
tlicran clunch of Lancasler, I'a. 

(The Muhlenberg- burial plot is in Woodward Hill Cemetery, 
once the properly of Trinity Lutheran church. Here in full view 
of the windiii,<;- Conestoga. close by tlie resting- place of 1 'resident 
James I'.uchanan. in the shadow of the quaint steep-roofed chapel, 
rest the Muhlenberg brothers. Frederick Augustus and Henry 
I'>nest, with whose dust has mingled that of other celebrated 
scions of this stock of later generations. The Rev. John \\ . Rich- 
ards, of Lancaster. Pa., has kindly furnished us the following- 
transcript of the epitaph, engraven on a large Hat stone that covers- 
the grave of the subject of this sketch. — Editor.) : 


Frederick .\ugl-stus MciiLE.NBERr. 
who was born on the 

1st OF J.\NU.\RV, 


and departed this life on the 

5th D.W OF JL'NE, 


Aged 51 Ve.^r?, 5 Months 

.\N1) 5 D.^YS. 

Ruht Sonft, Schlaft woh! in eurer Grufft, 
Bis euch einst Jesus wieder rutt. 

The activity and worth of Frederick Muhlenberg was not only 
dispkued in the halls of legislature, but in other walks of life. 

■He served the I'uiversity of rennsxlvania as trtistee froni 1779- 
till 1786. The Rev. John Christian Hardwich (Hartwig) ap- 
pointed him, 1)}- his will, trustee and president of a societ\- for the 
propagation of the Cosriel, to be founded according to the provis- 
ions of the will, a charge which his death prevented him from car- 
rying out. The ILirtwick Seminary of Xew York, theological 
and classical, the result of thoe pro\-isi(>ns, exists to this day. The 
< lernian Societv of I'ennsyhania, of which he became a member in 
1778, elected him their ['resident in 1789, and ag-ain in the years- 

60' rUE PES S SY I.\\[S J AG El! M A S . I 

following- till 1797. when his removal from the city obliged him to ' 

decline a renomination. I 

No greater encomium on the work of Frederick Augustus ' 

]\luhlenl)erg, and his brother. I'cter, can he pronounced, especially 
in exemplitication of the ]jo\ver which tliey wielded, than hy (juot- 
ing- the \vords of John Adams who queridinisly says: "These two 
Hermans. A\ho had been long- in public affairs and in high offices, 
were the great leaders and oracles ^^i the whole German interest ■ 

in Pennsylvania and the neighboring States * * * The Muh- ' 

leubcrg-s turned the w hole body of the ( lermans. great mnnbers of 
the Irish, and manv of the l^nglish, and in this manner introduced 
the t(^tal change that followed in l)oth Houses of the Legislature. ' 

and in all the executive departments of the national government. 
Upon such slender threads tlid our elections then depend.'' 

The children of Frederick Aug^ustus Conrad Muhlenberg-, and 
his wife Catharine Schafer. were: -^ 


1. Henry William Muhlenberg, b. 1772: d. 1805; m. July 30, ; 
1795. ]\rary Catharine Sheaff. \ 

Their oldest child was the Rev. William Aug-ustus !\[uhlenberg, \ 

D.D. i 

2. Mary Catharine Muhlenberg, b. IMay 29. 1774: d. Xov. 2^. \ 
1846; m. John Hiester (his second wife), the only son of Gov- 
ernor Joseph Hiester. b. July 2S, ^77-\'- ^- ^larch 7. 1849. \ 

3. F^lizabeth Muhlenberg, m. April 24, 1794, John Mifflin Ir- 
win, son of ^Matthias Irwin and Esther Mitffin. ' 

4. Margaret ^Muhlenberg, b. 1778; d. 1874; m. Xov. ly, 1794. 
Jacob Sperry, b. 1773, d. 1830. 

5. Anne Catharine Muhlenberg, b. 1781: d. 1865: m. George 
Sheaff', b. 1779: d. 1851. 

6. I'^rederick Muhlenberg, single. 

7. John Peter David Mulilenberg. b. 1785; d. 1849: m. Rachel 
Evans, b. 1790; d. 1848. 

I am indebted tei (Jswald Seidensticker for extracts u>ed in this 


BV REV. A. C. WUfllTKR. 

\\ OS war's docli ols cii luscht s^'west 

W'on's g'hehsa hut die Fahsnacht kuinmt; 
M'r hut sich g'freht schun woclia long, 

G'piffa, g'■^un,i^a un g'junipt. 
Die Mouiniy hut cm lengscht g'drillt; 

■■Now, buhwa, schoftt 'n oyer bei, 
Wen's Fahsnacht Kucha ge\ va ?oll. 

Doll niissa lots tun oyer nci." 

Xoh is ni'r noch dcr scheier ob, 

Uft's schtroh un hoi, uff's welschkornlawb, 
Un g'sucht ebs aryets oyer hct — 

^^r war gons tzu mit gtrchs un schtawb. 
Un wom'r noh ehns g'funna hut, 

Wos hut ni'r g'scherrt ler noch'm hous. 
'■Doh, Mommy, is ehns, nemmt's noch meh?" 

'■Yah. buhwa, schimscht gebt's sure nix drotis. 

Sel war g'nunk, der schtaat war oil, 

^^r hut sich recht g'druwelt noh; 
Hut's hissel draus g'goxt am schtoll 

Wos is m'r ob un war so froh. 
Was hut m'r net die hahna g'schprengt. 

Die hinkel wiescht ferschulta ols. 
Un g'fiedert bis sie krep hen g'hot, 

Gons nehwa drous. so schep om hols. 

Het's hinkelfieh so'n eifer g'hot 

Wie unserehns ols g'hotta hut, 
S'het oyer g'hot im ivverfluss 

Os wie l)ei'm Pharoh lous un grut. 
So geht's em e\ va heit ols noch. 

Won ebbes recht om hertz em leit, 
Doch is's wie's olt schprichwort sawgt: 

■'En gutie soch nemmt immer tzeit." 

Won ols der dawg boll kumma is, 
Xoh hut em yehders noch g'tzerrt; 

"Ich wunner wer die Faii^nacht gebt. 

Wen's dreft't der wert in's seu'oss g'schperrt." 


THK ri-:xysyLJA.\iA-Gi:j:MA.\ , 

Oil'r hut sich ovvcr ols <^'uclirt. 

Un's war cm doch st. liolwcr hoiig-, 

M'r wacr fcrlciclil <Kt Ict.-cht ini l>ctt 

Noh nii^st ni"r'i hdira woclia long. 

W OS Init in'r g'^clierrt i\r inoryets rous. 
So doss m'r not die Falisnacht wacr; 
Der ^loniiny war mohl's ruhfa g'schpaart, 

So frieh war's bett scluin l(Mig net lelir. 
Xoh hut m'r iwcr die g'locht 

Wuh nix g'duh lien wie g't^icrrt, 
"Doh kumnit die Fahsnacht liinna noh, 

Now wert sie daicii in's seifoss g'schperrt. 

V\"on's breklescht mohl i'erivver war 

Ln oil die aruet ous'ni waig. 
Noll hut die Mummy s'liocklmard gricht 

Un holt'n grohser womba daig 
Un Icgt'ii druft" un drickt'n rum 

Un rollt'n in so >eliei\a (jus. 
Noh hut sie's redd'! hortich grielit 

Un schneit die sclienscliia kuclia rous. 

Bis olles noh recht gonga war 

Dert hinner'm utYa utT der kischt. 
War's fcti om koclia in der pon. — 

M'r hut sich's nuuil sehun obg'wi>cht. 
Dert hut sie noh die kucha nei. 

Die sin dert g'schwunima wie die gens, 
Wos hen sie schehna bocka gnclit. 

Gons dunkelbrau mit gchla krens! 

Sie wara seheh, sie wara gute, 

Wos hut's em obbedit gemoelu 
Sie yuseht tzu sehna utT'm di--cli 

Der bunch der hut em recht g'locht. 
Of course, die Mummy hut's g'wi-st 

Wie hungrich os so bulnva sin, 
Wos init sie grulisa- schissja g'liot. 

Un kucha os wie Imischteck driu. 

Geh week niit denna "fancy cakes" 

Mit biss'l roluler tzucker drutf. 
Mit "ruflle-tarts" un ■■bumhlejacks" — — 

So schtutVt set oil der schuiischteh nutT. 
Des schi 'ckerwehsa is nix waert. 

Doh i> nix drin I'un krait un sait. 
Des but m.ilil nix nn helit net meli. 

Os won der beniiv sditeht un IdutTt. 

Gilbert, Fa. 

TOE'lIC GE.yS. 63 

Wos huhwa war in sel'ra tzeit 

Is Iciujsclit scliun <>v\a nous fun lielini. 
Sio hen sicli sclichna \vt.-i\ er grickt. 

Wos iicnmit's so grohsa picture frame! 
Doch won's aniolil ou's bocka gelit. 

Do tzicg ich doch die Mommy rous, 
Sie hut's net goiis so fancy g'hot, 

S'war ovser'n gulie koch ini hous. 

Die frail is glei ol- uvva(h-Mus 

Won icli fnni kocha cbbes sawg. — 
'"S'waer'n dummie notion, scl waer oil, s 

Die kocherei waer heittzudawg 
Yuscht grawd so gute uie sellaniohls, 

Dcr druv\el waer yuscht mit 'm mc)ul, 
Der gumma waer em biss'l hart — 

r.ti hutcliel uaer ken olter goul." 

S'maug ?ei wie's will, sis net wie's war, 

Ihr olta kerls ihr wesst"s tzu gute; 
So dings fergcsst sich net so leicht, 

So ebbes drawgt m'r net ini hute. 
Ach! wom'r olsamohl drah denkl. 

Wie's war in seina yunga yohr. 
M'r gaebt der beschta goul ini schtoll 

For'n woch wie sellaniohls, net wohr? 



F.s shteht en Stiidtle ul em Berg 

Mit Haiiser weis wie Sclince; 
Un wann 's ah dick bevolkert is, 

Ke Mensche kann mer seh. 

Die Ilaiiser henn all griine Hot 

Mit Sch('ine Bknne drei; 
Ich wcs net wer sie temie dut, 

Ke Mensche sinn dabei. 

Die Haiiser henn ah Xahme druf 

Fun lauter dodte I.eut 
Dal ware reich un gros geehrt 

Jetz' werre sie net beneidt. 

'S Gras wachst iwer die Dacher nans, 

Doch n aht cs Xiemand ab; 
Un mancher Xahme i^ bedcckt 

Fim grunem .Moos un Lai). 


TiiK Fh., ysYLiAX J agi:j;m JS . 

Die P'eggcl singe iif de Bauni, 
Die Feldniaus baut im Gras, 

Un ebinols slipringt ah hie un doh 
A glener groher Haas. 

Es ruht sich gut in seller Slitadt, 
Der shlot is dief un lang; 

Ei weckt nix as die letsln Posaun 
Un siisser Engelg'sang. 


(Tran^lated by H. A. S.) 



Es dliut ccni gans vun Herze leed, 
Wann m'r an's Alte denkt; 

Nau geht fascht alles iwerzwerg. 

In Land un Stadt. in Ilaus un 
Kerch — 
M"r hchk sich reclU gekrenkt. 

Dcnk jusclu enidl an's Kerclie- 
Wie war's in alter Zeit^ 
Darch Hitz un Kelt'. darch 

Schtaab un Schnee. 
Is AUes gauge, Gross un Klee', 
Bei reich un arme I.eit. 

M'r is net jehtig nei' gerennt. 

Gekleppert niit de Scluih: 
Schee' is m'r gauge, sacht un bleed 
Im Schtuhl sich leis in Hut gebet — 

Sell wert nau net gedhul 

Ill's Lied hot Alles ei'geschtimmt — 
Sell Singe war en Freed! 

Nau dhut fascht Xiemand's ^faul 
meh uf — 

Zum Singe gehn die Bordkerch niu' 
Paar Buwe un paar Mad I 

Mit Demuth hut m'r zugehorcht 

Was ah der Parre sagt; 
Nau sitzt m'r schtolz. wie Dsluiry- 

Gukt wie der Mann doch schwetze 
L^n wie er sich betmortl 

Die altc Wohrliet hot m'r 
Un selwer angewennt: 


Deep sorrow fills my heart, when I 

Recall the times oi old; 
Now everything is up-ide down 
At home, in church, country and 
town : 

'Tis mournful to behold. 

Just think for once how they would 
To church in days of yore: 
Through heat and cold, through 

dust and snow 
They all would go, both high and 
Young, aged, rich and poor. 

Not then witli clattering haste and 
They into church would run. 
With niodest mien they entered 

Then bowed awhile in silent prayer. 
Say, where is that now done; 

In singing all would take their part 
And sing with spirit, t'lo. 

Now you don't sing; for don't you 

The choir there on the gallery 
\\'ill do all that for you? 

They listened to the preaciier's 
With true humility. 
Now lik'e a juryman you sit 
To judge the speaker's skill and 
Admire his fluency. 

Tluy loved to hear and practiced, 
Old-favhioiied Bible truth. 



Xau dt-nkt m'r. aU ni'r schlatrig 

sit/t : 
W'if di'cii 'kr Mann die Siiider 

schwitzt I 
Kr gebt's 'n juschtomcnt ! 

Vn wann m'r in der Sity wulint. 

Schlit'sst m'r sich an kee' (~)rt; 
\\"o iusclit 'n ijros^er Schwetzer 

Do werd gf\vi~5 die Kerch gefillt, 

Un unser eens is diirti 

Was Hutlercil \va^ Ilutlercil 
Die Leit ht-n leichte Kepp; 
'S is alles leer — kee' Soft, kee' Salz, 

Xou, a> yuu doling sit, yui iliink: 
■"This fellow makes the sinners 
shrink ; 
He shows ihem up in S'lC'thl" 

And if the city be your limine. 

\ou'll join the cliurcli UMwhere. 
But where sonic mighty speaker 

The church is crowded: you of 
Are regularly there. 

W'liat huddling, hashing, iumbling 
.Vll things seem out of place 

'N Brote ohnc G'schmack un An empty show, a worthle-.^ d.ross, 
Schmalz A roast with neither salt nor sauce, 

'N schlappiges Geschlepp! A gait that's a disgrace! 



'Sis nimmi wie'^ for Alters war — 

Ich mehn in Kerchesache: 
Die Welt un Kerch sin bal so 

As wie mer sie kann mache. 
Mer sicht so bal ken unnerschid. 

Die Kerch- un Weltgesinnte. 
Sie sin enanner bal so gleich. 

So gleich as wie zwee Blinde. 

Dcr allgemehne Kerchesin. 

Gar arrig is \erflarwe. 
Es guckt zu Zeite traurig aus 

.\ls -A;ir er hall) erstarwe. 
Net dass e^ un^ am Kifer fehlt. 

Sell is net was ich mehne: 
Der unbetlcckte Goitesdienst, 

Des F'"dle. W'ahre. Scheene — 
Der Kern des echte Chrii^tenthums. 

Dart i^t's wu niir's verfehle. 
Shand bringet- uf die Kerchesach. 

Mer dari es net \erhehle. 

In's Kerchelewe <chleicht sich ein 

Kn Gcist der \iel \erder\vet. 
En is en faUcher. frommer ^chein. 

Den Manciier sich anweruet. 
Die Religidu sic wert gebraucht 

.Ms wie en Cloak, en Mantel, 
^ler deckt damit sei unrecht zu, 

7.\\ treiue l)ii<er Hande' 

Mer baut oft Kerche, ohiK Geld. 

T,ehnt noch dazu. macht Schulde. 
Xoh l;iafe dann die \\'eib>Ieut 
rum — 

Mer sott es net gedulde — 
In Stohr un Office gehn sie nei. 

Die ^\la^n^leut recht zu quale. 
L n schwatze glatt un zuckerstiss — 

Es Geld kann do net fehle. 

Ln Dehl. die treiwe Kremerei, 

Eun Hau^ zu flaus rumiaafe 
IMit Xrdidie, Striimp un anner 

Die Leute solles kaafe. 
En Dehl die griege Ticket- raus, 

De .M;inner anzuhenke 
I n iroge ah far anner Sach. 

Dcs soHt mer ihne schenke. 

Dann kumme Eairs niit Candy- 

Die ^liul duhn sich ufdres^e 
Sell ziegt das jungc \'olk dann an. 

Do gebts was Guts zu e-se — 
.\ls PTocklcbeerc. Strawberry Cake, 

Oysier-fritters un noch meh. 
.Ml bissel karresirt dabei: 

Wie wacht's die Kerchei^ach so 





Mer hr>rt b.o fiel die Mensclie glaga dcr Zcit," i 

Un otters gar zu noniier sawga. Die werii gala>a Ijei da Leit ' 

Foil dein Wecksel in da Zeita. In da guta a'ta Zeita. | 

Sheer alles Xeiies sute sie net. No gate mer in die "Spicken ; 

Die alta W'ayga ^vor'n "Korrect," Sluile," t 

In da guta aita Zeita. Deiitch oder .\nglish war die Rule \ 

W ie mer best sicli konn bareita. \ 

Loss uus now die Musick stinima, \ 

Un in Deiitch ties Liedle singa, Der llauer hot sicli hort gablog'd \ 

Fon da guta alta Zeita. Ln oil die krutza Feii aw \ 

Un ich will ciich bringa Beweiss g'schmok'd. \ 

Das die alta Leit, — schwartz un Dort hinnich 'm Oti'a uf der | 

weiss. Ki?lit. I 

Oft galabt hen wie die Heida. Speck. Zwivvel supp. un Sour- ) 

krout, I 

Loss uns gah lufizich Yore zurick. Krunihiera kocht incr mit der | 

In's block Shule-hous on der liout. j 

Creek, ^^^ ^''•'-^^ gewanelich uf der Lisht. ; 

In da guta alta Zeita. j 

Do sin Kumer. gross wie Rinner. Die Sens gadangled bie der Lutzer, i 

Mit dem A. B, C Buch Prmier. Kinner uigazoga om Schlutzer. I 

Des gcbt shure niol grossa Leita. I^os war der guta alta Wake. \ 

Die Fruchie all fon Hond ge^ait. \ 

Ich niehn ich sehn der Shulemcster I'ndie .\ern mit Sichel abgamaht, \ 

In seiner W'eis'^hcit (?), graad wie ^''-' »''Mt "ifr ncjch. "' 'S is up-to- \ 

gester. ' Date."' ■ i 

Dort uf 'm hocha bittle Stuhl. j 

Er dresht die Buwa uf der Bonk -Mer is aw gonga Schlitta faara. f 

Vust 'a mol's dags — d'rum Gott sei Die .Maed un Buwa ab zu paara; ' 

dank. ' Do hot mer grossa sceifa Geil. I 

Des war sei "unfalbara" Rule. Om Hals hen sie die grosse Bella; \ 

Furemon dut die Gash.el knella. 1 

Wos macht er gr<:)ssa goo-goo In fufza Stunn geths fertza Mile. \ 

Awga ^ j 

Mer muss still sei. darf aw nix Die \ unga sin borrfiisich g'lotTa. i 

sawga. Der Epple Jack hen die Alte \ 

Mer is yo in dcr hocha Shule. g'soffa, ' 

Der P>alter un des Testament. In da guta alta Zeita. j 

Das wor der .\ufong un des End, For Duwack hen sie Stengle \ 

Wer die net larnt der bleibt en g'snu)ked. i 

Fool. W'on's g'stunka hot — ka Mench hot ; 

g'froked, \ 

Mer larnt aw noch "n bissel Sie still, niei Manga kan's net [ 

Schrciva. leidal I 

Rechelt bis zuni long-di\ ida, 

No is mer gons gagraduate. D-n-h. die guta alta Zeita 

Die Maed die gane ons Flox Hen fer dehl Leit guta Seita; 

brecha. 'S mog sie >ah!ia grad wer will! 

Die Buwa gane ons Flegle dre-^lia. leh hab yaguckt bei Xacht un 
Was wi>ra des duel "College" Daau. 

zeita. Rum garubbered, so wahr ich saag, 

L'h >ehn sie net darcli meina. 
Der "Jugend I>eund" un "Geist Brill. 

Historical Pilgrimages into 

... Pennsylvania-Germandom 


By an AnoiiytiiDus Cliai>eron. 

\\'c shall take a ride over the I'aston Road in Berks county, startin;? 
it Penn Square, in the City of Reading;, and ending at the \illage of 


Rothrocksville, which is near the county line Itetween Berks and I,ehigh. 
liefore we start, however, it will be interesting to take a glance at Penn 
Square, and notice a i\\v o; :lie old ;.lace- lure. There are very few cities, 
v.hich can hoast o! a >.|iiare in the centre of th.e town, that is a- large 
and licautiful as Penn Siiuare. Alter Dr. E. E. Higbee, a former Super- 


C'>; THE rKNSSYIJ\\MA-aKl!MA.\. 

nitcndeiit oi PuMic Insiructir.n of our C"iinii(in\veallli, liatl rciunicd from 
liis ]-:uropcan trip ■^,,mv years aj^u, he walked up the S<iuare, when sud- 
denly he exclaimed that "they hoast df the heautiful streets of Florence. 
yet none of them i^ as heautiful as this Souare." 

in the centre of the Square. stOM,} the Court House for many years, and 
market houses to the ea^t and west of it. The Court Ftouse stood there 
from 1762 to 1S41. and the market houses from 17O') to 1871. The remov- 
al of these buildings left a lar-e. wide opening between the building lines 
and makes the .Sciuare magmticent in its dimensidus and appearance. 

Not all the land-marks of colonial days. howe\'er, ha\e gnen wav to 

I ?mH, sr, )^%^x. 


■ if; WJit- 


:-;<,:ftn *« •^.-i.'v*'^ x^~'''**'v- *''^ 

'■■An- '' •<!§! 




m t -'■::;■■■■ :i::i^-^ ^ ■ ; , 


the ravages of time. Or. the north side o\ the scfuare. a short distance to 
the west of Fifth street stands a building erected in 1763. which was the 
principal hotel in Reading from the time of its erection until 1814. since 
when, it has been occu[.ied by the Farmers" Bank. It is here-that General 
Washington was entertained, when he was President of the United States, 
as he passed through Reading on his way towards Pittsburg to quell the 
whiskey msurrecti. ,n.* It is said that he was greatly amusetl. a.^ he was 
standing in front of the hotel, watching a ho.t of swallows soaring aroun.I 

•Kederiil inn, now Fa!uu,-i>- lUuik, is tlit swdial ^Mll!. ling 011 thr riirlit in upper vieu of IVnn 

,i^ .^^c 

M'l 4 

-f 1 '- 

'\ ":\ 

- I * 




and ahdvo tlic old cliiniiu;y oi' the Court House, and one by one entering- it 
as tlic sun was sinkiuL,- in tlie west -^a siyht similar to that which wo often 
saw when we were Ix'ys living on the tarni. A short distance on the ea^t. 
ol Fifth street, where the tloiirishing hardware store oi Stiehter t^ Son is 
tiow standing, was h.)eated tlie tra<hng house of Conrad Weiser, where the 
Indians loved to come to barter with their friend. In the middle of the 
Square, in front of the steire hi:)u<e, was a pumj), which manv citizens 
still iiviny do remendjer. While the puiu]) for more than a century serv- 
ed the citizens of Iveading uith its inu'e and refreshing water yet it. too. 
had to give way to tlie onwaid march of time. Conrad Weiser was in- 
strumental in having- the well dug when Reading was only a village. 
which again demnnstrates his far-sightedness in having seen the future 
needs of the people. 

As we pass up I'enn street, we must take a hmk out Si.xth street, to 
see the old Trinity Lutheran cliurch and the First Reformed church. 
wiiich stand on chui-ch lots, situate on Washington street, (hmated by 
the Peiins for chuich purpose-. For a long time the steeple of Trinity 
Lutheran church, which was erected in iS,?,",, and is a little over 200 feet 
in height, was the highest in the State. .Vlthough it has been outdone l)y 
grander and higher steeples, yet it still has hosts of admirers. Near the 
base of the steeple, lies buried Dr. Bodo r)tto. who was the head surgeon 
of the Continental Army, during its encampment at \'alley Forge. The 
exact spot of his gra\e is not now marked, because the tombstones were 
recently removed to make impro\ einents to the church edifice. The 
small ■shaft that had stood at his gra\c was removed to the rear of the 
graveyard. It has the following inscriiition: "Ur Bodo Otto. Delegate 
to the Provincial Congress, June iS. 1776. Senior Surgeon with his two 
sons during the Revolutioi-i. Had charge of Valley Forge Encampment. 
Died, 1787, aged 79 years." A short distance to the north of the grave- 
yard, where the Academy of Music now stands, was "Potters Field, ' 
where many Hessian soldiers, who had been captured at Trenton, N. J., 
and who died in captivity at Reading, were buried. As the city spread 
out, and "Potters Field" was annihilated by improvements, the bones of 
the poor Hessians were scattered as dust by the winds from tlie four 

Wc, ho\\-e\-er, must not tarry too lon,g' at these places of historical in- 
terest, but must hurry on to get beyond the city limits. Fighth street. 
before it was built \\\\ was the western end of the ICaston R(jad. which 
is now better knou n by the peojile of Reading, as the "Kutzt(;wn Road." 
[n 175,^. a petitii.Mi headed by Conrad Weiser. and signed b>- twenty-nine 
other inhabitants of Berks and Northampton counties, was presented to 
the Governor and Cenuicil of Pennsylvania, alleging that there is great 
occasion for a road from I'.aston and Reading, and praying for an order 
as in their "wisdom shall seem meet," whereupon Francis Parvin, Jacob 
Lesan, r>eniamin Lightfoot. James I'MKine. Zimmerman and 
Joseph Peiir(.-f. mi the ]iai-t of r't'rk^. and William Parsons, Peter Trex- 
ler, John Tre.xler. TiiiMthy 1 iorsetield. J<din bA erat and LudoNsig Klutz. 

ori'.ii jni: <>li> eastos uoad. ti 

on the part of Xortlianipton, were appoiiUcil viewrrs to lay out said 
rua<l. At tlii- time Lclii.^li ua- >till a part ul" Xortliauipt.jn county. 

Passiiis out F.i.^lith street, and lielore we reach tlie city limit-:, uc can 
sec Al?ace church standing pn.udly on the first elevation. This is pos- 
sii.Iy the oldest consecutive c<mKregation in P.erks county. It is a Union, 
cliurch. and the exact time ot its nrj^ani/.ation is unknown, hut it is -^up- 
I„,sed to have been prior to 1740.'= The present edifice is the third church 
building. ha\ing been erected in 1S50. To the south and east of the 
oiiurch i.> the burial ground. Xo striking epitaphs are found here', such 
as. f(ir example, wa^ found on a tombstone in one of the Eastern States, 
which reads: 

■■This lawyer died: how brief is life! 

And with a solemn face, 

The undertaker gravely said, 

'Lie still and tiy my case." 


A short distance beyond the church is Hyde Park, which has grown 

into a considerable village, and is 
now connected with Reading by a 
trolley road. It, no doubt, as well 
as the other suburbs, will sodu be 
brought within the city limits of 
Reading and become a part of great- 
er Reading. The next place of in- 
terest along our route is Temple 
Station which is five miles from the 
city. Long years ago, prior to the 
days of railroads, wdien stage coach - 
es were running daily between 
Reading and Allentovvn, via Kut/,- 
tovvn, the hotel at this place was 
named by the striking sobriecpiet of "Solomon's Temple," which it still 
maintain'^. lUu when the East Penn Railroad had been built, and the 
station was named, the word ■•Soloinon" was dropped, and the village has 
l)een known Miice then, as Temple Station. Here we lind the Temple 
furnace, which is one of the largest in- Eastern Pennsylvania. 

The Hall Way H.mse is our next place. This is an old hos- 
telry, being mid-way between Reading and Kutztown. On the corner 
i.ppOMte U, the hnt'.l a fine residence, wdiere Franklin Seidel. "sq., 
cx-county c.-.mmissioner of Berks county, resides, and where many of his 
friends are oft rovally entertained. About three-quarters of a mile to the 
northwest of the hotel is the Maidencreek Friends' Meeting Hou-e. 
which is a plain old stone building, erected in 1807. The congregation 
was organized as early as 17,^7. but the pre-ent property was not secured 
until 1750. when Benjamin Lightlorjt granted a tract of about four acres. 

"I'his -t-rtion v 
iilu'-tol in Fi> 


;iu(l l-'ft'iich llu;,'iicnots. Services may hnve lif^t t'or 

'V \-,i'-'\\ VS.V 

^2f I r--.-^'A 

n — I- * 




,??■/- ; 

!■«..>;, J 

o}i:k the old kastos koaik 


t.ii which a iTicctin_L; limine wa-; Iniilt* The buihHn 
ndji lining- arc in a nuich neglected conditfdii, uwin; 
nnniher of person^ now interested in tliese vcneral 
f'riends' school h^n.^e near by, in consecincncc 

and the cemetery 

to the very small 

landmarks. The 

f its disuse, is also in a 








<iilai>idated condition. The tear that was expressed by the Quakers in 
the early part of the eiL;hteenth century, when the Germans from the 
Palatinate came l)y the thou-aiids to Pennsylvania, that the Germans 
would crowd them out o! existence, is here itractically effectuated. The 
I'riends of Maidencreek. as a Quaker coiumunity. have become nearly 

Retracing our steps to the h.aston Road, although we are still eight 
miles from Kut7t<iwn. yet, a- we hurry on, we will soon see the spire on 
the Keystone Normal Scluiid looiu up in the distance. Passing through 
Kirbyville. another old hustelry and ...-.^.^-^ 

.Moselem's Corner, we soon get to 
the foot of Normal Hill, and get a 
fuU \iew of the Normal School 
buildings which ha\e l>r(night joy 
and gladness to many a young heart 
of Berks and surroumliug counties. 

The Keystone Norma! School is 
the outgrowth of the "'.Maxatawny 
Seminar}-." Re\ . J. Sa^san-ian Her- 
man had built the beautiful man-^ion. 
standing several squares west of the 
Niirmal School, now occupied by 
Col. T. D. Fister, when he conceived 
the idea that the building was -suit- 
able tor a classical sclnnil.f He se- 
cured the services of Prof. Henry R. 
Nicks, a graduate of Franklin and 
-Marshall College, whc) opened a 
scht.oi in it in the Fall of 1859, and 
tuet with phenomenal success. The 

tir-t -indent who [iresenied hini-elf for admi->ion was Dr. N. C. Schaef- 
ur, the present Superiiuemlent of Public Tn-triu-tion. a lad, then, of ten 
lears of age. .\fter a few years the school, known as the "M;ixatawny 
Sen.iinary," l)ecame -o well e>tal)lished, that it was thought l.e-t to erect 
a buildii;g- of it- own. and. in consequence of it the citizens of Kutzti'wn 
ind its \-icinit\ joined heartily in the mo\ement. The eastern wing of the 
'Id Normal Scl'.ool bmlding was, then, erected, and was ready for occu- 
pancy in the I'all of iS.'iq. I). Nicholas Schaefier. F>(i.. a member of the 
lirrks count}- I'.ar. and brother of Dr. N. C. Schaeffer, was the first stu- 
dent when sch'xil o]ieneil on the present site of the Keyst(Mie Normal 

■ W'hat a i-niimiiiiLiliu'-r ' 'f ii;uiiiu;il; ir- ainoiisj tin- lir-^t -.I'lMrr- of tlii- part of I'.fik-: \\-c timl 
I'.ii'itin.--. svs.-.l.-^. 1- i.-iH-li. U .•l-li aihl Kn-li-ili (jiiakri- >i.|.' Ii\ sidr. 
Ill th - ro-ia. IK ,- ll.irao- Oi'- I', wa 




I'laiiiiil liui inu hi- I'l >'-i'li 

lal ('aiii|>aiL 




.^'-^: ;-?t 




... • t 

■ ..X«-t5.nI-.^(**-B^U*s, J; " ^^ 

:^,\^:^~i:r^-y-^\ %:_ 

"4\ ■?■' 

'* r 


^r-^ji '^ 

\ \.\ 

.1 M 

^-^ >. ^^ 

« ■ 

ui'i:i: Tilt: oi.v K.isrox no.ii). To- 

\ Scliool. StiuU-nts llockcd to this schciul irmn all [lart^ of the surrouiid- 
injr country, and the Iniilding soon bccaniv much o\ercro\vded. Many 
students were compelled lor want of room to find boarchng" places in the 
town. The authorities (jf the school were so much encouraged that a 
movement was inaugurated to enlarge the school into a State Normal 
School. A sul)scriiiti(jn list was opened, and ]^eop!e were invited to sub- 
scribe for stock. Solomon Chri>t, the grandfather of Dr. X. C. Schaef- 
fer. was appoint(_d a committee to circulate the sul>scriptiiin list, and to 
his effort it is at lLa>t partly due. that the people of Kutztown and its 
vicinity raised in the neighborhood of $25,000. towards the erection oi the 
Keystone State Normal School buildings. The corner-stone was laid in 
\Sf>^. and the buildings were completed and ready for occupancy in the 
Fall of i8'.')6, when the scliooI was recognized by the authorities at Har- 
risburg as a State Normal School. Prof. John S Frmentrout was elected 
the first Principal of the school, wdio was also at the time superintendent 
of the public schools of i'erks county. Since he could not attend to the 
duties of both offices. Prof. Henry R. Nicks was elected Acting Princi- 
pal. The division of the head management did, however, not p^rove a 
success. Dissatisfaction and discord soon arose, when Prof. Nicks re- 
signed and took charge of Palatinate College, at Myerstown. Pa. Prof. 
Frmentrout. then, took full charge of the school and served as Principal 
until 1871, when he resigned. Prof. A. R. Horn succeeded him. wdio 
filled the place until 1^77. when Dr. N. C. Scliaeffer was elected to the 
position. He served as Principal for sixteen years, durir.g wdiich time 
the school was much enlarged. Tiie old buildings were replaced by new 
ones, and others were added as the needs of the school required them. 
In 1S93 he was appointed Superintendent of Public Instruction, when Dr, 
( G. B. Handier was elected Principal of the school, who filled the place 
for six years, since which time the school has been in charge of Prof. A. 
C. Rothermel. 
[ The institution is at present one of the largest in the State. The build- 

I ings are well adajjted for the work, are equipped with the most modern 
appliances, fixtures and furniture, and accommodate at least one thous- 
i and students of all grades at unc time. The Faculty is composed of the 
' best teachers, wdio are capable of instilling great enthusiasm in the stu- 
dents for work and study. The institution has already done a great 
work. It has prepared young men for many stations in life. Apart from 
the hosts of teachers wh>_> have been trained for their work, we find her 
students in the pulpit, at the i)ar. practicing medicine, acting as civil en- 
gineers and in other leading and responsible positions. We prophesy for 
the institution a still nol)ler utjrk. in preparing the sons of the Germans 
in Fastern Penn'^ylvaiiia to take a front place in the great and prosperous 
future of our country. 

The people of Kutztown have always been in favor oi education. Prior 
to the time when the town was laid out by George Kutz, the people of 
that community had their cl urch and school hou-e. About a mile east 
of the town. I'U the l.exan farr.i. now owned bv the wife of Prof. Hetirv 

76 TIIK PK]s: .\ SY lA' AM A-(ii:i!M A}s . 

R. Nicks, stocid tlu' cluircli. then known as the "Tacdny Church," • and 
Ticar it the schuol Inm^e. Whi-n the church was huilt. no one can deh- 
nitely say. hut it is more tlian likely that it was [irior to 1740. A short 
distance to the north, on high siround. is the graveyard, where nienibers 
of the congregation, who did not have their prisate Inirying ground on 
their farms, were buried. Who is buried here no one can tell, because 
tliere are no tombstones marking the graves. Their names caii only be 
found in the Great l^iok on High. 

At this church many of the immigrant Germans, who had settled in 
Maxatawny \'alley. partook of the Lord's Supper before they were nat- 
uralized as citizens of Penns}Kania, as was then required by law. Under 

Vi':^ ■->'-- ■■■■ 

c^- - ^ . .-7^ ^Jn -~-~ " - "*^— ^- --_:■--•'''• v "J-^^^-: 'y. - " _■-' iS-sv C 


the law of Great Ilntain. foreign rrotesiant> only could become 
of the Colonies by naturali.'ation. The oath U< which they had to sub- 
scribe, provided, among other things, that they had taken •'the Sacra- 
ment of the Lord's Supper m Mune Lrotestant or Reformed congregation 
in tliis Province within ih.ree months." etc. 

The school hou<e stood about mid-way betueeii the church and the 
graveyard. The grandfather of Prof. John J. Hottensteiu and the great- 
grandfather oi Or. X. C. SchaeffiT. on In- mother'- -ide. attended school 

gran'ii.iiiit.1 in im. •». v. .^imv..-.. -- 

here. The -poi v.luTc the -cho,,l li.ui-e --to,,d is -till marked l)y an oi, 
tree, that stood m Uoui ,,f it, as well a- the place where the church stoo< 
by a part of the loundaiiou walL being -till \i-djle. 



W'licn George Kut/ laid out the borough of Kutztown, lie desigiinted 
certain lots, located on tin' Xorthcast corner of Walnut and White Oak 
streets, as church kits. .V ucw church edifice was erected on these lots, 
the corner-stone of \\hich was laid in 179;. The huildinp; was put up 
with large pine logs that were floated dnwn the Schuylkill River to Lees- 
port, and from there hatded by teams to Kutztown. Mr. Hald\ , an old 
blacksmith of Kutztown, after whom I'>aldy's Lane of the boroui^h was 
named, went to ilie pine swamps at the head of the Schuylkill River, and 
I'ellcd the trees and hewed the logs which were brought down the river in 
rafts for the building. Thus did these niirthlan(L yield of their forest tim- 
bers for vacred purposes, as King Hiram of Tyre furnished Solomon 




with the ccdais of Lebanon for the great Temple at Jerusalem. The 
church on the Levan f;irm had been built of stone, and what could have 
induced those people to build the town church with logs, cannot l)e im- 
agined. The log church was nicely weather-boarded and served the peo- 
ple of Ku.tztown and its \icinity for pul)lic w<3rship until 1S76, when the 
present large brick efiifice nas erected on the same spot. 

.\fter the church had lieen moved to Kutztown. a new school house 
was also erected, at the eastern end i,tf the church l(3ts. The building, al- 
th<:iuLdi not now u^cd a< a scIiomI h(.u>-e, is -^lill standing. It is a one- 
story stdiic hui'diiiL;. which had a lar'.',e school room and a dwelling part 
lor the teacher. I'rnir to the adoption of the comnnut school system. 


this was the principal scliool in the community. Persons, who subsc- 
<iuently rose to positions of eminence and responsibility, taught here. 
Governor Ramsey, who was one of the Governors of the State of Minne- 
sota, and subsec|uently Secretary of War of the I'nited States, was one 
of the teachers. Tie is fond of relating a conversation he rjverheard be- 
tween tv.o women of Kutztown on a very warm day. One said, "Es is 
aver base heit"; to which the other replied, "'Ya, es ware aver net so ha^e. 
wann es net fcr die gross Hitz ware." 

When the congregation resolved to rebuild the "Union Church." a 
portion of the Lutheran congregation withdrew and formed a new con- 


'-^ ,■!•< 


-<?Si:n.«9i*i -^^ 



gregatifTii and erected a new church on Main street, known as Trinitv 
Lutheran church. This is a must handsome edifice, both as to its exte- 
rior and interior. Chaiiel was built in 1874. main church in 1894. .-V few 
years later, a portion of the Reformed coi gregati'Ui also withdrew and 
formed a new congregation and erected a new church on White Oak 
-Street, knuwii as St. Paul's Reformed church. These three churche.s are 
fine buildings and are a credit to the people of Kut/.town. Besides the 
United i-'.\ ;nigelicals cri ted a nice and substantial church cm Main 

. Jthougl'! Kut/town i,s well provided witli churches, yet it is still better 
provided \\ith liotels. It has five large and well-conducted hotel.s. The 



"iJlack lloi^e." where Judt^o H. 11. Scluvartz spent his !)achelf)rh(,od 
days, and wliicli was ciwnrd by Jacoh I-"isher, who died at tlie age of C)9 
years, is still doing a thri\ing business. Tins is l)o^sil.)ly the oldest hos- 
telry of the town. For many years. Mr. l'"i->her was the proprietor, and 
afterwards, his si;)n-in-law. Dainel Zininiernian. It is here that many po- 
litical schemes in days gone by were C(jncocted. When .Mr. Fisher was in 
ills prime, he was a leader in the coninuuiit\'. and \\as a good and sub- 




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*^K>''-""< i -.-tx*--^' i 


stantial supporter of men like Judge Strong, when he was a candidate 
for Congress and Judge of the Superior Court. Heister Clymer and oth- 
ers. Subsequently Judge Schwartz took his ph'.ce as a jiolitical leader. 

Prior to the Civil War. battalion day was a red-letter day for Kutz- 
town. Everybody in the community would turn out on this day, and 
take an interest in the exercises. So long as e\'cry able-bodied man of 
tb.e required age compelled t") drill once a \ear or jiay his militia 
tax, the military drills were ot coiisideraijle coi;sr(|uence. But when the 


THE. rAWySYIJAXL \-GF.l!.\I . I A , 

old militia system ijocame r^hsoletc' the took tlic form ..f 
frolics more than anything else, and were kept up for some tinu- simple 
tor the benefit of the landlords, which hmught t.^gether. in many ca^es. 
persons of questionahle eharacter. and snuK-times resulted in rtght^ and 
bloody noses. So what was originally inaugurated, with patriotic mr,- 
tives and for the defense of government, ^vas turned into a disreputaMe 
and demoralizing performance. The good people arose up against it and 
in 1S71. tlie Kutztown Battalion was forever squelched. An agricultural 
society was organised about this time, which had a great deaf to dr. in 
killing the battalion, and in turning the attention of the lan<llords aiul 
others in another directiou. The Kut/town Fair is a credit to the farm- 

m im 

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uig community, and everybody enjoys a <lay or two each vear on the 
pleasant grounds viewing the fine stock, large pumpkins, apples, pears, 
etc., etc., and renewing old ac(iuaintances. etc. 

When we were at the foot of Normal Hill, we couhl have made a short 
detour to the ivorth and have taken a vle^^ of .Moselem's church. This 
IS a Lutheran church, and is one of the oldest congregations in the 
county, dating as far back as i;.v-. The Peims donated one hundred and 
one acres for church, pur .o^e^. ou uhich a log church was built, complet- 
ed in i742. In i.-oi a stoue church was erected on the same spot, 
u-as patterned after the Lutheran eluuch at the Trappe, uhich is -aui to 
have been designed by Dr. Henrs .Melch.Mr .\Liiilenberg. and whicli. 

orj:h' Tui': old HAsioy uoad. 


Iiact an hexagonally shaped pulpit end. Nine years thereafter a i)ipc 
(iryau was secured, which was built at Lancaster hy Tanneberger, and 
was tiirmally dedicated l>y I'a.>t<ir Schauni in 1770. This chiu'ch ser\cd 
the I'eople lor pul)hc wor.^hip imtil i'"^94. when under tiie pastoial care ut 
the late Rev. Dr. S. W. Jlarkey, a larye, tine brick church, with sifuarc 
tower, was erected. The pastor;, ot ihis cluu'ch have licen Re\s. \'alen- 
tine Kraft, T<djias \\'a.ij;ner. 1745; J. H. Schauin, I7<ii ; Daniel Lehman. 
177^: John Knoske. ]8i 1 : Conrad .Miller. iSjj; Isaac Roeller, i8_'y. F>. I-". 
Krandich. i860: supidies. G. Spieker, 1S67; W. A. C .Muehler. 1S83; I^r. 
Plarkey, iSgi: E. P. H. Pfatteicher. hjoj. Revs. Kraft and J^ehnian arc 
buried here. 

Bv followinu' the tlow of Sacoiiv Creek iKjrlhward for about three miles 





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, .. -_^, 


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we reach what is known a-^ Latjle Point, near which place Jacob Levan. 
one oi the four brotlicr Huguenot refuj^ees. >etilcd in 1715. Here l".e soon 
erected his dsvellin'^ and ■^tone mill i)roperty. still standuiji-. and wdiich 
was the tirst grist mill in the neighborhooil oi Lut/town. He had large 
.land possessions, and was a \ery influential man of hi- comnuinity. When 
Count Ziuzend.orf visited .\merica in 1742. he \va> entertained here, and 
preached to the settler^ of the-e parts from the balcony of the mill porch, 
shown in picture. After >er\ ing his county as iudge, from iJ},2-6j. and 
taking active part in. frontier defences against the Indians in French and 
Indian War. and leaving his coiuitry a br.ave and pulilic-spirite<l progeny, 
who-e dc.-ceiidan.t- have intermingled wnli many piMminent Berk- county 
!. milies ami >catter((l '.<• all part- of the ciamtry. he died in I7()X. The 
old Injuiestead is -tdl in the hands of hi- descendants. 




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Ol'j:i: THE OLD KASroX RO.II). J.3 

We can take tlic trolley at Rut/.tuun I'or Rnthroeks\i]le. About a mile 
cast ol Kutztown we pa^s "Kemp's Hotel." which is the oldest hotel in 
the eastern jjart of ]'>erl;s. i'rior to the lading- rait of Kutztown, it was 
the principal hotel between Reading- and Allentovvn. and did in those 
days a thriving biisinos. under the management of George Kemp, the 
])ioneer ancestor of the Kemi)S in Berks county. The main part of the 
hotel, whicli is still standing;, was erected in 1787. 

About a quarter of a mile soutli of Kemp's Hotel i.-. the Bieber farm. 
where Dr, ScliactTer's grandmother, (.)n his mother's side, was born. She 
took pleasure in descriljing the encami)ment of a di\ ision of the baggaL;c 
train of Washington's Army on this farm, cither before or after the battle 

> "• 







■V':i-".^ j~-'4 I '¥^1 


of Germantown. in 1777. as she heard it related by her parent.^ when -lie' 
was a girl. There is a tine spring of water on the farm, which, togetlu r 
with the fact that it was more or less secluded, was no df)ubt the motue 
tor retreating to this spot. She stated that the meadow in front <if the 
house, and the Held extending to the farm on the west, were filled with 
tents, wagons and horses. When the soldiers arrived, the \vomen were 
engaged in baking, and to extend to them the hand of welcome, then crm- 
tinued to bake loaves of bread, cakes and pies, until their supply of Hour 
was exhausted, and vohmtarily distributed the same, as they were taken 
!resh from the oven, am mg them. Dewalt Bielier. the owner of the land, 
who lived close by. sold cider to the s,.ldiers by the t;ourd niea-ure: but 
a ler imbibing freely they demanded possessiMU of the cask, which pro\ed 


TH /•: PKNXSYL I J MA-GKll.y A A , 

ttio imich !(>r tliis sturdy Poniisyh ani;i-r;i.rnian. u liorfupon he sci/.ed tlie 
must coincniciit weapon, a swine's yoke, and heat tlieni off. This caused 
the olhcers to station tiiiard- around t!ie hou>e. Tiie following morning 
Mr. Riei)er'^ mare was found in the meadow stahbed tf> deatli, her coll 
standing l)y lier side.- -no doubt an act of revenge. 

A sliort distance from the liou'~e stands a mammoth white-oak tree, 
known as tlie Centennial White- ()ak of remisylvania. under winch, it is 
said, the otVicers had their heatlquarters. The tree is se\era! hundred 
year^ old. and it is belie\ed to be sturdy enough to defy the storms of an- 
otlier hundred years. The trunk, near the t^ruund, measures twentv-nine 

>■ , ' " 

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feet, four inches in circumterence, and lietween the tenth and twentieth 
foot fr(Tm the ground the tree sends out twenty lind)^. most of which 
measure five to >i.\- feet in circumference, the largest measuring seven 
feet, three inches. The hei'-;ht of the tree is sixty-two feet, aiii] the boughs 
spread ninety-eight feet 

Xearl)y is the Schaeffer homoteail. sho'.n in accompanying illustra- 
tii.iii, where a celebrated quintette of s<ins were horn and reared, headed 
by the aide and poj)ul;ir Superintendent of Public Instruction of Penn.^yl- 
\ania. the sons e>f iMavi'' and ['"stiu'r Schaerfer. who are both hale and 
hearty, though the_v celibr.ated their ;-;ohlen wediiing anniversary four 
^e rs ago. \\ liile a I'anii i - expected to rai-e stock and cereaU. this typi- 
cal German I'arni raised men l)esides. Such was their in this di- 

oi'Kn Till-: (>i.J> i-:asT()\ ho. id. 


rcctioii tliat. in iS7,V4. tlu- parent,- luul all tivc sons away at -chool at the 
same time. Xatlian in the Universities of Germany. William at 
tcr Tlieolopical Semmary. Nicholas at Franklin an.l .Marshall Colle-e. 
and Charles aiul James at the Key-tone Xormal. Tliey wnv have the 
-ratification to li\e ami see one ^on adornin- each of the four learned 
professions, with one left to run the old farm intelligently. Who will 
again dare lift h\> voice against the ■•(iuml) Dutch".-' 

About ten stone-throws away stood a little <'ne and onedialf story log 
house, now weather-hoarded, on property belonging then to George 


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.^siu. 'i "-^ii 


Kemp, where, nearly t^lty years ago the editv.r of this magazine was 
born: but who had scarcely becune accustomed t(^ his new Berks ounty 
surrounding.-., when, with his parents and older brothers an<l sister, tive 
of whom, like himself, made their advent to life here, he took his thght to 
I.ehigh county, where the father had bought a small farm, which became 
liis permanent bovhood home. 

About threeMiuarter> of a mile ea^t of Kemp's Hotel we come to the 
Hotten-tein ulantations. It is said that the pioneer Hottenstcin had ac; 
quired a title to ab^ut f..ur hundred and fifty acres ,.f land in Maxatawny 
township, which is -ow <livided into four farms, three of which are ^tdl 
in the possession •»: lu^ .Kscendants. Perhap. live hundred, yards t- the 
north of the public mad. in the centre of the meadow, i^ a spring-hou^e. 


TIIK] jjjMA gi:i:ma.\ . 

Aiul not I(in,L^ ngi) stood nn old cliinniey, uliicli i> tlic spot wlitTf the 
pioiK-cr Jloltcnsti'in liad first settled. Tlio Indians lo\ cd to visit him. 
1)ccause he was kind and generous to thcin. He was sti.-rn with tlicni. yet 
they respected liis autliority and were ready to defend liini and liis jirop- 
erty. A mile further east we come to the village of Monterey, where is 
a post-ollice. hotel, general store and residences. This place was named 
during the .Mexican War after the liattle of the saiiie had been W(m hy the 
American Army. Passir.g on we get to Shofers. where is also a post- 
i.ttice. hotel, store and a creamery. (Jn the eminence heyond stands Max- 
atawny or Zion's Church, commonly known as Siegfried's Church, which 
can be seen far and wide, as it stands on the water-shed between the 
Schuylkill aiul I.ehigh Rivers. The present building, being a fine brick 
structure, is the second church. The first one was built of stone in iSjS. 
AV.i} is shown in accomjianying cut just as the work of demolition had be- 


Looking to the north as we pass H)wards Rothrocksville, we can see 
the Herman parsonage, where Re\ . Charles Herman li\ed. and since his 
death, his son, Rev. Alfred J. Herman. These two ministers have occu- 
pied the place for nearly, if not quite, a hundred years, preaching the Gos- 
pel to tlie numerous congregations which they .served, baptized the chil- 
dren, confirnted and married the young and buried the dead. lUit as we 
are rellecting on the magnitude of their work, the trolley speeds us on to 
Rothrocksville. a village of several hundred inhabitants, which was 
named after Dr. Rothrock. who years ago practiced here his art of heal- 
ing. As we go through the \ illage we will pass the birthi)lace of Prof. 
George W. Richards, ,.<{ the Thecilogical Seminary at Lancaster, Pa., tip 
our hat to liis father. Dr. Milton S. Richards, pass the hotel, where all 
travelers are cordially received, ami stoj) at the farm-house of William 
Kline, the son-in-law o; Seth *_jrim. deceased, which was the liomestead 
of one braiich of the Grim family for mau_\- years, which ])rings us within 
calhng distance of Lehigh county. 




The revocation of the Edict oi Xante> ^October iSth. 1685) was in- 
strumental in sending to America some of the best bh>od ot Kurope. 
Xear halt a million of the most thnfty citizens of France lett that coun- 
try; and of these, many found a temporary refuge among their Pro e.tant 
br'ethren of the Rhenish Palatinate. Hither the iron hand of Richelieu 
and the remorseless fanaticism of the scarlet woman of Marly and the 
Trianon pursued them. There, too. the hospitable Palatines iell under 
the same terrible interdict. For conscience's sake, they opened wide 
their doors to the persecuted, and now found it was but to ^^^^ ^^^ ^ 
of the strangers. Homeless and forlorn, they were driven lorth Irom 




their peaceful vallevs. to wander for a while northward in Europe; then 
to England; and finally, some to seek a permanent asylum across the 

wild Atlantic. 

\mong these, bv the bounty of Queen Anne, one little company o. 
tiftv. und'er the leadership of their good pastor, Joshua Kockerthal. sail- 
ed'for the New World: and. after a temporary sojourn on "G.^vernor s 
Island" in \ew York harbor, settled permanently at -Quasek Creek and 
Thanskamir.- on the hill slope where now stands the thriving city ot 
Xewburgh-on-Hud<<.n. They were good Lutherans, but there were 
black ^heep in tlic tl.K-k. and trouble from this cau^e, as well as troni 
Jack of supplies. spcc<lilv aro^e. They appealed to the amhonties in New 


77/ E PKXXSyL I'JMA -dKh'M J A . 

V(irk. It spt-aks wvll for the hmthcrly Kixc anii;n<i f'rotestants of tlii)>c 
(la\>, tliat vpcrdy nu'asurcs were taken fur tlicir rcliei'. ami that tlic C(.>ni- 
iiiittcc charged with aidini^^ thcni cunsi^ted of tlie Ivev ereiid Mr. Dul)(>i<^. 
of the Reformed Dutch Church, and Rector \'c>ey (after whom Vesey 
street in New ^'nrk is named) of tlie Episcopal Trinity parish. Dominie 
Kockerthal had sailed for iMigland before thi.s to jirncnre tools and sup- 
plies, flis return, in the >prinLC of 1710. and the heneticence of the people 
of New \'ork. .uave the colonists new hope, and for a time they pros- 
pered. Of the lands Lrranted hy patent. 500 were for the sup])ort and 
maintenance of the Lutheran pastor, and were — and still are — known a=; 
the "glebe," held in the Tiame of trustees, and administered, till within 
very recent times, for the uses of religion. These lands were not given. 
but leased, at the very moderate rental, however, of "one pepper-corn, 

So'attractive were these pleasant banks of the Hudsi.n that soon emi- 
grants began to arri\e in cc msiderable numbers. Unfortunately, few ot 
the new comers were of the same househdld of faith as the original 
settlers. Kockerthal was succeeded liy Justice Falconer, and he, soon 
after, by William tlirkenmeyer. neither being an actual resident. The 
agreemeiU for i)a>toral services of Dominie Birkemiieyer recites, in p.irt : 
"As we (the trustees named), do herewith call,' con,>titute, and ap- 
point Mr. William Christopher Birkenmeyer. Lutheran minister at "Xcw 
"S'ork, for our lawful teacher of the parish of Quassaick, to minister to us 
twice a year, as well in ])reaching the Holy Scriinures. and the symbolical 
books of our Lutheran Church, as in administering the Holy Sacrameiit.s 
of Christ's institutmn. promisin.g to pay him the income, and acknowl- 
edging him as our teacher, as also. whene\er he lands up<;)n our shore, to 
receive him, and bring him back on board the vessel. Moreover, since 
hitherto we can make no use of the bell gi\'en to (lur parish, we, there- 
fore, give the said bell, by oral permission of his excellency, Govermir 
Burnett, to the Lutheran Church of New York. However, on this con- 
dition: If it should happen that we should be able to build a church of 
our own at any time hereafter, then the L-utheran Church of New York 
shall restore to us the same bell, such as it now is. or another of ei|ual 
weight and value. Signed, sealed, etc.. March .^otli, IJJ"." 

Mr. Berkenmeyer served till ijjr, receiving alt(\gether for his ser- 
vices as pastor, "thirty chcei)les of wheat." 

In the \ear :7.^,v Mii.diael Christian Knoll became the minister of the 
Palatines: and it was during his administration (though the exact date 
cannot now be ascertained) that the glebe school-house and church — a 
view of which is here given — was erected, anil remained standing in the 
midst of the ancient burying ground between Cira:id and Liberty streets, 
until a feu years a.go, when the devastating hand of "improvement" 
swej^t it aw:i\'. But how little matters the [)reser\ation of the edifice 
wlien the worshipers arc gone? C)f how tritlmg importance the body oi 
things compared to the inhahitinL; spint. I'oor Lutherans of the I'ala- 
tine city. Tliey h;i\ e slejit long in their narrow cells un\e.\ed b.v the 
march, and tramping, and blare and clamor of e\ents. The turf of their 

Tin: I'jL.iTixh's' curncii. ■ S9 

<liiiet .yravt'vard >tili heaves in many nmldcrintr lieaps; and fur tlieni I'le 
thing's of eartlt lia\ e long been over. Rnt in tlieir day came stirring' 
times in the Chnreh's hi'^tory. Of tlioic immigrants who came to settle 
among them, some \\er(- Huguenots, jimfessing the Calvinistic dcjctrines. 
but most were Church of Enghuid people. These hitter grew strong in 
numliers. till at last, taxing b(dd. they took \iiilent possession of the one 
church building of tlie neighbf>rlu)od — the one of the diminisjied ilock of 
I.utiierans — elected trustees of the glebe oi their own lunntter, -and so at- 
tempted to add spoliation to intolerance. 

A record has been kept of some of the proceedings that followed. It 
states: ""Our miriister (the Lutheran) coming there (to Xewl)urghK did 
preach the utli of July (1747). Sunday, the iQth; the church was full of 
people. Some justices of the peace, and some with swortls and sticks. 
were there in the church, in presence of the English minister, >[r. Wat- 
kins, who was come there the first time the same Sunday. ( )ur minister. 
after oral and public protest at the door of the church, went into a .pri- 
vate house upon the glebe to do divine worship. In 1748. the 3d of July. 
our minister preachetl in the church, because the English minister was 
not to come that Sunday." 

The last Lutheran service was held in October. After this several 
times, the few Palatines rem;iinnig. petitioned — but \aiidy — for redress 
of their grievances; and n(jt long after, finding the hjcality — doctrinaliy at 
least — uncongenial, most of them moved away, some to Pennsyh ania. 
and some io join their brethren at the Lutheran settlement of Rhine- 
beck. fort\ miles al)o\c on the rixer. 

These all sold their land luddings. It is interesting to note the chain 
of title to one historic [dot: Michael Weygand (one of the fir^t Pala- 
tines) sold to William lUirnett (the go\ernor heretofore spoken of. and 
son of the famous Bishop Burnett, (jf the Court of William of Orange) 
his lands. Burnett sold tci one William Brown; he to Alexander C'dden: 
and Colden in turn to Colonel Jonatlian Masbrouck. who budt (about 
^7i^) the commodious stone residence, occupied for over a xear, in 178J 
and '83. by Washington as his headc[uarters. This building is now the 
property of the State, ha\ ing been purchased from Colonel Hasbrouck. 

The old church of the Palatines was rcuighly Iniilt of hewn boarils. with 
a steeply pitched roof, surmounted by a small l>elfry. in which, the bell. 
reclaimed from the Lutherans (U' New York. f(U- many years summoned 
the inhabitants to di\ine ser\ ice. There is a tradition of the \icinity that 
this bell was taken from the cupola secretly at night, at the time when 
the troubles were upon them, by some of the more ardent of the young" 
Lutherans, and. having been buried in a swamp hard by. remained there 
upwards of forty years. In time, however, it was discovered, and restored 
to its proper place. In later years it (.lid duty in the cupola of the Xew- 
burgh Academv, to be final! v sold, and melted down for old metal. 




Found amongst the Swiss German manuscript pajjcrs of Rt. Rev. I 

•(Bishop) John JacoI» Kauttmann. and transmitted by intcr-niarriage, ii 

through the de la Planche family and now in the possession of his great- I 

great-grandson. D. Heher Plank, :vI.D,, Morgantown, Pa. | 

(Translated .August 2J<1, lyoo, by Miss L. E. Weber, Lebanon, Pa.) I 

Articles tliat were drawn up and approved by ministers and ciders as | 

■informed by Schweit/ern and The first three in the year ? 

1676. ' I 

(i) All believing servants, as long as they can find employment I 

among our own people, shall not go in service among people outside the I 

fold, and all masters and mistresses shall treat them, in a Scriptural way, | 

as believers in Christ divine. ' i-^ 

(2) In reference to drinking and the use of tobacco (smoking) it is | 

declared that the public drinking and use of tobacco is an otTense, there- -j 

lore it is not allowed. But if it should be necessary as a medicine, it i 

shall be done at home, and shall be dealt with as circumstances require. I 

(,^) It is also declared that ministers oi the Word of God, owe it as I 

their duty, t(.. make diligent use of their talents, and as they can not at the • | 

same time attend to their temporal support, as in cases of absence of f 

three (.^r four days, or may be several weeks, they are obliged to con- I 

sume their own means, be it known that m such instances, especially f 

where their services have been requested and they have been at their own • "i 

■expense, it is in duty required to show them love in return. ! 

Besides agreeing upon the above written articles, there were yet con- 1 

sidered and adopted at an assemblage of many ministers and elders, at 1 

Obersiiltzen, the four folUiwing rules: J 

(i) That a minister of the Word of God. who has not been fully set i 

apart to his office, or yet received the laying on of hands, shall refrain | 

from baptizing and administering the Holy Communion, or officiating at i 

a marriage, as also not pronounce sentence of excommunication upon | 

sinners, or such as by their wicked life have deserved the same; except • 

ivhere there is no Presbyter or Bishop, then a minister may be requested \ 

and empowered by the congregation to act. J 

(_'> If a dispute arises in a congregation, whether it be a quarrel, or a '- 

business dispute between brethren, the matter shall be settled by the el- i 

der and not be referred to the minister of the Word. - 

(3) If one goes to a funeral, whether it be aiiiong brethren or other | 
people, he shall refrain from entering a church with them, but shall pass j 
by it. ;j 

(4) Feasts held by worldly people at the baptism of young children, ;! 
shall be avoided by members of the congregation. 5 


.\r tlie CouMcil of (">fstine, March, U-S,'^. attended by many ministers and 
ciders, the following resolutions were adopted: ■ ,.; 


(iV Ministers and Elders in their walk and conversation shall conduct 
themselves in accordance with the Go>pcI and the teaching's of Christ and 
the Apostles, so that they may he an exanii>le for others to follow. 

(2) Ministers of the Word of God shall diligently exhort and teach 
the people to know what is contrary to the doctrine^ of Christ and His 
Apostles, he it concerning the life and walk of the hrethren and sisters, be 
it in reference to excessive eating and drinking, or living in pride. 

(.l) and (4) (Thiv part of manuscript ha> become detached from the 
original manuscript by age. and is lost). 

Form of prayer sent r)ut among the brethren by Bislmp John Jacob 
KaufTmann to oftset the intluencc o! the French, or Jesuits over the Hu- 
guenots, proclaimed. 1760. when King George III. ascended the throne: 

"To him. our King George III., to give all just obedience, live in har- 
mony, faithfulness,, honor and taxes, benevolence, and to pray tor 
liim to God according to the Scriptures in the New Testament, Matt. 2: 
21, Romans 13:1-7. Titus 3:1.2. I Peter 2:13-16. Timothy i and 2. I also 
hate and despise with all my heart treachery, reljellion and a-^'^a^sinations 
as might be made against our King and his g<nernment. be it by Pope, 
Protestant or others. I am also lieartily disposed Cas much as is granted 
to me by God and behooves ni'e) to prevent such as much as possible. .\t 
the same time I wish and pray that God will give our King a wise and 
sensible heart and a willing mind to live cheerfully and faithfully in all 
■commandments and laws of God. That he may manage right and justice. 
and that his throne might be well fortified with fairness, and be handed 
down, so that he may have eternity for his faithful service and have his 
reward from God. 1 am also assured wherewith our King, such a willing, 
■obedient and faithful heart against God, should be fo^nd." 

As assurance that the within form of prayer can not refer to the period 
of the Revolution or to any later period than that of the close of the 
P'rench and Indian War. I herewith place the following indorsement upon 

■■\Ve want to let you kno\.- that we have been obliged to tlee from our 
'home on account of the war. but the war has subsided again. The luiglish 
have gained the upper hand. They have fought ihe French back and the 
Indians have again made peace, and so we are again back in our home 
We have no want in temporal food. We have also had no want Iiecause 
-"li the war. 

■T-\ather, we have six ^ons. They are, God be thanked, healthy." 

Translated by the translator of University of Pennsylvania. March 2, 


untry. This vohiine, 
late in lit'i.-. will prove 

Poems. The anth(,r uf tliis volume ,,i poetrv is al-o a Penn- 

, , ^ ^^-'' sylvania-Gcnnan. only he went to Virginia to he 

Joel Suart.. D.D. born. But h,s nan>e. nmh. features 'and poet.c 
genius at once proclaim him as a scion of this nature- 
Irning stock. As a poet he has Ion- taken hi-h rank, and uuh Dr T 
i^tork. also ot Southern birth, contends fur tir.t place anion- u^ in thi^ 
genius ot clothing lofty thought m beautiful an,l rhythmic measure- 

ot course, in tlie atlojited tongue 
of ciur 

the author's monument t 
petuate among his friends his 
rare literary gifts and genial, lov- 
aHe spirit. [ts many rare gems 
need not blush to go on dress- 
parade before all the world, 
alongbide the best productions of 
either W'hittier or Longfellow. 
In conception and expression the 
products are poetr\-. So much 
pleased was the writer with "My 
Bii'tH'kay at Three Score and Ten 
and l^our, winch hrst appeared elsewhere la^t summer, that he u^ed it 
to Illustrate a point in a >ermon. preached as a supplv. one Sundav ,n the 
authors old puIpit at Tlarri.burg. evidently wuh pleasing ett'ect upon his- 
hearers. L nder various heads of Dedication and Introductory Greetin-s, 
Poems ot Nature. .Meditation and Reflection. Love at Home Temper- 
ance, ^^ns,ng. for the Ouiet Hour, the ditTerent efl^usions are classified. 
The whole will prove a valuable possession to anv purchaser, bein- a well 
made book of j^j ijnio. i.p.. and selling bv the author at Devon 'Pa . or 
publisher at Si._'5 mil gdt. or Si.oo in plain edges, with a reducti-m of 20- 
per cent, to ministers.— Henry T. Coates. Philadelphia. Pa. 

Swiss-Life in It wa^ u ith intense interest that this latent publidied 

Town and Country, immb.r oi Putnam's "(^ur European Neighbours" 
series was perused. The reading of the eighteen- 
chapters of this hook. c..\eriiig the hi.story and character of this ancient 
and model republic of inten,,r Kurope. it< people, government, educa- 
tional method-, indu.stnes. struggle with nature, domestic and Church 
life. chiMlK.od and wo.n.mho, ,,1, military life, n.itional letes am! festivals- 
and its press and literature was almost Hke visiting tlie country. To ai 

liOOJx soiicKs. y;i 

rkar :inrl graphic >t>Ic is added the pro<liun of tliat very helpful and at- 
traetixe modern accoini)lice in bool<-niakin_n- — the jjlioti i^raphic camera. 
Twenty full-page illustrations ai'e included and by their aid the autlior 
carries his readers up the giddy ^now-capped mountain heights, through 
its nioimtain tunnels, into its villages or lets them look into the faces of 
its simjile. yet intelligent, sincere- and lil)erty and ho-.nedoving people. 
Whether one is a descendant nf this excellerit stock — as many of my 
readers are — or else contemplates a \i-it to this sky-scraping republic, or 
vNe sfcks oidy general information, he ought to read this work by Alfred 
T. Story. i)ublished by G, P. PutnanT.s Suns. Xeu York. i2mo pp. 282, 
net $1.20 

German and Swiss It gives us great pleasure to call <:iur readers' atten- 
Settlements tion to a work like this, lu it the author leads us 

of Pennsylvania. upon a high oijscrvation-mriunt and makes us see 
By the whole comprehensive sul)iect of our Pennsyl- 

Uscar vania-German stock from the scholar's standpoint. 

Though one of us, he went into a university situated 
in the niids-t of Xew England Yankeedom. in close touch with large li- 
braries, and equipped with an enthusiastic lo\e for his stock and wide 
reading cm the subject, he has produced a hook that should no longer 
leave the English reader in ignorance of the origin, characteristics, noble 
traits and race peculiarities, patriotic, religious and inventive zeal and 
the proud history and superior civilization that characterizes this con- 
spicuous element in State and National life. It is gotten out. too, by a 
tirm that insure> higli merit for the book and should secure for it a hear- 
ing from the world of letters and a wide circulation among our English 
cousins. The Saxon brother need not blush at the introduction so fa- 
vorably made. By him it will be admiretl as a handsome pliotograph of 
himself is prized by some rustic swain. Its chapters cover historic back- 
ground, settlement, early trials nu land and sea. manners and customs, 
language and literature, religion and life in peace and war. with an ap- 
pendix on famil\- names, a most valuable table on bibliography and an 
excellent index. Altogether, it is one of the truest and most scholarly 
volumes that has yet appeared on the subject of our race history and 
idiosyncrasies — a compendium of what the Pennsylvania-German Society 
it-elf is dmng gradually on a more comprehensi\ e scale. Whoever of this 
olass takes up the wurk will likel\- be doouied to let (jther engagements 
<lrop. as the writer has d(_me. until he has tinislied its reading from cover 
to cover. Henry ilolt & Co.. Xew York. 268 small. 800 pp. $1.50. 

Thought-, for This is a book of "Gems" of thought, g;ithered from 

Every-Day Living, the spoken and written w<>rds of the late Dr. Maltbie 
D. Babcock. Dr. Balicock died last year, wlien only 
in the early forties, yet he had moved two of (^ur largest cities. Baltimore 
and Xew York, with his personalits ;ind the quality 01 his u.terances. One 
uho knew but his _\outh. or looked upon hi> t.)o_\ish face. womkTed how 


77/ /•; PKXXSVL I ' J.V IA-<iKi:MA A , 

it was jKi^sihlc to .^aiii >r.cli a linhl on lrii\L;c nirissfs of nicn. or liccome ■i'> 
universally known aiul 1o\l-(1. Tho>c who statedly luard Iiiin prcaeh. or 
came in personal contact with him. knew. .Vnd those who pernse this 
book of fragmentary writings in disconrse. per.-onal connsel, letter or 
poetic form, will nnder^tand. It is qnality that gives vaku' to thought, as 
brand gives richness to wine. .\ wild grape in hhx.m along a hedge-row. 
will make itself a^ surely known to a pas-erhy. anrl m<n-c favorablv, than 
a sounding gong or a bra--, horn. Dr. Dabc(;ck was a bundle of human 
life through whom the best (jf divine life coiused. as Nature's best take.- 
its fragrant way in the \iolet. the lily, or the rose. Xo one can get a 
wliiff of such life witlK.uu being gladdened and refreshed; and no one can 
read this ccdlection of Dr. P.abcock's thoughts without being helped and 
bettered. Ciiarles Scribner's Sons, New York. Small i2mo, 192 pp. 
$1.00 net. 

Little Journeys. There is something peculiarly fascinating about every- 
By thing that comes from the Roycroft sh.op. The very 

Elbert Hubbard. label, strmg and wrajiinng paper in which your pack- 
age is done up has value and. for a time at least, fails 
to go to the waste-basket. It is all so striking, so peculiar, -o naive — and 
hence laid aside as a relic. But wlien tlie bundled treasure is opened, you 
will find yourself stroking the chamois' cover of the enclosed l)ook with 
your hand or cheek like precocious babies of two years will stroke the 
fur of the afternoon caller's coat or tnuft. It's so pleasing to the touch 
and such a gootl way io make friends with a stranger. If anyone does 
not know what we are talking about, it is certain he has never bought a 
book from the I{ast Aurora shop. And if he asks who the Roycrofters 
are, he confesses' himself ignorant as to the most artistic liookmaking of 
our day. and has missed one of life's opportunities last year wliile visit- 
ing the Pan-American. 

There came recently to our sanctum two copies of these handsome 
Roycroft products — the one. "Will o' tlie Mill." by Louis Stevenson, the 
other Mr. tlubbard's "Little Journey to the home of Robert Schumann." 
one of "Great Musicians" series. We cannot speak too highly of the art 
displayed in the make-up and of the literary style 01 the compositions. 

Of ci>urse. any one who knows "Fra b'Jbertus." knows that he does ncjt 
travel in an ox-cart or even on a railroad train when he visits his celeb- 
rities in Music. Literature, Art or Greatness and Gomlness of other 
sort, but mounts Pegasus, and, if you acconipan\- him in any one of hi- 
trips, you take your lirst ride in a 'lying machine, high up in etherial 
thought realms. Riu why describe the impossiMe? Ik-tter take a trip. 
The Roycroft sh(.ip, Ka<t Aurora, New York. The former, printed on 
English-made B(.i.\moor paper, bound in limp chamois, silk-lined, hand- 
lUummed and ornament. Limited echtion; price, $2.00 per copy. The 
latter, same, except printed on Roycroft paiier. a copy. 

BOOK sori(i:i<. cj.-j, 

Memorials of the The Rev. A. Stapleton. a reputed historian and 

Huguenots in America genealnojst, has added new laurels to his fame 
by the puhlication of this excellent work of un- 
told research. Many will rise to thank him Ic.r the clue to their ance>try, 
lontr lost in l;c/peless oblivion or unravelable mystery. I'he sturdv 
Ku^uenot descendants may condiine some day to place a monument 
over his ashc-. when or.ce his iaiior.s are ended. .\nd many, hke the 
writer, will feel ])rfu;d. after reatling this work, that they have .a strain of 
this blood in their \eins. In one brief parasjraph this line of our descent 
is clearly given from first .American ancestor nearly two centurie- aero — 
for what we did not clearly know, this hook supplies. This is the DcLon.u- 
family. with uhdni our mother connects. The work gives a condensfd 
account (.if the nu-nK)rable struggles of these French Protestants for ?ev- 
eral centuries of persecution, and defence of their' faith and the dread'ul 
calamities that befell them. Their fught and the immigration tt) America 
is clearly de[.ucte(I. together with their influences on .American life traced. 
Pennsylvania settlers receive especial attention and the work is inten.>ely 
interesting. The book is an octavo of 164 pp., illustrated with a number 
of full-page illustrations, and can be had m two styles of binding. Cloih- 
board. at $2.00. and limp cloth, at $1.25 a copy, from the "'Huguenot 
Publishing Company, ol Ilarrisburg. Pa.," or the author at Carlisle. Pa. 

Poetical History Prof. D. B. P.runner, whose birth, residence, teaching. 
of superintenilency of county schools, representation of 

Berks County. district in Congress, travels and authorship ac(|uaint him 
with the minutest data in the county's history, has. as 
chairman of the Sesqui-Centennial Committee of the country's estalilish- 
ment (March 11), summarized the chief events of its checkered and e\ent- 
ful history in. poetic measure of 34 printed pages. The work is credit- 
ably done--the history is better than the p(?etry — and for its his- 
torical \alue chiefly it will be sought. It is altogether a very clever trib- 
ute for tins public servarU to lay at his country's feet, when celebrating the 
150th birthday, and many will want the pamphlet at 10 cents a copy. Ad- 
dress tlie author at Reading, Pa. 

£> * * 

The illustrinns .Architect of the Xatiimal Capitol, at Washington, D. C, 
Mr. Beni. Latrobe. w;is a Peiirisylvania-German. He was the son .if 
a Huguenot AToravian minister, whose wife and nmther of architect, was 
the daughter of Henry .Antes, of Falkner's Swamp, in Montgoirery 
county. Pa., a friend of the noted Count Zinzendorf. The daughter ac- 
companied Zinzendorf to the Old World m 1742. to complete her educa- 
tion, where she met iier future husband and where this celebrated sun 
was born. 

Nor is this so wonderful, when another Pennsylvania-German Archi- 
tect. Mr. Abner .A. Ritcher. of Lebantm, Pa., is just now engaged in 
i'uilding a cimrch at Wa.diinglon in which the President will wor^hiii. 
and whiisf pastor is another Penn-^yh ama-German. Ke\-. Mr. Schick. 

-^ -^ 


^ -^ 

The hiyli sfiuiiii(.'ins of our President in his address, "Tlie Xew Citi- 
zen." printed in tlie \\)iitirs Comitanion. are fittingly published in the 
Washington's liirtliday Number. George Washington, by ^.i^ pure lite 
and wise conver>ation and ambition f(jr the new cminlry, t'airly wtMi his 
title of Father of his Country. Theodore Roosevelt, the best exponent of 
our twentieth century activity, has equally high ideals for the nation; and 
in liis address and in his life he lays particular stress on the induidual liis 
.stewardship, his usefidne^s in home and public life. Washington and Lin- 
coln led our nation over its most ditiicult paths. It has been left in re- 
cent years for --uch men as Theodore Roosevelt to embody the highest 
ideals of prix.ite and public citizenship. 

The ^[arch Country Life in America heralds the coming of spring, and. 
with added pages, ot^'c-s a profusion of superb pictures relating to all 
sorts of wild and domestic life of the woods, the fields and of country 
places. The estate feature, this mouth, is the "Xew England Garden 
Home" of Mrs. Jack Gardner. sh(_iwing the Italian and Japanese landscape 
architecture. Several really notable features are by experts in photog- 
raphy. Of these .V. Radclyt'fe Dugmore contrdnites "The Life of the 
Trapper" with idiotographs of a one-armed tra[)per and his two St. Ber- 
nard dogs in the snowy Canadian woods; camera-shots of big game by A. 
G. Wallihan. illustrate an article on "The Passing of the Blacktail"; and a 
series of beautiful photographs of flying fish-hawks are the work of Alfred 
J. Meyer, whose camera was placed withm a few feet of their almost in- 
accessible nesting sites. 

The leading editorials in the March "^\'<Jrlf^s Work." deal witli the new 
international position of the United States — the changed attitude of Eu- 
ropean nations to the Repuldic. The \ isit of Prince Henry furnishes oc- 
casion in part for this and leiuls interest to an article about the Kaiser. — 
"The German I-'mperor as He Is"--by Wolf \'on Schierbranil. and a short 
editorial article entitled Anglophobia in German}-. The leading illus- 
trated features of the number are Prof. Robt. T. Hill's description of tiie 
great .American desert, and an article l)y .\rthur Goodrich on the tvpicallv 
A.nierican sculpture of So'on B(jrglum. the cowboy sculptor — a story trac- 
ing the development of the man and his art. 

If sufficiently encouraged. Messrs. J. H. Beers & Co. will soon bring 
out a work on Biographical Aniials of LebaiK.Mi County, Pa., that should 
do full justice to ll\-ing and past citizens, who here acted out their part 
as leaders of their kind. 





■*^" '■"'-! 


■"faes:^ '^a^ S 

<«' J C-€>-^*J*" &' 

Vol. in. 

JULY, 1902. 

No. 3. 


Frontispiece, . . - • 
Editorial, .... 

Famous Perinsylvania-Gernians, 

Rev. Johm C. KcEze, D. D. 

Poetic Gerns, .... 

Der Fiert July. 

Der "Gigeregee." 

.\\y Aldty Gtik. ' .. 

Busch un Schtedtel. 

Historical Pilgrimages, 

Over the Oiiy Pike. 
Mountain Mary, 

Mary Young, . . • - 
Mary of the Mountain, . 
Book Notices, 
Literary Notes, . . 

Margaretta Kunte 

• 97 


. . 109 





5 '-' 'XfJ >' ^V'- 
'■-"■^ir- ' l:-ii ■■■■ 

;\ \ -(■:■ ,4 1 

^wc;:, -^^'s. 7 



.1- V A Ui' 


Second Daughter of Rev. Dr. Henry M. Muhlenberg 

Born at Trappe, Pa.. Sept. 17, 1751 

Married to Rev. J. C. Kunze, D.D., July 23. 1771 

Died in New York City. Oct. 23, 1831 


Pennsylvania- German 

RKV. r. C. CROl.L. A.M. 

>";l)^^'ARD E. CROLI. 

Tdiin: }!."' i"-i ijetn- ill tiih-diirr: f! -jr, uflu- flu,, iKoiith. 

Vol. Ill 


No. 3 

:Ku!.t -1 nt the C.^roti. .• ;ii t,. 


jX }\Iay 1st there was unveiled at Ei)hrata a fine granite 
shaft, recently trected in memory of 150 or more 
heroes of the Revolution and wotmded soldiers of 
'^r^y:^'i^^| the hattle of lirandywine. who with others were 
LiAibbL^M taken, hither for nursing- by the German Convent 
Sisters of this place, and who died here and were here buried. 
Plitherto there was no marker of any kind, and but for the etlorts 
of local patriots of this place, whose national and local pride stim- 
ulated their effort for fifty years, this neglect might have con- 
tinued. At last success crowned their efforts — tin State appro- 
priated $5,000 for the purpose, and now ]\[t. Zion, famous in the 
annals of the widely known Seventh Day Gt-rman Baptist Capu- 
cians. is crowned with this memorial shaft, duly inscribed. The 
exercises consisted of addresses, poems and music, and were at- 
tended by Governor Stone and his staff', Lieutenant-Crovernor 
Gobin. and other distinguished otffcials of the State, and hosts of 
her patriotic citizens. The principal adtlressts were b_\- b.x-Gov- 
ernor Pattisuu. Lieutenant-! i(,i\ernur ( leneral Gnbin. General John 
E^.. Roller, of \irginia. and Culonol < )"Xeill. The weather was 
most auspicious, the country roI)ed in Spring beauty and Ijlooiu, 
and the occasion will long- l)e remem'ierevl a^ a memorable one by 
diis tvpical I*emis\lvania-German tcwn of inland Penns_\lvania. 
F'"or an illustrated account of l'"])hrata and its celebrated Lr(_)testant 
monastic and convent life with illustrations, see \ e>l. L Xo. 2 of 
this magazini.. 

97 . 


lUK I'EXXs yjj'.i \j. I -a ki:m a a , 

\\\\ ]\'nn>\ivania-( icrinan does not believe in selt- 
prai^e. True to its cliaracteristic brini^nng up, it be- 
lie\\,-s in the proverb, which our forefathers found 
^j^^ITKa' I "^ >cn]jture, and conscientiously instilled into their 
descendants: "Let another man praise thee, and not 
thine own mouth." Iku such has been the laudation rolled in upon 
the little literary infant we have fondle<l and nursed into life, that 
we are constrained for the stripling-'s sake, and the clearing- up of 
the hesitating reader's mind, who may chan.ce to see this, but not 
yet a subscriber, to let a few extracts of letters received appear. 
We are glad its friends have found so much pleasure and profu. 
We wish we could get every one with a strain of our stock's blood 
in his veins to see a copy and judge for himself. This is what 
has recentiv been said bv a few subscribers: 

"Go on with the good work." — J, C. K. 

"I am much pleased with the current number, as well as with all the 
predecessors." — F. W. B. 

"Seldom has a magazine given me more genuine pleasure than the cur- 
rent number. .-\il my Pennsylvania-German blood — one-half of all I have 
— coursed more rapidly through my Aeins and arteries when I read "'S 
Latwerk Koche fer Alters.' " — F. T. H. 

"The last number is verv tine. It is brighter and better now than at 
first."— J. A. S. 

"The October number is very pretty and interesting. You are doing a 
good work in issuing such a magazine." — C. R. T. 

"I thank you in advance for anticipated enjoyment." — R. C. N. 

"God speed the work." — C. E. H. 

"The October number of the Pennsylvania-GermaTi is an e.xceedingly 
interesting number and. its illustrations are very fine." — E. II. 

"I like your magazine very much."- — F. A. L. 

"Hope I will be able to help you to some subscribers of your very in- 
teresting magazine."— C. S. 

"The publication is more than holding its own." — O. H. M. 

"I am much interested in the paper." — J. D. N. 

"The magazine is verv interesting, and mv friends in Germany enjov 
it also."— Mrs. G. M. 

"I have only one objection to it — it comes too infrequently." — A. S. 

"Had volumes one and two bound— and I never wi.'^h to part with it." — 
E. M. E.. 

"Reading your periodical gives me almost the pleasure of a short visit 
to that once home of my childhood days." — A. S. B. 

"It is the best gotten up historical publication of the kind I ever saw." 
— W. J. R.. 

"It was much enjoyed. To say nothing of the poems, the Muhlenberg 
sketch and the trip d(nvn the Schuylkill were intensely interesting to 
me."— F. T. H. . - ^ 

"Your Pennsylvania-German is a most excellent journal." — R, S. 

"We do enjoy reading t so much!" — Mrs. G. E. R. 

Famous Pennsvlvania-Germans 



|( JilAXX CHRISTOPM KL'XZE. scholar and divine, 
a [)iun(.er in the Lutheran Church in this country, 
was born on the 5tli of August, 1744, at Arteni, 
near Mansfeld. Germany. His early education was 
at the High-schools and "Gyninasiunr'' of Rosleben 
and Merseburg and continued at the University of Leipsic. where 
he remained about three years. Three more years were spent as 
a preceptor at tlu celebrated classical school at Klostenbergen, 
near Magdelterg. He was then appointed inspector of the 
Orphan House at Greitz. 

1 he influence of a devotedly pious mother had so impressed the 
tnind of her son. that in early manhood he resolved to give him- 
self to the sacred ministry. He pursued his theological studies 
while engaged in teaching, and was pronounced "a candidate of 
theology well grounded in knowledge and experience." 

The faculty at Halle having received an application for help in 
their work in Pennsylvania, "immediately turned to voung Kunze 
as well fitted to occupy that important field." He accepted "the 
appomtment, was examined before the consistorv at Wernigerode. 
ordained, and on May 5th, 1770, with prayer and solemn service, 
set off to his distant mission. Like his predecessors, his course 
was first to London, where he remained some weeks under the 
care of the friendly C()urt chai)lain, Ziegenhagen. 
_ On the 2yth of July, 1770. Mr. Kunze. with two sons of "'the 
faithful Patriarch Muhlenberg." eiubarked for his new home. 
After a perilous voyage in which -the mast was eight times broken, 
the sails often torn." they arrived in Xew York on the 23d of 
September of that year. .\ cordial welcome was extended to Mr. 
Kunze by Pastors Grimm and Gerock, of Xew York, and he was 
urged to remain and help the church in that city. This he de- 
clined to do, as he nad accepted the appointment as third pasror of 



TIIK I'h'X XS) J.l J M AG i: l: M A \ . 

the "qreat coni^Tci^'il'^'H '^f -^t- Michael and Zioti's" in Phihidel- 
{ihia. While in Xew 'S'urk, he preaclK<l for Pastor Gerock, Sun- 
day evening-, frinn Matthew 6:26. 

On the next da\ he prdceeded on his journey. Mr. Kunze wrote 





^^ ii&rl^itShi&ixxid^^ii 


thus of his reception l)y Mr. Muhlenher^- : ""lie recei\ed nie as 
thouy^-h he were n\y father and I his son. A thousand times may 
the Lord he praised that I have come to this His --erNant."" 

Mr. Kun/e entered, upon his labors in I 'luladelpliia. ( 'cttduT 8th, 

i:i:l'. JOIIX C. Kl'SZK. J).[). ' 101 

1770. Mr. Shul/t.' had removed to Tulpehockcn, th.oiioii still called 
second pastor; and the time of Mr. Mnhlenhery; was almost con- 
stantly occu])ied in his "oversight of all the clun-ches." so the 
burden fell greatly on Mr. Kunze, who, however, had the assist- 
ance C)f the \'(Mmi::: '^^^'ns of Father Mnhlenherg. 

In the snnimer of 1771. Mr. Kunze was married to the sec(jnd 
daughter of the patriarch. Marg-aretta Henrietta Muhkiiherg, a 
young woman of great charm of person and cliaracter, then not 
quite twenty years old. 

From the first, Mr. Kuiize"s mind was set upon the establish- 
ment of a school preparatory to a theological seminary and to 
continue the metln'id of religious instruction common in the paro- 
chial schools of Germany. Mr. Muhlenberg had written in 1747. 
"The want of good schools is a most grievous concern and one of 
the greatest hindrances in the buikling of God's Kingdom . . . 
When the good God helps us so far that we in each one of our 
principal churches can have a free school, so should we in manv 
points be much relieved." 

The schools established by the predecessors of Mr. Kunze. 
notably by I'ast(.r Hrunnholtz in 1772. had struggled along in 
inadequate quarters, but on February i6th, 1773. a new school- 
house was opened and the v.'ork here was more successfullv car- 
ried on until interruiHed by the war. Dr. Kunze's jo\' was great 
''that even during the war the schools could be supported, "" but 
later "the times were too turbulent"" and for a sea.son they were 

In 1776. '"in consec(ULnce of increasing physical infirmities and 
the civil commotions that existed,'" Mr. Muhlenlierg resigned his 
charge in I'hiladelphia and Dr. Kunze became first pasteir, Mr. 
Ilelmuth taking tlie secinid place. 

In 1780. on the reorganizatiini of the I'niversity of Penns\l- 
vania, Mr. Kunze was given a German professorshi]). He and 
Mr. Ilelmuth shared the work and the salarv of the office, b'rom 
this university Mr. Kunze received the degree of Doctor of Divin- 
ity. About this time he labored on the re\ision of the ( iernian 
hymn books ami their translation into I'!iiglish. He succeeded in 
establishing a school for theological students, carried on clMefiv 
by his own effnrt^. and. to eke out a li\ing in tlMv,_ jiard times, hr 
also imdertoiik the editorship of a ( "lerman ne'w <paper. in which 


THE PKX N SYLl' A S I A - G /•.' /.' .1/ - 1 A' . 

Mr. IJclnuuh assisted him. Tliis was g'i\en up, hdwevcr. so souii 
as the times im])ri)ved. Mr. Kunzc rcmaiiK-d in the city during 
its occuj)ancy by the T.ritisli, tlKniyh his coadjuturs and many tjf 
his tliick had heen ohhyed U.) tk'e. His ministry in IMiiladelphia 
continued fourteen _\ears, "during' wliich lie commanded great 
respect antl exerted a wide and powerful intluence." 

In .1784 Dr. Kunze accepted an lu'gcnt call ti' Xew "\'ork to 
take charge of the German churches in that city. The first 
Lutheran church. I'rinitv. on the corner of Hroadwax- and Rector 

'^■^' V ' .- - -" ■ ! 

fi .'■■.. ■- - ' -^! 


Old L:iU;m-;u: Chiui,;! ;!i.J'j.v"iXrv'i' 


street (uppd'-ite Trinit}' F-jMscopal chui'ch). had been destro\'ed 
in the great firt of 1776. and the scattered tlock were aljout to 
unite with the ci jngregatitni of Christ I'hurch, the "old Swanij) 
Church."" which occui)ied "a verv substantial str)ne building," 
fleeted in 1751. rm tlit corner of h>ankfort and William streets. 
This building stood until its removal itecame necessary for the 
erection <.>( the I'.rooklyn bridge. Here Dr. Kunze worked faith- 
full\- for tweiite-tliret _\-"ars. till death called him hence. 

Du.rin^ the--e \ears lu- was instrumental in esta])!isliing an inde- 

7? AT. JOIIX C. hi XZh\ D.Jh 


peiuk'nt Ministerium. of which he was Senior; was a trustee of 
Cohimhia Colleg^e ; professor of German and Oriental lang-iiag-es 
in that institutiiju : was one of the originators of the Society for 
Useful Knowledg-e and of the Xew York German Society. Me 
was appointed German Interpreter of the ne\vl\-formed American 
Congfress in i/So: \vas a i)ioneer in the estahlishment of I'.nglish 
services in the Lutheran Church, and was an instructor of remark- 
alile ability.. ""Many of the pastors of the Lutheran Church owed 
their thec-lotjical education to his love of the work."" 

Dr. Kunze was pre-eminently a scholar and teacher, "and 
Avithal a faithful and much-loved pastor and an ardtntl}' helpful 
citizen." Llis literary work was abundant, comprising- the publi- 
caticni of theological treatises, a small volume of poems, a revised 
h}-mnal, tracts on pneumatics and astronomy: original calcu- 
lations on the solar eclipse which occurred in June, iSo6. and 'die 
had not been indifferent to an ijivestigation of medical jurispru- 
dence."' He was on intimate terms of friendship with a Jewish 
Rabbi and prominent men of all creeds: was. indeed, considered 
by some of his brethren in faith as "too liberal to other denomina- 
tions," though never unfaithful to the tenets of the church to 
■v\ hich he held allegiance. 

Dr. Kunze died "in peace, deepl}' mourned."" July 24th, 1807. 
The funeral sermon was preached by the Rev. William Rundell. 
from Daniel 12 : 3. 

He was buried in the Lutheran cemetery on Carmine street, 
and his faithful, loving people erected a stone to his memL>r\- 
bearing an inscription in German, a translation of which is as 
follows : 

"And they that be wise shall shine as the brig-htness of the 
firmament: and they that turn many to righteousness as the stars 
forever and ever. 

"To the memory of their never-to-be-forgrotten pastor. John 
Christopher Kunze. D.D., Professor of Oriental Languages, Senior 
of Lutheran Clergy ^n the Stste of New York, 

"This stone is dedicated by the people of his late charge in testi- 
mony of their veneration and love. 

"He was born in the year 1744, and fell asleep July 24th, 1807. 
in the sixty-fourth year of his. age. 

"Here lies a servant cf God who loved his Saviour, was faithful 
unto the grave, and gathered many souls. 

"Think, therefore, to your solace, ye who mourn his death, we 
shall fird him with Jesus," 

J04 THE VKS }; SY Lv A s 1 A G i:i: M A s . ■ I 


Many wars later the cemetery on Laniiir.t' street was taken hv : 

the city and cirders i^ivLti u>r tlie removal of all hodies interred v 

there. The remains of Dr. Kunze were placed with those of his ; 

wile, who had died in 1832, in the Lorillard vault in the church- ; 

yard of old St. Mark's, on Stuyvesant avenue. 

Of the works of Dr. Kunze sometliing- has already been said. 
but conveying' no idea of the stupendous amount and the varied 
quality. The records are almost incredible. While in I'hiladel- ^ 

phia, chief pastor of an immense congregatioti, "the largest in 
America,"'" two churches in fact, in tacli of which were held two 
services and Sunday-school each Sunday ; with iiis parochial •: 

schoc:)! ; his "Seminary."" where he single-handed prepared young ,; 

men for the ministry: his duties at the I'niversity ; instructions ■ 

for Confirmation; a Bible class and innumerable parish duties, to •.■ 

say nothing of the ( ierman paper, no wonder he wrote. "Truly 
the burden of the work is very great.'" and again of the editorship. ' 

ret^rring to the fifty pounds each it yielded to himself and Ilel- 
muth. he sa\'s, "which could not be taken away by the hartl times, 
although we felt very anxious when we thought of the hard wcjrk. -' 

Time for study will be curtailed, but this I can joyfully ' 

say that for the parish I work day and night."" Of his coadjutor, 
Helmuth, he wrote: "We are satisfied each with the other and I 

work in unity. What one preaches the other confirms, and thus I 

working we are blessed in the harmony especially among our | 

vouth. This has prevented manv disturbances."' i 

And all these labors were carried on in the midst of the dis- -^ 

tractions ijf a great war and under man_\" privations. In 1777 the | 

great Zion church became a hospital. St. Michaers served as a ' 

garrison for the English troops, although the congregation coul^l i 

use it once on Sunday. "The bloody war is still raging and yet •, 

more fiercely the scarcity of mtMiey. a good dinner costing two •: 

dollars in paper money, half a dollar in silver." Mrs. Kunze wrote 'i 

at the time, "It is hard to get bread and meat: we have forgotten \ 

how butter looks, but. thanks be to i.]nd, we have enough pota- I 

toes."" A cord of wood cost sixty ilollars. a hundredweight of I 

Hour twenty-one dollars, an<l a bushel of salt (a contraband article. | 

and very^ scarce ) , thirty-six dollars. I'.ut even in these hard I 

times the Kunzes gave to the Continental soldiers clothes and food i 

i.'A'i'. JOllS C. KlWZi:, D.I). 105 

as tlicv were al)lc, aiul were sometimes foreed also to feed the 

The sj)irit of Mrs. Kiiiize is illustrated in an anecdote preserved 
in the famih'. When the I'.ritish occupied I'hiladelphia, liouses 
of the ""rebels"' were examined to see what supplies could be 
utilized for the English army, chalk marks were made on the 
outer door to signify the number of men to be left at the house 
to tleniand a meal. On one such occasion, it is told, Mrs. Kimze 
boldly rubbed out the mark with her apron as soon as the otticer 
had ttn-ned his back. Tradition does not give the result. 

The Muhlenberg family was intensely patriotic. Colonel Peter 
Muhlenberg was very active in the American army, and his father 
was so radical that "the name was made very sus[)icious among 
the Hessian and English officers in Philadelphia, who threatened 
bitterl}- with prison, torture and death if thty catch the old fel- 
low." The patriarch and his son were forced to leave the city, 
'"the mild Kunze, although his son-in-law, waittd patiently, yet he 
had much to suffer.'" 

L'pon coming to Xew York, Dr. Kunze found traces of the 
r?-.vages of war. One church and one parsonage were burned. 
The remaining parsonage had been taken for the teachers of the 
school. The congregation was "'four times smaller than in Phila- 
delphia, but very liberal." They gave their new pastor, '"besides 
other things, three hundred pounds in money and eighty pounds 
for house rent and wood." Dr. Kunze resided for several years 
at 24 Chatham Row, and later at too Chatham street, where he 
died. He had also a '"country home" in what is now Christopher 
street. This street was named for him. The same property is 
now occupied by St. John's Lutheran church, parsonage and 
school. The town house was illustrious as the abode, while Con- 
gress was in session, of Frederic Augustus Muhlenberg, first 
Sjuaker of the House, and other notable Congressmen who 
boarded with the Kunzes. It was a familiar resort of Baron 
Stuben, an intimate friend of the family, and other notable men 
of the time. Dr. Kunze's great learning attracted men of letters 
to him. It was said of him, "( )f all the missionaries sent out 
from Halle, he was one of the most gifted and the most sclml- 
arly."' One who kitcw him well wrote, ""Th.e various acquirements 
of tl]i< geniKman. and particularlv his ( >rieiital learning, have 

106 TJit: }'j:yxsYLrAMA-<;KJ:MA.\. 

long rcndcrccl him an ornament to the American Republic of let- 
ters."' lie was called the best Hebrew scholar of his time. "In 
Church affairs his e_\e encompassed a large range, and, with a 
wide intellect he cumbine<l an energetic will." As a teacher he was 
remarkal)!y exact, with well-defined ideas upon every subject 
which camt up. "His mind was eminently lucid in its opera- 
tions and his ample stores of knowledge always at his command.'" 
Dr. Kunze was not a great orator. He was in his preaching dis- 
tinguished rather for richness and comprehensiveness of thought 
than for a highly attractive manner." He preached without ges- 
ture, but with a fearlessness and earnestness which carried con- 
viction. His sermons were unwritten and very lengthy. Though 
unwilling himself to preach in English, he had the foresight to 
perceive the growing necessit}' for the use of that language, and 
it is said that Dr. Kunze first moved to give the Lutherans in 
America a religious literatin-e of their own in the Englisli lan- 
guage. "Wrangle alone preceded him by publishing Luther's 
Small Catechism in English." He read always with pen in hand, 
and voluminous notes of his reading on various subjects are still 

In character he was mild, gentle, amiable and benevolent, with 
a childlike simplicity, ciiaritable to the poor, kind to all, of active 
piety, honorable and upright, "one whom no one could ever re- 
proach for unfair dealings or crooked ways." and had withal an 
earnest, indexible spirit in the discharge of his duties, resolute in 
resisting the unbelief of his times. It was one of his characteristics 
that he was inclined to be credulous and was, therefore, easily 
imposed upon. He would leave the most obtrttse calculations, or 
interesting research, to hear an<l sympathize with the tribulations 
of his people, no matter how trivial. He was even accused of 
giving "too much hetd to their idle gossip," but was amply re- 
paid by their devoted love. This dtvotion was forcefully demon- 
strated when he left Philadelphia "amidst many tears, and accom- 
panied by many for a great distance, he left the sphere of activity 
wdiich had l)een so blessed to him." He "never meddled with politics, 
but was greatly interested in every effort to aid the cause of intel- 
lectual impro\ement." 

Dr. Kunze "was deservedly recognized as among the very first 
of scholars and cherished b\- the learned and liberal of everv 

i>'AI". JOliy C. KISZE, D.I). 107 

<lcnomination uf Christians as an example of the refined influence 
whicli elevated pursuits stamp on human character. "" He left a 
library containing works in many languag-es, and pamphlets of 
inestimable value. He had also a valual^le collection of coins, 
which, after his death, was presented to the New York Historical 

Sprague"s Annals gives the following amusing story of Dr. 
Kunze's efforts to enlighten his fellow men thrcnigh the daily 
press : 

"Dr. Kunze held a newspaper controversy on the Gregorian 
period of the centurv iSoo. It is well known that the disstusion 
enlisted much feeling among the astronomers, both abroad and at 
home. Dr. Kunze addressed a communication on the vexed 
question to the editor of the New York Gazette. He had ad- 
verted to the Gregorian st}le in his letter and had inadvertently 
referred to Pope Gregory. The Gazette printed it Tom Gregory. 
The doctor requtsted an erratum, and the editor then g^t it Tom 
Gregorv the Pojie. The learned divine, with a heavy heart, in a 
final interview with the editor, begged him to make no further 
improvements, as he dreatled the loss of all the reputation his 
years of devotion to the subject had secured him." 

Dr. Kunze wrote, on July 27th, 1790, "New York has many 
attractions for me. There is harmony in the congregation and, 
notwithstanding the fact that the young people join the English, 
there is much aft'ection shown me. I have with me the Sp&aker 
and two other Congressmtu. and this helps along in the house. . . 
I have always had difficulty in making ends meet in America, 
except during the few last years in Philadelphia, where the prcv- 
fessorship helped along. I confess I spend too much money in 

A letter to a daughter. August iSth, 1806, shows how tender a 
father he was. After entering into her girlish interests and feel- 
ings, giving her the home news, he closes with this loving appeal : 
'Tf you will be confident and open-hearted to a father who loves 
you so tenderly, as to relate a little t!ie state of your mind, whether 
content and easy, whether impressed with some sensation of the, 
love to vour Lord Jesus Christ, whether you pray to Him. whether 
you feel His love t > you. vour letter shall create joy and comfort 
to mv soul. I wish mv children mav all live in Him, wlio died 


THE l'KX\SVLVAMA-(;i:i,'MA,\ . 

for tlivni. and u hn,„ their father felt iic loved when he was as 
young as they are now. 

"I am, with all the Underncss a parental heart is susceptible of. 
""N'our loving father, 


Following are the Kunze descendants • 

T. Maiiia. 
II. M. Catharine. 

III. Cathakixe Eliza, marne.! May I'l, ISOI. Caspar Meier. 
1. ATiiflia Henrietta (Meierj. 

-. Mar^aretta Henrietta, ni. Luureiitius H. vun Po&i-. 

a. llennann Casjier. 

b. Eliza Catharine, from whom des-cended the Schwabs. 

c. Henrietta ^targaretta, married another Sehwab. 

d. Amelia Elizabeth, from whom deseen<led the S.-liraders. 

e. Emily Maria, from Mncm descended the Paules. 

3. Emily Maria (Meier), m. Albert Smith, with a large descent. 

4. John Frederick Meier. 

5. j:iizabeth Lucie Meier, 

6. Cliarles Henry ^Meier. 

7. Eliza Catharine :\[eier. 

8. Mary Kunij^unde M.'ier, married .James Punnett, of Baltimore, 

with a consideralile descent. 

IV. Anna :\Iakia Cathakine. 
V. Haxxah Chkistiaxa. 

VI. Charles Hexky. 


VIII. Marl\ Magdalexa. 

IX. Catharixe Feedekica (Kunze), m. Daniel Oaklev. 

1. Margaretta Sara, from whom descen.led the widtes and Mathews 

and Perkins an. I }rorleys. ' 

2. John Wilmot, with a numerous descent, including Oaklevs, one 

authoress of foregoing sketch, and Walkers. 

3. Patience. 

4. Wilmot. 

5. Mary Kunze. from wnom descended Taylors and Farnsworths, of 


6. Charles Henry. 

7. Henrietta Meier, from whom descended the Coursons and Robe- 


8. Daniel Lorillard. 

9. Catharine Fredorica. married Rev. Dr. A. P.ulkiey, of Rutherford, 

X. J. A numerous descent. 

X. Anxa Ma;;(;\;;kt- a. m. .Jarul, Lorillard. 

'; -^""^' '■^"''^"■^'■••. f'-'Mi ah.,n d,.s,.,.„dcd th«. Cammanns. 
■2. Margaretta Henrietta, from whiun descended the Wards. 


UEV. A. c. wucinEi:. 

Pop, [xip 'ra-pop, poji-pop! S'unr (piles hoeb g'toxt. 

Xow geht's mohl -uiiMor oli; Er liut die leit niulil g'tioxt 

l>cr fiert .luly I'll' tzucker, tay, 

Kinnint widiler hei, Un scliuoseht noi-h nioh, 

Doll knipiit's niich olla ecka iiovis, Wie glass, bDhbicr, ni 'lussii'h, rum, 

Dor griss '1 gehr oin scliior gor ous. ^'n I'l"-'!^ un hem, un liolir om korn. 

Do. j^mg Amerika f;"" ^"* yuseht mK-h g ' 

Ts aw no" faul for -Irali ; ^'° ' \":V"^ sehtraieh g inocht ; - 

■TV. , ,, w' , ,,. I)e.s lusehasehtuft 

J\ on s jnischt rec ht knullt f.,;^.^^ 's ohr g Vufft 

lai boast un schollt, ^Von 's net boll biss 'l manners lernt, 

Dos .s vol. wos's l.ovva will- ^-^ ,,„^ ,, ^|,, ^;^,.„^.^, ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^;_ 

bnioebt aryer Seiner OS Bunker Hill. tzernt." ' 

Pop, pop'ra-pop, sizz, — bunun! ^^'l ^^■:"' g'mink, rles bind 

Xow rous niit peif un drunun, Schpout p;iar mold in die bond, 

Won's gebt f er 's lon.l -"^'''i gold's ob, 

Dob waer's'n sebond ^"^ '" '^'^■'"^ y^^^"^ .1'^^^ 

Won's gor ken patriota gaebt- ^^^"^ tieorgc rubft nob fer 's gom- 

Do9 is 'u sign die Union laebt. ^^ ^ pertoss, 

L f r scUie news turn Yorktown 

J, , , 1 . , , , g'sobiioss. 
>>o n dawg gebt s kenner meh 

Uff der'a seit 'm seeb ; Boll gous Amerika 

T'u drivva not. Is glei nocb soU'm drab 

Un won 's aw debt I'n nioebt uns nob 

Don waer's doeb yusebt so 'n jubilee \Vie 's kon, so, so, 

W uli yebdors gebt un nenuiit 'n Un grickt sieli aw so 'n sebaidabrief, 

scbprie. Mit blei un pulver, uhna sebrief. 

For bunnert dreisi,b vobr ^''^ 'i^" ^o ""'^ g'moebt, 

T>oh war des lon.l in g'fobr ^"^•' '="'"'''^ "" *^^'l yocbt; 

Mit sock un poek, Yusebt dob kummt 's net, 

Un sebip un bock ,, Der fiert July _ 

l-'n, K' , .,; 1, /■,.,. » Den but ni r vuscbt bei ni L nele Jvoenieh Lieorge soi norr tzu sei. ^^ 

Tzu lehwa vusebt utf welsebkorn ,, ,. "-^^I"' , , , 

1 •' In s IS aw ken so u patent sham. 

Po[), pop"ra-[)op. pop-pop! 

Er but g'mebnt <lie leit Xow s.-bies die eraekers ob; 

Die waera blnuer tzeit— S' waer "n sind un sebond 

A' biss'l dumm Won's fodderloud 

Un sebep un krumm. Hen dnwg net gute in ebra bolt 

l>ob kennt'r moeba was 'r wut, — Bis dos die I'nion tzonima folt. 

Oer sebroubscbtoek dreba, un er but. (Jilbert, I'a. 




We lift im niciin schlot, Morgets in oiler trie 

Kunit en schdini ous'm hot, Kreht der gigfrtgec. 

Un saugt zu mier, ■'Schteh ut. 'sis Brouchst net long wortc don 

morge trie wersht au gleich hehre 

'"Duh fouler kcrl. hersht net der En onre gons naichst der duht de 

gigeregee""? luft scluehre, 

Ich winsh er debt ufhehrf, Mit'ni gig-er-e-geel 

Mich net so feel scluehre. Dos wekt niensli un tie. 

Er hut en schdini de schold, Seller weg gelits fort 

Weit dorch's thai un wold. Dorch der gt^i^e ort. 

Der lienker niaug schlofe wen der \\'e weiter we leiser. bis endlich 

hahne kreht werts ol, 

Un sel lerinc uf de b-dim un im hof L f ebniohl kunipt z'rick dcm 

augeht. ershte sei schol. 

Ich glaub OS der schuft. So loud un so klohr 

Schbeerd de niorge luit. Dos es klingelt ini ohr. 

Monch niohl in der nocbt Mit ol seinner lerm. 

Hut er niich wockrich g'moclit Krotst er tleisich for werni. 

Un uft gons ferschterht in der nut Is ininier wochsom dos nix duht 

fon'ni traum, bosseere, 

Dos ich denke nius, der kcrl hut Zu seini broot den er net mecht 

g'wiss ken shaum. ferleere, 

Won er bet wehr er schdil Un won er eppes tindt 

Weil ich nuch schlofe will. Don rooft er si g'schwindt. 

Er kumt ininier do hehr, Der kerl is en fechter, 

Us won er koenich welir. Un g'wiss au ken schlechter. 

Mit deiii kup in der heh un sei Er hut en zorn we'n ries, un gebt 

schwons in 'm zwerl net gern uf 

Wos'n wunnerfulles g'schtold hut Kon ous holte we'n gowl' ferluss. 

seller kerl. dich druf 

Sei brusht schiept er nous Wen er fechte duht 

Gons mechtic.h dort drous. Don schprits au gleich bluht. 

Ken wuiiner is er schpri, Sei schbuhre sin g'sclierft 

Un imnier schtids debei, Un won er si werft. 


^ .^ __.. ^ _.. ^. ... _..^. I 

Wen er seht we er uf deni banner Don Miege de fetre hoch in der ■■; 

schteht luft I 

Oder webs we sei bild ufni fahne Un nioncher winsht er wehr kleer ? 

weht. fon dein schuft. ) 

Sis net yader mon Ich saug der er hut \ 

Der sel erriche kon. Feel schponk for ^o'n krut. i 


Ich wehs er is gros Guck yusht ehmohl he. \ 

Uf ni misht-houfe bios. W'e seller gigeregee \ 

Uniriugt mit ol seine weiver un Mit ol seine weiver im hof duht 5 

_kinner, schopottseere 'j 

Ken wunner dos er kreht we der So slilick os'n Mormon kon ehr | 

shinner. sich eischnieere | 

Won er dort he kumt Sis you gims driwer nous \ 

Eindt er kens os'n schtunipt. Mit'sellem hahne dort dmus. ■ 


Si sauge'sis lets Is ferhofticli en naaf iin bleibt ini- 

Un guns gege's gesetts, nier ferocht 

Os en nion so feel weiver ul th- Der liahiic hut reclit 

nichl nemt Seller innn i> bios schleclit. 
Ich glaub ovver net dos der hahne 

sich schenit Der gigeregee. 

Well's gebt you feel mcnner' Is'n nutwen-diches he 

Dc lehwe net shenner. Truz ol seiner lenn iin grosi 


Grand nuch seiner notuhr. Weil er de leit so feel naajung bci 

Lebt seller hahne sure. schoi't' 

Ovver der mon wo deni hahne Drum wehs ich os'r kreht 

noch niocht So long os de welt schteht. 


(Composed by E. M. E. Revised by Dr. E. G.) 

De aldt geik leit dart uf'm Shonk, Der Saeliga ruh — un nuch paur 

Mit lieb gook ich se aw; dawg, 

Se's inimer reads — saesht tlu net? — So komma niir aw datzul 

Der bowga naeva draw! 

Was niacin's as ich so froehlich .\lls dich hob ich kae bes'rer 

bin? ireund, 

Mv hertz, was macht's so froh:" r^"^'-^'"' '^'""^^ ^'"^''^ ''" "^^ ^^■'-■'^• 

E'n yades mohl as ich se seh, ^^' 'J'^"^ ^^^ shtreitich, bisht net 

Do is m'r's immer so! ... l^oldt. . , , 

Warsht aw net base — tershteh.-' 

„ . ,,,■,, u Holsht aw kae shpite, batreegsht 

rcrbrucha do. de tarrb do ob, mich net 

Se glitzert nimmy may: 0„s aerbshoft nder gelt,— 

Gacrackt. fergrotzt. fiel uigapatcht. idi krin tzu dir! mv zutlucht in 

Se shpielt vo duch so shay! 'Ra druwelsoma weldt! 
Aens froagt, "War mul de Geik im 

^Un onVa'shpott- un lacha; °'^ ''''"schl'^ht '^"''' "'"'"'^'^'""''^'^ 

Un maena ev'n se waer net tit -vr . r- m *^^ '■ ^ r i- i 

For fire m.t aw tzu macha! ^^ "^^ ^'w' ''>"'' "!, '?^;^',^^^' .^ 

Du lachslit mit niir. du hedsht nut 


De oldt Geik nem ich yetz turn Feelsht olfordt grawd we ich! 

Shonk, Gahorsom. willich, shpielsht so 

Mus shpiela — yusht ae slitick, — garn 

Ich shtup. un haeb se uf niy'm Waesht wohl tzu weni das d* 

gnee. kaersht— 

Un denk on tzeita tz rick. Bisht immer mv, du lie sht vo mich 

De hertzlich. shay, tergong'na tzeit, 13^,^-11 olfordt' 's ietslit un's aerslit. 

So full blesseer un g shpass. — 

Nay. net all g'shpass. nuch sonsht Wardt's widder raegrich koldt un 

was aw.- ^^.g^,-ht 

\etz warra my awga nass! p^^ nemond nous gae mawg. 

So suit's mich grawd, ich nem mv 

My lieby Geik! du hiltzig s Weib! Geik 

Won du yusht shprecha kensht! Un slipiel der gonsa dawg! 

So daetsht fertzaela. long un hel— Was will ich may? Fergneegt bin 

Wass d' waesht. un feelsht. un ich. 

denksht! My Geik is my Iilesseer; 

Fun monch'a as du froh g'macht Kae loiiges g'si'cht. kae schwaeres 

hiisht hertz. 

De sin \et/ in der ruh; Kae Einsomkeit bv mir. 

112 llll': rKSXSyiJASIA-GI'.UMAS. ' I 

" ■ i 

Mit iiota wfg— shpicl ous 'in kup— [Jvr i-heiishta blot/, dar is dahamo, ] 

Mil foos ut butta slitumpa: Dahaiiic wo moosic iss; 

Ell doiitz-sbtick :io\v. en uldter jig, Des liaobt uns ut. dcs is der wacp \ 

Was inacht's de yunga chunipa! Tzu berrlicbkeit sawiss. r| 

Gleicli des tzu saena— lu? se gae, Wass won m'r hct feel londt uii i 

Ihr t/.eit komnit aw yetz glei; gelt § 

Mir waura aw n.ul grr.ud we se Un doch kae freed dabei, ? 

Full lae\a, wusslieli. freil Do gaebt ich net my oldty Geik ':< 

For "n grossy bouerei. 

Ach! waer kae nioosie in der weldt .r- i i i •, • .- i" • , '' 

Do niisst m-r drouneh sei! ^ waerd dtuil< 1. s hre. des is sl.eer : 

^Fr niaent der nion wo inoosic t\ i ' i < i < . i 

j^i^^^^j. IJc ulir— shun liuluer acht! 

w j' ' 111^111 So slii)ote.'' D(j nius ieh vetz in 's 

Waer dum un shlecht dabeil ' , " - 

TT 1 1 • 1-1 M nesht — -4 

Hob secntzig vohr tuiu laeva g hot, Ar,- r..ii ;^i, - •• . i»i" ^. 

T' ^ : -11? -^'> ^t-'k. ich .-awg goot nachtl ; 

Ln waes tun wass icli shuetz; t„i, i„„„ ^i- i • ,^" . . , , 

r\ 1 1 • . Rli laeg dich widder uf oer siionk 

JJer nienscli wo ijaur kae moosic p- ; i, ,i- i -ii -n 

1 • , , ^ i'ls leii dich widder wi 1 

1 • 1 i'l^ i>^ii UH.U \\ luuci Will; 

1 H ■ II If. Dart shloaf. mv shatz. my lieby 

"Goot naeht!" 'S is alles shtill! 

Geb acht I — 's is ebbes letzl 


BY HEXi;v iiARBAUOH. (Translated by If. A. S.) 4 

Dheel Buselilcit hen keen Luseht de- Some baekwuods I'ulk can 't stay at ;" 

heem, liome, ' s 

ISie hankere' nnoeh tier Schtadt; They hanker for the town; 'i 

Vor Diei' Dheel, ieh hali iminer noeh But I for one liave ever yet % 

Kee Xosehen so gehatt. Kept all sueh notions down. 5 

'S niag^ut genung ini Sehtedtel 'n.e town is good enough for some; ! 

,, , ^^}~', . ^ , Tfie eountrv green for me. i 

Geb mir das gr.ene Land; x;,,^ streets and houses, walls and ! 

J)o IS net ailes ilaus un l)aeh. roofs ^ 

Net alles Sehtroos un Wand. ^^11 round me there I see. I 


Was hot m'r in der Prhtadt vor -j 

pj.pp(^}j V\hnt pleasure ean one have in town.' < 

'Sis nix as Liirm un .Fa,-ht, n.,^^'""',*^ distracts me quite. \ 

M 'r hot kee' Ruh <le ganse Dag, The racket will not let you rest | 

Kee S.-ldoof die ganse" ^^'^ *'^'^-''' "^'^^ ''^''^^■I' "'^ '^'g^'^- I 


Die Buwe guke matt uii Ideech; The town boys all look weak and } 

Die Miid sin weiss un dinn; [Kile; >) 

Sic hen wol seheene Kleeder a'. The girls are pale ami thin. [ 

'Sis awer nix rerhts drin. Their duds indei'.l are very tine, -' 

I'.ut milliner right's therein. I 

Die Sehtadtleit sin zu zimberlirh ; i 

Sie rege schier nix a'; Those town folks are too delicate, l 

Sie brauihe net ihr weisse Ilend, They scarcely touch a thing; \ 

Aus Fonht, 's kmumt e[vpes dra '. They dare not use their lily hands f! 

For fear of roughening. | 

^lir is zu wenig ("Jrienes do, . | 

^Kee' liUimme un kee' Beem ; There is too little green for me; | 

Wann ich 'n Schtuud ini Schtedtel No Howers. no trees I see. I 

bin To si>end an hour in town I find. 

l.»:iiin will irii widiltr .Tnst hmg enough for me. 

Historical Pilgrimages imo 



Our liistcuic aiitiuiuilnle is, in rno ios}K'i-t at k'list, i.iit' the frog in tiie 
woU, \vlii((i U;st l>y iiicjht in ^^lidiny;- hack wliat it had gained V>y ihiy tn\v;irdy 
getting out. Although our hist trip brought us fully twenty-tive iiiilrs tn 
the northeast of Reailing, some freshet or other jniwer has again SAvept us 
hack t(t old Berks' proud cajiital. iSo we start today on another trip from 
this pi'pulous center, whicli has 1 een ffil from e\ery section of ,lie county 

y^^^^ll^^CT >:-^\ 


---:■'- : ■ -".f-- ••-V- :s;,N^X ^^--i^^; '■ ■• "' 

;,''/■•■•■"• '■%";■• '-, . , -• ' " •'-•■•' '^*y •*■".'« 



■-r-. ^ . 

'.'•<;--, J. >r,>-f 


«._w.*«W?o;fc:.-^,' iT^t^ :■ 

.-ilSUHOIACW V^,^ 

' t .. ■ - . .1^ -». ■^. -. , '.■-i^A''f 

for a hundre<l and fifty years until today it is not far from the 100,000 
mark — the best municipal speein;en of Pennsylvania-iiennan grit and push 
that caa an}T\here be found. And a more prosperous and progressive eity 
than Reading it ■wouLl be hard to find among any jieople. 

Our trip is tn extend over tlie Oley Pike to P.oycrtown ami back by a dif- 
IiTi'iit ruute, giving us ymssihly forty miles of iniert-stiug travel, thrnugU 
\erv historic <.'cti(.r!^. 



Although a newly opened trolley line would cheerluUy convey our party 
to this border borough in the direction of the risting sun from Keading, we 
prefer the old Avay of travel, whitdi will take a man wherever our thrifty 
forefathers cut open a highway for carriage, bicycle, high-top boots or Pe- 
gasian cluiriot. If any one is fortunate enough to have a nephew with a 
high-bred and high-priced nag to carry him over this trip, as the writer had 
when he made the initial trip of exploration, just as Nature was putting on 
its summer vestures, he will enjoy it all the more. Such a day will then lie 


-.-:■.■ , '-., ^- - '■■:.-■ 

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in memory as an oa?is in a desert, or a fruitful, flowering isle in a waste of 
dreary waters. Let us hope that our present metliod of riding in fancy's 
silk-lined coach is not the poorest that can be taken. 

Passing up east on Penu street, Reading, to the base of Gallows Hill, now 
hinied into a well-kept city park, in the midst of which are the basins of 
the city's water supply and the county jail building, we turn ilown to the 
southeast by one of Reading's most charming residence streets — Perkiomen 
avenue. At the base of Xeversink Mountain, a mile away, stands an his- 
toric old hostelry, the Black Bear, where our highway again cun-es to the 
east and winds through a picturesque gap of the surrounding peaks of this 
South Mountain Range, viz, Mts. Penn and Neversink, whose celebrated 
crested resorts, like castles of medieval days frown down upon you. Through 


this gap roile the IV'iins, Washin^rton, ari,l all the eelrbratcil and humble 
travelers who iu colonial times and the early dajs of the Republic traveled 
between Philadelphia and Eeadiug. 

Speeding on our way we soon emerge I'rom this romantic cleft in the 
hilla, where the Plessian soldiers were imprisoned, and look out upon the vil- 
lages of Stony Creek and St. Lawrence. At the latter English-dubbed place 
the noted Pennsylvania-German, Mr. A. J. Brumbaeh, ha.s successfully car- 
ried on for years his extensive liosiery mills. The former, too, is noted for 
its woolen mills. Beyond the village, which lies a mile to tlie east in a 
pocket of the hills, the spire of Spiess, or Zion 's Union Church, greets the 
traveler. The present church is a stately brick, conspicuously located on the 
brow of a high hill and surrounded by a populous God's acre, or city of the 
dead. The structure is the third in order since the church's establishment 
in 1774. 

Presently our highway comes to a parting in the road, one branch being 
the Philadelphia pike which leads through Exeter, Douglasville, etc., while 
our Oley jiike takes the left and lies due east— a well-kept ami delightful 
highway, tit for the chariot of a king. We have not traveled far when we 
pass the Jacksonwald Hotel which shows signs of age, and our pike Uned 
by characteristic Pennsylvania-German homesteads, we come to another old 
church site, located to the right of our way. Its old graveyard holds the 
ashes of this portion of Exeter township 's early generations of toih^rs, who 
doubtless gave this region its present name of Schwartzwald, after famiUar 
and resembling regions in the Fatherland, the name still borne by this cen- 
tury and two-thirds' aged church, already in existence when Henry Melchior 
Muhlenberg, in 17-12, lirst came to this country as Lutheran Church organ- 
izer and missionary superintendent. It would give us great pleasure to 
act Old Mortality and retrace some of the fast-fading inscriptions on these 
oldest tombstones, and then sit down and dream and conjecture about the 
experiences of these sturdy pioneers, who here took up their abode with few 
scattered Swedes and many, at this early period, comparatively friendly 
Indians as neighbors. What a contrast their life and abodes and 
hardships with the ease and comforts and luxuries of some Eeading busiues3 
men, who have here, five or six miles from the city, alongside the trolley- 
lines, erected tlieir palatial summer homes! We give our readers an idea 
of the finest of these Vjy presenting a full-page cut of the country residence 
of Mr. Charles Breneiser, Sr., wholesale tobacconist, of Eeading. 

Between a mile and two farther on we come to a cross-road village and 
hotel-stand, known as "Oley Line." It is on the border of this township, 
this story-laden Eldorado, this garden spot of Berks — Oley. By turning to 
the right we would get to Stonersville and eventually to Philadelphia. By 
turning to the left we would get to the hillside, whence rise many of the 
streams that water this fertile garden. But we take the Scriptural course 
and turn neither to tlie right nor left, until a mile beyond, at another parting 
of the ways, punctuated by that poetic marker, a country blacksmith shop, 
where we deflect for nearly a mile to the south to visit one of the rarest of 



historic slirines. This is the cclebrate.l George L)e Benneville homestead—, 
the birthplace of Universalisin in America. 

This home was erected in 1745, by a young Huguenot nobleman, Dr. 
George De Bennevillo, who ha.l but recently emigrated to tliis country, a 
son of a I'rotestant fugitive from France in those days, who had 
been personally invited and sheltered by William 111. uf England. George 
was born of noble parentage in 1703, and his parents dying young, he was 

.J;''-^'^^. 4 

i ■ilinilililiiniil!!! 



KT^ii'MtfA'f'^jftytffc 4*1^^11^^^ 

HOUSE OF DR. GEO. De BENN EVI LLE— Erecred 1745. 
Birthplace of Uni^ersalism in Amricn. 

brought as a chiM under the personal care of Queen Anne, uiio gave him an 
excellent education in both theology and medicine. He waa conversant and 
fluent in almost all European languages and began to preach to the perse- 
cuted Huguenots of France at the early age of seventeen years. He was 
arrested and condemneil to death, but saved in the very nick of time by a 
reprieve fnnn the king (Eouis XV.). obtained through the English Ambas- 
sador at the instigation of Queen Anne. After his releas-e, he preached to 
the scattered Huguenots of Germany, lL.Ihui<l and Flander-^ for eighteen 

118 IRE FE}^ y HYLV AN I A-GKIIM A^ . | 

years, Trhen od account of failing health, he emigrated to the New %Vorld, ; 

with a conviction of divine guidance in the nuilter. Upon his arrival in 
Philadeljihia, as told by a descendant of Christopher Sower, this celebrated 
Gennantown printer of that period, was by repeated dreams induced to " ; 

search out this unheralded and unknown sick refugee, took him to his home 
and restored him to health, after whirh the latter remained for a time in 
his employ. Here he met Jean Bertolet, a religious pioneer of Oley, who 
induced him to take up his abode in Oley as a teacher and physician. In 
1745 he married Mr. Bertolet 's daughter, Esther, built his fine stone home- 
stead near a beautiful spring that gushes from rocky limestone caverns, and \ ^ 
in a large room, fitted out as a chapel within the same homestead, he began k 
to preach the doctrine of universal redemption to such of his friends as fiock- '.; 
ed to hear him. He lived here but ten years, when he removed to Germantown, \ 
where he practiced medicine, but devoted much time to preaching his favorite •; 
theme of Universal Eestoration, dying at the age of ninety years. The De ■ 
Benneville descendants are many and very celeliratcd, especially those of the ^ 
Keim branch. ]Mr. Converse Cleaves, of Philadelphia, intermarried into this 
branch of the family, has imblished a booklet on the life of this celebrated 
ancestor, in which are narrated some remarkable experiences in this eventful 
life. His fervent piety and deep learning may be appreciated by a long 
letter, contained herein, anil addressed to Ezekiel Sangsmeister, of Ephrata, 

The Oley liomestead is now in the hands* of Mr. Eckert, a wealthy Keading 
gentleman, who has remodeled the same for a country home ani] converted 
the chapel into a rustic clubroom, known as Willow Lodge, and devoted the 
same to bodily rest, conviviality and luxurious ease, as one would infer from 
the furniture, and the mottoes that adorn the wall, one reading: 

' ' Old wine to drink, old wood to burn. 
Old books to read, old friends to greet. ' ' 

A first-class Pennsylvania-German tenant. ]Mr. Dutt, farms this rich 
plantation, occupying a portion of this and an adjoining house. The out- 
buildings are all new and in an up-to-date condition, consisting of a large 
Sweitzcr barn, wagon-shed, model hennery, spring house, with beautiful 
gardens and trout dams, all in prime condition. Surely here it would seem 
could rest, comfort and contentment be found. This cradle of Universalism 
was visited, June VI, 1S90, by over a hundred pilgrims, who as delegates 
attended a Universalist Convention, then held at Keading. 

Finding our way back to the pike, we ride on a mile, when we get to 
Griesemersville, a small villagr founded by the settement here in 1730 of 
Casper Griesemer, an Alsatian immigrant. His descendants still occupy 
the fine old homestead, erected later by a son. Presently the pike takes a 
northern turn and leads to Pleasantville and Pikeville, the latter about four 
miles away. On following this, we come first of all to the historic Oley 
churches, where the Lutherans and Peformed have gathered for worship 
many years, the Kev. P.nel a, of the Rrfurim d faith, as early :ts 1734 lieing 
pastor hero. 



C)n April 13, 17.">4, John Leslior, a Calvinist, conveyed by deed 132 perches 
of land to Gabriel Boyer auil Casper Griesemer, in trust for the society of 
Christian people inhabiting Oley. Upon this lot a small meeting-house was 
built in 1735, in which visiting ministers of the Keformed and 1-utheran 
persuasion occasionally preached, but no regular preacher was secured until 
1771, when Kev. John William Boos assumed that task and preached eleven 
years. The Lutherans also continued to worship in the old church until ISl'l, 
when they became a distinct body. In May, 1S22, the Reformed congre- 
gation vacated the old church and laid the corner-stone of a new 
church, while the Lutherans secured a lot adjoining from Jacob S. Spang, 
and on May 27, 1S21, the corner-stone was laid for a Lutheran church, which 
was dedicated May 27, 1S22. On January 26, 1S22, Kev. Conrad Miller was 
installed as the first pastor, serving twelve years. 

In the adjoining God's acres lie buried the dust of the worthy ancestors 
of many a wealthy and pironiinent scion, who may scarcely know where his 
American stem first took root and where his body sleeps and the ashes are 
entombed. We need but give the names of the petitioners for the erectTon 
of a township as early as Septemlier 5. 1720, to give an idea of this fact. 
This valley had already been commonly known by the Indian name of Oley, 
from Oliuk, meaning "Encircled by hills'' — which literally describes (his 
rich limestone garden tract of about 14,000 acres — so that this name was 
maintained. The petition has the following signatures, mostly in a German 

John Longworthy, 
Benjamin Longworthy, 
John Henry Kirsten, 
Hans Helfin Week, 
Johannes Keihm (Keim), 
Jacob Koch, 
Isaac de Tiirck, 
John Yoder, 
Hans Schneider, 
George Kreider, 
Henry Baker, 
Hans Klenimer, 
Peter Bertolet. 
Samuel Saul, 
Philip Kuhlwein, 

Abram Zimmerman. 

Engel Potter, 

Jacob Plank (de la Planck) 

Johannes Jung, 

Martin Schenkel, 

Isaac Lennerd, 

Jonathan HerV>ein, 

Jacob Stauber, 

Arnold ITuffnagle, 

Anthony Lee, 

Jost Yoder. 

George Boone,-- 

Peter Trakseler (Trexler), 

Richard Gregrey, 

Abraham Ashman. 

Hans Siegfried, 

Among the more illustrious names found on tombstones is that of General 
and Hon. Daniel Udree, wlm was an ofiiier in the Revolution, and also In 
the "War of 1812, and a Congressman later. Before the Revolution ho oper- 
ated Oley furnaces. His monument is in Oley Reformed churchyard. The 
third edifice, a modern structure, is now in use by this flock, while the Luth- 
erans have a more an-'quated edifice, a nicture of which we give to convey 
hettr-r the stvle of tlu"- nl l-fashioned countrv church. 



Were wc to take the direction of llie chief streuni of this township, the 
Manatawiiy, which flows from north to south, ue couhl take quite an his- 
toric pilgriiiiajtre by n.iw travelinfr on the ol.l "Kind's Highway,"' laid out 
in 1717 from Fikeville to the Swedish setth-mcnt on the Schuylkill at and 
about Amity\i!le. We would pass nuiuy old homesteads and interesting 
sights, among which is the Maiia.awny cave, ahout uhich cluster many strange 
legends. But we s]:all go eastward in a straight line and wing our way with 
the crow over the Oley hills towards Boyertown. For several miles these 
environing hills have loomed up on our eastern horizon and were it not for 
their connection in story and song v, e would yet want tii lead our readers over 
them because of dieir place in traditi(jn according to mie plain denizen of 



. |. ■.■ 


Il ■ ' : 





■;..■ -•^■• 

--."^.i^.^.^-— .^.^-. " - - -. -:-\ 

t' ■ ■ . '- ^ 


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-.-'■■ ! ^ >J 3 . 



.'>£."i ■^■f4>»^&'^'--v j*i»*..^?'' .-W;.-iV;.. 2i:^-!ta.»- 




;hese j>arts. While a student in college the writer juit in a summer in this 
tov.-nship as colporteur for the American Tract Smicty, and remembers on 
one occasion asking a farmer '.s wife the derivation, or meaning, of the town- 
ship name, which by man\' inhabitants was pronounced (>/m7i. "Dess will 
ich dcr saage, " was her prompt reply. " Wie der Columbus Amerika en- 
deckt hui, do hut er sella Daag no<di grad zu norh Redden (Keailing) ge- 
wollt. Not is er iwuer der Berg kumma ; un juscht wie er uf em Spitza 
war, do is die Sonn uiiiier ganga. Not hm er ausgerutTa, '0-liciit!' Now 
hesst es ew^\a 0-lich! " 

Somewhere near wherf' tliis credulous informant placed Columbus in his 
predicament, hi-^tnry ju.ints to a spot where long abode contentment antl 
humble piety, personified in the liistoiical character of ''Mountain .Mary.'' 

Ol'KH THE OLKY J'Jh'K. 121 

We cross the mountain to look at the now almost entirely obliterated site, 
from -which almost every landmark has been elVaeed, Init which spot was 
often visited by the studious and curious, from far and near. This story 
is well told in poetry and prose, given in an accompanying article, furnished 
us by Mr. Converse Cleaves. Our way to the spot leads by the old Oley 
Forge, in operation from ITtJO to ls7(», near which place the Rev. A. Sta- 
pleton, author of "Memorials of the Huguenots," was born, where his iranii- 
grant ancestor, Eoliert P. Stapleton, erectetl the first brick house in tho val- 
ley some time before 1745. 

Having crossed ]\lanatawny and the nmuntain, we descend the eastern 
slope and are soon lured on by the church si)ires of Hoyertown, to this our 
eastern destination. Our Pennsylvania-Cterman poet, ' ' I'ncle Jetf, '' re- 
siding here, we will let him tell the history of his nati\e town. 


The borough of Boyertown was part of Colebrookdale township until 
October liOth, ISOG, when a decree of the court forming it into a borough 
was granted with articles of iiK.Mjrporation under the gtticral borough law. 

As early as July iilth, 17 IS, L'tivid Powell ubtaiaed a patent for 'Joo 
acres or laud, which afterwards became knowu as the "Furnace Tract,'' 
and a source of great profit to the proprietors. On .June 4, 1719, Powell 
sold this land to Thomas Kutter, and on May 22, 17o3, Samuel Potts ob- 
tained an interest in the same. These parties were the first to develop the 
mineral resources of this lauii. The Colel>riiuki.lale L'urnace was erecto.l about 
1720, on the site of the grist mill of William S. Cruti' at -vshat is now known 
as Morys'.-ille, less than a quarter mile fmm the borough limits of Boyer- 
town to the south. The furnace was supplied with iron ore from the mines 
which are centrally located at Boyertown. The ore cmpjied out on the 
surface and the mines were worked l:)y "open cut'' process. These mines 
have been worked with more or less activity for at least ](in years. They 
have been lying idle for the last 15 years, liut the properties luue been 
bought by a syndicate nf capitalists, who intend to resume mining opera- 
tions on an extensive scale in a short time. When Kutter and Potts soM 
the land to Heinrich Stauffer, December 20. 1769. they reserved the mineral 
right, retained an acre where the vein had been mined by "open cut," and 
exacted a condition whereby they might have the privilege of nuaing at 
the "Eed Bank"— the so-called "red ore," holding themselves responsible 
for any damages resulting from mining ojierations. In later years a claim 
for cousecjuential damages luuing been nuide, the owners of the mineral 
right purchased six acres of land with impro\ements thereon at that place 
and adjoining the one acre previously resei-Acd. This land, iiuludiug the 
nn'neral right, was until recently the [uoperly of Robert and Morris Lewis, 
i»f Philadelphia, and was worked under a by the Pho'nix Iron Company 
up to about 1SS7, ^vhen operations were suspended. Of the land which 
Heinrich Stauffer bouglit from Ihitter and Potts in 17()9, he sold a part to 
Jacob Latsliaw in 1775. and to Jcn-.ithaii Hhoaiis in 17^*;, and to Henry 
Baer in 1795. Joliu S.ilim- resiiled on a part of this tract as early as 172ii. 
and he was probably the first settler of what is now l^.oyertown. In Decern- 



bcr, 1S£»1, R,.l)ert ar.^l M.,rris Lewis with their wivea eenveved bv deed their 
right to the miueral on huid \vl,i.-h Heiurich StaufFer sohi to Jonathan 
Ehuads in 17S6, to the h^irs of .Inhii Klioads, deceased, through Dr. Thomas 
J. B. Rhoads acting as att-rney for the heirs, so tliat they now hohl the 
undisputed right to all tlie nunerai on their tract, wliieh was formerly in- 
cluded in tlie mineral reserve:. P>y separate .leeds of conveyance the same 
that thriving horough. When an accident to the shaft of the Warwick 
ndne caused a susj^ension of all the otlier mines on account of the vast vol- 
ume of water to contend with-drowned out as it were-the citizens cast 
parties also sold their right to the minerals on tracts owned by Henry B. 
Rhoads, Dr. R. B. Rhoads and Dr. Thomas J. B. Rhoads for considerations 
therein mentioned. 

The iron mines of Boyertown were for a long time the main industrv of 
that place and gave emplnyn-.ent to a snuUl army of laborers in and around 



about for some other in,!«stries to take the idace of the once j.rosperous 
mines. Since then, carriage works, foundry and machine shops, three knit- 
ting mills, large cigar factories-, two box fa.-tories, tliree bakeries, two na- banks, burial casket company, and a number of retail stores have been 
established, giving employment to all that want to work, and to scores re- 
siding in the sr.rroundiug towns. 

CiiURCHES.-The .Menuohites were the first to establish a place of worship 
m what IS now Boyertown. In 1790, Ileiurieh Stautfer, a member of this 
sect, granted one acre of ground to Abraham Bechtel and Henrv High in 
trust for the use of tiic "Mennrudte C.Mi,^regation of CoIrl,ruokdale '' a 
congregation some tuenry y.ars old at that time and worshiping in a mret- 
xn^-hou^e in the eastern end of the valley. Upon this lot a church was built 



the same year aud a cemetery opened, which is still ke].t up, though iu the 

The Union Church (Lutheran an.l Ketorined) came next (ISll), luit lnjth 
are long since worshiping in handsome separate edifices. O^her denominations 
have located here since. 

Mount Pleasant Seminary, where many a youth of Berks received bis 
start in life a generation ago, had its origin in a select school, establishe'l in 
1842 by Hon. John Stauft'er. Its success encouraged him to erect a building 
for a school on a more extensive scale, and in 1S49 and 185U the Seminary 
building was put u]). Prof. Jacob Whitman was the first principal in 1S50. 
He was an able teaclier and skilled botanist. The course of instruction em- 


braced the common Klnglish branches, the classics and higher mathematics. 
Henry Dechant and Charles H. Albert were later teachers, the latter being 
gifted with rare poetic talents. In 1S.54, Prof. P. D. W. Hankey conduc'ea 
it successfully for thirteen years, being assisted at times by his brothers, 
Jacob aJid Isaac B. Hankey. In 1S55, the buihling was enlarged to accom- 
modate fifty resident and a numl)er of day scholars In iMiT, i'rof. L. M. 
Koons became its principal and continued until the school was closed in 
1880. Frederick H. Stauffer now owns the building, which is used as a 
boarding hou«e and residence. It is locate! on high ground in a small grove 
of stately oaks. 

Kallynean Academy' was established by Isaac B. Hankey in 1S6G. The 
building, a large three-storj' brick structure, capable of accommodating sev- 
enty-five students, had a corps of four teachers at one time. It was pros- 
perous for some years, but bci:;an to derline and uas dis'continued for ^ant 
of patronage, and has bei n con\erted into (h\ellings. 


THE PKX X S y LV A X I AG K1;m A.\ . 

HoThLs.- Prior to tlio year ISOU, tuo hrotluMs, Jl.nrv li..ver an,l Dunu.! 
Koyer, can.e from Fredorirk tounslup. Montgomery eoumv, 'to locality 
and established then.seivos in l.usines. here and n.ay be ;aid to have been 
the founders of Boyerto^^n. Henry lioyer was a justice of the peace m 
Colebrookdale tonnship prior to ]S(,„, and in Iso,-, opened a tavern or "pub- 
lie house" on the site of the present Union House. The building was a lor 
^ructure, in one end of which the hotel business, in cunne^.ti.m with the 
squire business, was earned un. uhile the bn.ther. Daniel, ed a small 
retail store in the other end. At that time all traflic was carried on between 
Philadelphia and Pittsburg by teams of four and six horses, which made 
regular trips between the two cities the vear round, conveying .nich 


■<■ : III' 

'i M' 

-aa_y.»i^»._»if.j>^ "- 4vi - 


goods and chattels as were taken in exchange from one place to the other. 
In this way Daniel Buyer reeeived his regular supplv of coffee, tea .u^ar 
and other articles from Philadelphia by the Pittsbur^r teams, which stopped' 
at Eoyerstadtel on their way going and coming. His siipplv of r^roceries 
usually could be carried in a bushel basket and kept in a corner-cup- 
boar.i of this "store." This was the nucleus upon which he an.l later his 
son, D. B. Buyer, built up the independent fortune amassed by the latter be- 
fore he retired from business. His sons at present conduct the general store 
business on the corner opposite the Union House. 

The "Keystone House" was the second hotel of anr size. It was built 
by Henry B.^yer in 1830, and has been enlarged several" times, until at pres- 
ent It IS an attractive four-stuiy building kept by Khun ^fellinger. Besides 
these are a few other jmblir houses, but not historic. 

That rhe tou n has all tl;.- uMial llnuri^lu.ig sfavs and banks and Indus- 

OVF.n TUK OLKY I'lKE. 125 

tries may be taken for ;i;i:inted. The Burial Casket Company has given the 
town a name far and wide. It employs over a liundred hands constantly. 
The cliaraeter of its most imposing business Mocks may be judged by the 
Hceompanying \iew. 

Passing up along the Kutztown road from Hoyertown. we pass the exteu- 
fiive fruit farms of Jolm G. Soheakr and IJr. .1. II. Funk midway between 
Boyertown and Gabelsville. Last season Mr. Selioaler gathered 2,000 bushels 
of winter apples from his extensive orchard, and made some 40.000 gallons 
of cider of his own, besides hundreds of barrels for the farmers of the sur- 
rounding countiy. This fruit farm was started by Dr. J. H. P'unk in 1876. 
In 18S5, he gathered 800 bushels of strawberries from his farm, and an 

■'■■■ ■ ' - '- ,.- r '■* J^-*V^"^r " -- ■ 



enormous vintage from 1.500 grape vines, and from 50.000 to 60.000 heads 
of cabbage. This farm was sold later to Sehealer i: Cleaver, and is now 
owned solely by Mr. ^eliealer. On The opposite side of the road, Dr. Funk 
has planted a still more extensive fruit orchard, some of the trees being in 
hearing condition, from which he gatherrd some of the flnt?st fruit to be 
found anvwhere in Pennsyi\ania. 

Crossing the new trolley line of the Oley Valley Railway near the his- 
toric ' ' Popadickon, " which furnishes water power to the mills along the 
valley, we come to the grist mill of H. G. Galiel, a stone and brick struc- 
ture, with a run of four stones at the time it \v;i-< Ixiilt by I)a\id Gabel in 
1860, but converted into a roller mill by the present owner. I'as.sing along a 
short distance, we come to the Gabel manor, a large farm-house, which was 
built by Thomas Eutter or Samuel Potts about the year 1725. when the 
Colebrookdale furnace was operated by Kutter and, Pi.tts. Further up the 
stream we come to the site of the oil and saw mills of Abraham Gabel. A 
grist mill now occupies the site of the oil mill, and is owned, together witli 
the store stand, farm an<l saw Tiiill, bv .la.-ob 1'.. Palir, who is married to a 



grand-daughter of Abraham Gabel, ilie foimdcr of the property. Colebrook- 
dale creamery, near by, was erected in ISSl by a stock company, and is 
operated by E. K. ^loyer, of New Berliuville. On the farm of Lewis Bechtel 
a larye dej>osit of bhick lead (carburet of irou) h;is been extensively ile\ el- 
oped and is operated by a party of capitalists from AUentowii. Passing up 
the road through the valley of the Popadickon, so named after an Indian 
chief who is buried on .Mr. Bechtel 's farm, we come to the three-story stone 
grist mill erected in 1865 by W. K. Grim on the head waters of said creek. 
Near the mill site formerly stood a saw mill and bark mill used in grinding 
the bark used in the tannery of Henry Knauss, which was bought by Gid- 
eon Grim in 1S30 and carried on by him, and after his death by his son, W. 

.,^=^Wf— --».„ 


/■■ ,li-n: 





DANIEL GABEL'S RESIDENCE-Built by Thos. Rutter 1725. 

K. Grim, until 1S77, when it was discontinued. A creamery now occupies 
the site of the old saw mill. This property is distant from Boyertown two 
and one-half nules along the Kutztown roa<l. Continuing on our journey 
we cross the divide and descend to the village of Shanesville, a town of 
some twenty dwellings snugly nestleil between the hills of Earl township. 
It was named in honor of John Shane who owned the land upon which the 
town was founded by Peter Clouser in 1833. He was succeeded by Daniel 
Clouser, his son. Simon Clouser, a veteran of the Civil War, now owns the 
property which was formerly a hotel stand. A post office was established 
there in 1867 witli a triweekly mail to Kutztown. In 1872 the Reading 
route was established, and since 1S8lI they have daily mail service. 

There being no church wiiiiin the limits of Earl township, the people are 
members of the Oley and Hill churches. St. Joseph's church, better known 
as Hill church (die Borger Kirch) is located in the eastern part of Pike 
township on fitly a^rt's of land bought or taken up by Casper Grygler, 



Geor^'e Ernest and Aiuirew Ro<louhefl-t'r us t-arly as 1741. for the use of 
school and church purposes. Kev. Juhn Casper Stuever had preached and 
baptized here ten years before. Uu this tract was erected a Lutheran church 
building. The roof projecting over the sides, so as to protect it against 
rain storms, this outer space was used by the early settlers to hang up their 
seed corn, from which circumstance it was, called "Die Welshkorn Ivirch " 
which sobriquet it still bears locally. This building was replaced in iVsG 
by the Lutheran and Reformed congregations with a fine stone church. On 
May 1.-., 1S53, the cornerstone was laid for the third church edifice on tho 

^4 &^'^^-^--4 



original site, and on Septe.nber 22, 1S6G a centenary festival was held 
there to celebrate the day when Eev. Michael Schlatter visited Oley just 
120 years before as the pioneer missionary of the German Reformed 
churches of Berks county. 

In 1SS6 the building was remodeled and supplied with a spire It is 
occupied by the Lutheran and Reformed congregations jointlv. Rev. Warm- 
kessel, of Reading, is the Lutheran minister at present. Each congregation 
has a membership of 400 to 500. 

Returning to Shanesville from this side trip to Hill church we proceed 
down the road towards Pleasantville. passing on ,mr wav an old stone grist 
null which was known in years gone by as Albright '3 mill. It is in ruins 
now, as well as a saw mill that was located a short distance down the road, 
the only marks remaining being part of the embankment of the dam to the 
left as we pass down the defile. Passing along the right hand road that skirts 
the mountain we come to the ruins of Leinbach 's woolen mill. This has been 
dismantled f„r many years, though the buil.ling ?till remains and the mill 


Till-: rhxxsYLrAyjA-dKL-MAy. 

dam is still visible. Prt'stnitly wo arrive at i'leiisarit\ illc, '.vliere cluster 
events of jiersonal Imt imt ijeiieral interest, liecause here the writiM' preaelied 
his first semion in the days ot his youth ere he saw eolle^e or seiiiiuary, a 
sainted brother being pastor. 

From I'leosantville we could reach out in ahnost any direcUcni and fijid 
intcrcstiug landmarks in the shajie of wealthy and well-kept homesteads, 
that have ci^me down in lineal descent for n;ore than a half dozen genera- 
tion?. These are the Lidiachs, ('lea\ers, Deyshers, Ber^olets, Hochs, I')e Turks, 
Keims, the latter few named ha\inji been in the valley almost as early as 







, «; 


S. • "'* 

h tl/i 



—X. JJ^ 


jw^« T-;; 


^^■m .'— 

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J" I 

a u 


?.. 'f 

.n If 




e* ■" 

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fesaft'v»P-<5^!«.-J-i-^ ^**«i -!.«' 

^'f" 1 ^ - 'VI 


the Penns were in the Pro\ince. l:?ut ue wa!it to take our way home via 
Friedensburtj and i'ricetow n and thus- visit a fev» more objects of interest. 
Friedensburor is but a few nnles" to the southwest of Pleasantville, taliped 
by the trolley and untvd as the site of the Oley Academy, tlie resi- 
dence of P.erks' present ^tate yenaiirr. our friend l)r. V.. M. llerbst, and 
the pretty village honu' of many contented toilers in the professions 
and common walks of life. The brother of Franklin and Marshall College's 
President. Eev. I. S. Stahr, is Reformed pastor here and the town has a 
quiet, intelligent, moral air al>out it. 

Oley Academy was founded in 1S.17, and has continued its work siiu-e that 
time. An effdrt was nuule as early as IS.'iH to es.ahlish such a school at 
FriedenvtiurLT. (new Oley) but without success. The friends (d' a liberal 
edncatii.n, however, were i\i'T discuuraged hut kejit \\[> the agitation. The 



inovenieut was led by Dr. Peter G. Bertolet, warmly siijiporte'l by Daniel S. 
Leinbaeli, B. A. Ghise, Martin Yoder anil otliers, who, iu 1857, agreed to 
form a stoek eonipauy to erect and eonduet an a(?adeniy. The association 
was incorporated April 13, 1S.j7. Among the incorporators were Daniel IS. 
Leinbaeli, B. A. (Jlase, Daniel II. Levan, John K. Bertolet, John H. Kdel- 
man, Samuel F. Bnsliy, i'eter G. Bertolet, Jacob Bertolet, Daniel G. Berto- 
let, J. H. Major, I'eter (inldin, and J)avid Bear. 

A large building was ereited, and Uley Academy was formally opened 
December 1st. 1S57, with forty students, and Jacob H. Major as principal. 



' '\ '^"' 


ti 1 •! e S 

!t!l!: ;::Sin::iJ:H".ii;'ih:iii^^_ 

-.^ .M..i;^eij j--^ ' 


The school has been continued in its apiiointed work since that hour with 
varied fortunes, and many men and women have lived to bless the founders 
for their unseltish efforts in its behalf. 

The teacliers who tiave had charge of tiie work at Oley Academy all these 
years are many, and, only Tiie principals can here be mentioned in the order 
of incumbency: .lacoli H. Major, ls.j7; 1. B. Hanky, l^oH; J. p. Matthews. 
ISGO; I. M. Bertolet, l>t)l; Frank Laucks, IStii'; Pev. L. K. Evans, ISrili; 
Kev. Daniel M. W.df, l^(i'); William G. (uiiniher, 1S(;7; Howard Guitelius, 
1S6S; Jacob H. Major, 1S7(^; George Tletrick, ls73; Samuel A. Baer, 1S74; 
Kev. D. E. 8choeilIer, ls7(); George \[. lletlner, 18S4 ; Hiester A. Bowers, 
1888; M. S. Ilartiug. Is;)::; Howard Mitman, Ls<)ti. Pcsides these there has. 
been a host of as>isr:, nts. 

Ill August, U'l'l, the first of a si;rics of liieunial reunions of former 


77//-: ri: X xsYJJA M A-a E i:m AX . 

tcachors ami stutleiits of (Mcy Academy was li.-lil, and nearly threo limidreit 
testified tlieir interest in tlie old sehml by their {.resiiiee. 

The si-IhimI year now dia\viiio to a clese lias lu'en one vf the nmst suecoss- 
ful for many years, tl;e old yehool ha\;ni;-, ajiparently taken a new lease of 
life. The of teaehers omiiloyfd is three, and the inunher of luipils 
enrolled jv stn-eiity. 

Friedensliuri; is located on KauiTman's <"reek, so nanu:'d after one of 
the townshiji's early settlers, John .)a<-oli IvavilTnnin, (17M7), long a 
bishop in a branch of tiie Mennonite cJiurch. ('rossiiivi' this creek at 
the southern bordev oi town, we come to tiie old 1 'e Turk settlenient. 


'A ■ 


»; — ~: 


•1 r h. 



consisting at first of hundreds of acres' of richest land. Here was convened 
February i!1-i!l!. 174"J, the third Jlora\ian Synod, presided over by Count 
Zinzendorf. Keligious agitation ran high in Oley during this period. These 
were the New Korn, zeahuis followers of the enthusiast, Matthias Bownuiu ; 
the Lutherans and Kef ornied ; the French Huguenots, fresh from the fires of 
religious persecutions, ileditationists, Menuonites, Separatists, Dunkers, 
and Moravian jiioueers holding house ser\iees, all of Gernuxn ?j.)eech and 
thought, ami religious zealots — all. Futile attempts were made by Zinzen- 
dorf to weld all these heterogeneous elements into one common household 
of faith. Heuee these several conferences or union Synods for discussion. 
Probably this third ;^lora^■ian gathering upon this religious battle ground 
had this objtvt as an ulterior aim. But it was stocked with Moravian dig- 

(M'A7.' THE OLEY i'JKK. 


A largo loii I'uiMin;^. iniig usod ns a Mmaxian cliapcl and si-liool ami \\ith 
other buildinus t-rt'i-U'd the i'ullnwin!^- yrar is still staiidiii;^. Neailiv is a small 
enclnsiiro (■(intaiiiiiit: tin' aslirs (if the Moi-a\ ian ilcail nf that [ifriiKt. lit this 
ISyuodii.' cuiiwiitiiiii t'mir iiu'U, Aiiilfi'w llsclii-iiliarh, tlu' I'idiifer ^rura\'iaii 
evangelist of this district since 17-t;). Christian II. Kauch, (lot'dielj Buettncr, 
and .Inhn ( 'lnis;(>|.lier I'yrlrnns. whose names adnfn the later annals nf tlie 
Moravian c-hnn-h. were soleinnly urdained t<i the Cuispel ministry by the 
Count Zinzendorf and I-Sishop l)a\!d Nitcliman, while Kev. dohn JIagau was 
pet apart as a nussiniiary. At this meeting the project id' cidonizing Ceorgia 

•;•;.; --/^S^ 


DUNKER'S CHURCH, PRlCETO«N -Erected 1797. abandoned, and most interesting of all, three American Indians, the 
first fniits of Moravian niissidiuiries were lia[>tized into the Christian faith. 
Loskiel, the Miira\ian historian, describes the event as follows: "The \vh(de 
assembly being met, the three oatechumens were placed in the miilst and 
■with fenent prayer and supplication devoted to the Lord .Jesus Clirist as 
His eternal property, upon which Kauch, with gi'eat emotion of heart, ba]>- 
tized these three firstlings of tiic North American Indians into the death 
of Jesus, in the name of the Father, Sou and Holy Lihost. calling 8abash, 
Abraham; Seim. Isaac; and Kiop, Jucol). " Many interesting inciilents are 
related in connection with this Synod (see Kupp's Berks County, p. '2'.'A, 
etc.. and Stapleton's "Memorials of the Huguenots''). This meeting estab- 
lisViod Moraviar.ism in Olev. where De Turk donated land for school and 

132 THE r}:.\NSYLVAXIA-aE};MA.\. 

church piiriioses, three large buildings were ereeted and the cause flourished 
for many years. Only the ene liuilding, shown in cut, is yet presened. 

The house has fnur rooms on each floor, besides a wide hall across the 
building. One of the rooms on the first floor seems to have been used for a 
kitchen on account of it having a large fireplace. One of the queer things 
noticeable is that tiie other rooms do not have any signs of being heated in 
any way. In the hall on the second floor there is an open fire-place on oppo. 
site sides in the large chimney, but none in the rooms. The same holds true 
on the first floor. If the surrounding rooms were to bo. heated from this 
fire-place through ^lie doors entering the hall, I am sure there were some 
chilly days for scholars in tlmse times. This third Iniilding was comjdeted 
a])out 174o, long used for a cliurc h ami three years as a boai'ding sidiool. 

From this noted landmark let us beat a direct and hasty retreat for Read- 
ing via old Oley Furnaces, Pricetowu and the Ruscoml) Manor hills. About 
three miles northwest of Friedensburg, on the way towards iStony Point and 
Kutztown, for a century and a third, nestled the now dismantled charcoal fur- 
naces of Oley, well-known and actively operated during colonial times and the 
Eevolution. We have already been at the grave of General Udree who then 
operated the same, it having been built in 1772 by I. Winly or Simon \Vily, 
according to tradition. It is located on the romantic affluent of the Mana- 
tawny knowu as I'urnace Creek. The stream tumbles over rocky ledges in 
lovely little cascades and a perpetual murmur that puts poetry into the dull- 
est head and heart. The Clymer Iron Company of Reading succeeded Gen- 
eral Udree in the ownership, who kept it m operaticm until recently, when 
it was the oldest charcoal furnace in use in the IState. Many wooden stoves 
were cast here, some still existing. A grist mill connected therewith is still 
in operation, and for romantic and pictures(|ue scenery we know of no spot 
in Berks that excels it. 

The road towards Reading via Pricetown is hilly and winding, but withal 
romantic and full of interest. The characteristic stone houses or cottages of 
mountaineers abound. Fields and roadsides are encased in stone fences, 
which like the Irishnmu 's, would be higher if upset by a storm, as they are 
about five feet wide and four feet high, ymaller tracts compose the farms 
and fewer acres the fields than in Oley 's rich plantations. Sparkling springs 
and bending orchards prevail. But the people are alert and wide-awake. 
In this section was born Princeton's first honor man of last year and many 
another son and daughter that have left marks of distinction, lae German 
religious sects are nearly all represented. One of the oldest landmarks in 
the vicinity of Pricetown, a small village on the very top of South Moun- 
tain ridge, two miles south of Fleetwood, is the Dunker's meeting house, 
over one hundred years old. shown in accompanying cut. 

The eight or more miles between Pricetown and Reading are characterized 
by the same general contour of land and our high^vay leads into the city by a 
gap between Barnhard's and Mt. P<m\ii and has taken thousands of Rock- 
land's and Rusc(unlmianiu- 's farmer folk into this capital of Berks with 
more produce and less fatigue than characterize my army of historic pilgrims 
back from a long trip tiiilay. 




(Contributed by Mr. Converse Cleaves, of PhilaLlelpbia, and never before 

In the summer of 1819 I made a journey through the northern counties of 
Pennsylvania, in company with my friend, Dr. Jesse Thompson. On the sec- 
ond day after leaving Philadelphia, we arrived in the valley of Oley, Berks 
county, about twehe miles from Keading. We had been furnished with let- 
ters of introduction to Benjamin AYright, a friend, residing in the valley, 
and from him and his family we received so kind a reception, that we re- 
mained willing captives nearly three days, instead of departing, as we had 
intended, the morning after our arrival. 

Our friends proposed that we should ascend the Oley hills— that we should 
spend part of a day at least, on the banks of the IManatawny, beautiful 
stream, which after winding its way through the valley, enters the Schuyl- 
kill near the tov>n of Pottsgrove; but above all we must make a visit to Mary 
Young, commonly known in the neighborhood as "Mountain Mary." 

On the first of July a party of live started for the residence of the her- 

After riding a few miles along the valley, we began to ascend the moun- 
tains, as they in reality are, although in the Alpine regions of Pennsyl- 
vania they bear the humble appellation of hills. On reaching the summit 
and passing through woods, we came to an enclosure, on the opposite of 
which was situated the humble log cabin of "Mountain Mary." Fasten- 
ing our horses to the fence, we loweretl the bars, and walking slowly over 
the green sward, were met by the hermitress at the threshold of her dwell- 
ing. She received us kindly and after an interchange of inquiries on the 
part of her and our friends, she commenced speaking in a religious strain, 
informing us through a lady of our party who acted as interpreter, that on 
serious subjects she was obligetl to speak in her native language, the German. 

Her remarks breathed a strain of devotional feeling which had a solemn- 
izing effect upon the company, and the countenance of the speaker was 
one of the most benign 1 had ever beheld. After a pause which succeeded 
her discourse, we walked forth to take a survey of the premises. The 
view was bounded by the surrounding forest, except in a northern direction, 
where a farm house was seen on a slope of one of the neighboring hills. 
Jlary took us into her milk-house, which was a few steps from her door, 
and which was bountifully supplied from the solitary cow which then stood 
near us. A limpid stream from a neighboring elevation, was conducted 
into the building and then glided peacefully away irrigating the meadow 
in its course down the mountain. We now walked to the margin of the 
woods, where we found a square enclosure of rails, which containeil thret^ 
graves, one of the mother, the others of the sisters of Mary, and a head 
and foot stone for another grave. 

On returniug to take our leave, we were surprised t-i find a table sprea<i 
with delici'-ius bre.-nl. butter, cream, milk and iire^tTved fruits: and we were 

134 ruK i'i:s\syL\-ASiA-<n:i:MA.\ . 

invitdl to, pnitake \i\ a inanru'r so siiicerL' aiul rourtoous, that we ciid not 
distrust our kind hostt'ss when she assured us ^e were weleoine. 

Never had I v.itiiessed so un-^haken a faith as was manifest iu this ex- 
traordinary woman. To the alarmists who occasionally \isited her and 
who express. 'd tlieir ajiprehension iliat slie mi^ht be taken sick and (iie 
alone, her reply was that her confidence was in the Almighty, and that she 
felt assured tliat nothint;- would be jiennitted to ha[ipen to her that was not 
intended for lier good. On or.r return we called at the house of Isaac Lee, 
a worthy niemlier of the Society of Friends'. He informed us that for many 
years, Maiy sent l)y liim, her butter, cheese and other produce of her little 
farm, to tlie Philadel}>hia market, and tliat she invariably put up a parcel, 
with instructions that it should be given to the poor. 

To my extreme gratification, £ afterwards found that I was well ac- 
quainted with several individuals in lieading and Philadelphia, to whom 
Mary was well known, and who are among the most respectable families of 
German origin in this State. They all concurred in Ijearing testimony to 
her great worth, and anecdotes were relatei.l to me, which gave conclusive 
evidence that in many of her actions she was guided Ijy more than human 

Mary hail lived alone more than thirty years. She, her moJier and sis- 
ters, emigrated from Germany, about the year 1763, and settled near Ger- 
mantown. Pa.; thence they removed to Oley, that they might enjoy in seclu- 
sion the satisfaction of worshiping the Supreme Pjcing in the manner most 
congenial to their feelings. In Xmember. 1S19, IMary was taken ill, but 
was happily atrended by a female friend" who lia<l gmie to visit her and 
who remained with her during the two weeks of her illness, which termi- 
nated in her deatli, on the ]fith of the same monUi, in the 75th year of 
her age. 

A large concourse of neighbors attended her funeral solemnities. Her 
remains were deposited in the rustic cemetery, where four months previous 
I had stood with moistened eyes, as I gathered a few mementoes for my- 
self and friends from the graves of the pious pilgrims. 

Several years lator a }oung friend** of mine intending to visit the val- 
ley, 1 requested him to send me such information as he could obtain re- 
specting ''Mountain Mary." The following is his letter: 

•Mrs. Mary Mayor Sprajue, of t;>'r[iiautuwn, I'bilail.-lphia, I'a., writes In this conuf^c- 
tioii as fclli.iws: 

••Thf friend spoki^n of by Mr. Unllinstifad was an ancestor of mine (Mrs. .'^llsanna i3i* 
IU>nneville Keiiu, wife of John Koiin. ami liaughtcr of Di-. (;eor:;e cle Benncville i. who, 
iifion awakcninir from a viviil .Ireani, in whicb slie saw Mountain Mary' in dire distress, 
was So inipressi'd that she made immediate preparations to si-e .Mary. The lady's son 
tried to dissuade her from iT'dng-. saying tlie distance was ;;reat, tlu-ousli roads almost 
impassable, the weather inclement, ami the lady herself neither yount; nor roPust. 'My 
Son.' said she. 'Mary neeils me. My Master has bidden me seek hiT. I dare not disobey 
Jlis call." Witli the early moridni; lii:ht tlie idd lady, v.itii her srandson, started, taking 

such Comforts as she thouirht inii;ht be n li.d. t'i)on arrivins there, she found her vision 

ci>ntirDieil — Mary confined to her bed. and the creatures ileriendent ution her care in bad 
need. Great-trrainlmother stayed with Mary until the end. Mrs. Keim was frequently 
heard to say, tbut she counted aniouu' her earthly blessinirs the prlvUejje of being with 
this sainted wouian iu bi^r last hour, to witness her lovini: faith and eontideuoe in her 
Heavenly Tatlcr, who has -.rMin-ed lb- v. ill never le.we or forsake His children who 
seek Him in spiilt and ir truth." 

**,7anies pi'wev. 

ilOLMAIX J/.l/.T. ^•^■' 

<<ln a.-cor-lancc witl, vour mp-'^t ^^\u■u 1 was abcut to visit this happy 
valh'v, I have on.loavor.'.l to eoli.rt some mlnvnatinu about Mary ^ oun^^ 
who lou;.' resiacl in this iioighborliood. 

-She was horn m Ger.nany Frankforfon-the-Ma.n ; her parent. 
emi.rato,l at an early pern.l ot her l>f.. to Anu.ri.a, an,l h,.:ate.l in Cer- 
„,autuwn; there they pursued the oeeupatiou of cotton-spunuug b^ he 
har.d wheeL Tl>e fan,ily consisted at this tune ot a tataer, mother, and 
three daughters; the father dying, and the Kevolut.on breaking o-t, innne- 
dia;elv after the batde of Uennantown th.y took retuge in the e M 
MU-vih. hip.e of .onie vears the mother and two sisters dyn,g. le.t M.u> 
^ , w ei;'.ne e-ntinued for more than thirty years to occupy Hie iiou.^ 
on the mountain brow, from which she soon acquired the name of Moun- 

tain Marv. ' , ,.„,, 

-She "was said to be a verv intelligent and religious woman, and was 
visited bv'he; neighbors to have her advice on their ditTiculties. whieh was 
o^en so^nlrciou^and far-seeing that she was thought by some to have a 
way of acquiring knowledge unknoxvn to the many. 

-The most iiUeresting feature m her character, perhaps, was her great 
industrv. She kept three or four cows, food for wliich she raised or. a 
r^d„w near her ^ntage. The grass she used to cut herself, and after di^- 
in., carrv home. Her cattle were eared for in a superior rnanner and conse^ 
q.^tlv ^he was enabled to make a great deal of butter, t- she earned on 
2er hJad to a per.on who took ir to nuuket for her. and -1- ^-^^^ ^t 
three miles off. She also had bees and collected a large quantity of omy 
she likewise practiced vivisection, these appear to nave be.m 1- «-^_^ 
:Lns, which L only enabled her to live, but to ama.s -""- -;^'^; ^ > " 
«^Vhen the family first settled on the mountarn the road ^^^^^ 
ing wa. tortuous, winding round and round for a long way. ^heu she was 
eft alone, to shorten the distance to the world below, she set to work and 
^:;ath along the side of the mountain, th-gh the rocks and root 
trees for the distance of a mile, by which she shortened the distance ^ ery 
^^h in carrying her produce to her factor. It is really a^-prisn^ wo^ 
and when you consider it was all done by the --''-\"^^^^'^^, ^^^J .^;"\'; 
woman, shewing what they are capable of when taey have an ob.iect m 
view w-orthv of their exertions. 

"Her dwelUng, I need not tell you, was beautiful, with a fountain near 
the door, and surrounded by an orchard in which she took great delight. 

-Her character was one of benevolence; she was frugal and honest, liv- 
ing well, and when any of her friends made her a visit, she would m.ver 
suffer them to depart without partaking of some refreshment She ^rslte. 
all the poor in her neighborhood, in their, necessities, taking them medicine 

and provisions. 

-The following conversation is said to have taken place between her and 

a person who made her a visit: 

- 'Mary, are you not afraid to live here alone?' 

- 'Afniid of w. at.'" asked slio in response to the question. 

-13(5 THE I'J-:.\NS)LIAMAGIl1:MAN. 

" 'Why, for instance, when the skies are covered with dark clouds and 
fiery lightning striking in all directions, with the loud voice of thunder re- 
soumliug from hill to hill. ' 

" '1, no! When such is the case, and the storm rages aroun<l, 1 always 
open my window and look at the Almighty power of n\y Maker.' " 

"This little incident will ser\ e to shou the placid state of mind in whicli, 
even when the storn^ in its wrath howled around the bleak mountain on 
which she dwelt, this wondrous woman lived. 

" The consideration of animals even of a noxious kind, seems to be a 
strong trait of,a refined and benevolent heart; she had a garden beside her 
cottage enclofe-ed by a stone wall, that she dressed with great care and took 
much delight in. Some marmots fancied the garden likewise. They took 
up their abode there, and began to increase and multiply, much to the an- 
noyance of the proprietor of the gardens, digging trenches when she wanted 
it smooth and eatitig roots that she intended for seed, and annoying her in 
various ways, until the nuisance had to be abated. She placed traps and 
captured them, many of them in the very act. Instead of putting them to 
death, which she might have done as sole lady of the garden, she took them 
to the neighboring hills, telling them to go and tresspass no more. 

"Ano'her trait in her character was her love for peace. In her mil was 
a special clause, that if any of the persons to whom she bequeathed her 
property should grumble at their share, their names should be stricken out, 
that all might be harmony among her heirs." 

(The following poem we find in a volume entitled "The Phantom Barge, 
and Other Poems," by the author of "The Limner," published in Phila- 
delphia in 1S22. The person commemorated in the ensuing stanzas— we 
quote from the author's introductory— is an old German lady, of a remark- 
ably pious and devotional character, residing among the Oley Hills, near 
Reading, in the State of Pennsylvania. Some of the author's friends having 
traveled in that part of the country, desired his pen on the subject, and the 
following is the result of their request.) 


Whoe'er has trod by Schuylkill's sliore, 

Where Oley 's Hills are stretched along, 
And in romantic beauty soar, — 

Has heard of iNlary Young. 
They tell for nuiny a mile around. 
Where her lone dwelling may be found. 
And show the green hill where it stands 
Surrounded by its cultured lands, 
Where oft the traveler stops to see 
The poor and hundjje devotee. 


Far from the woiM and all its strife, 
And care, old Mary dwells alone- 
And tho' siie treads the vale of life, 

Her mind is not o'erthrown; 
But the bright eveninir of her davs, 
Is passed away in prayer and pniis'e, 
Like that fair bird, whose latest hou'r 
Is full of music's magic power, 
And who, in death, awakes a tone, 
^ Far sweeter than his life had known. 

She owns no sect — but thus has trod 
The path of piety from youth — 
. ' And she is one who worships God 
In spirit and in truth. 
Her praise is j.ure — devoid of art — 
The adoration of tlie heart; — 
And tho' 'tis simple, owns no less 
The majesty of holiness; 

And shines as bright, where praver is heard 
As aught by loftier lips preferred. 

As the sweet star of evening shines, 

When sinking brightly to repose, 
Towards life's last goal she now declines, 
^ The horizon of her close— 

With as much calm serenity, 
As tho' she waited but to die; 
As tho' the toils of time were o'er, 
And she were lingering on the shore, 
'Till the light bark of death should cijme, 
To bear her to a better home. 

There is a little spot, which she 

Now holds witlun her cottage view,— 
V There sleeps her line of ancestry. 

And she will sleep there too. 
And tho' the name of Mary Young 
Be not, on earth, remembered long, 
There is a Morld where virtue lives 
Beyond the linut memory gives; 
And from its earthly frailties free, 
Blooms on, in one eternity. 

Copied from a newspaper clipping loane.l bv Mrs. Harriet do B Keim 
Deen the Times, published in the fall of 1S74. 


338 TllK ]'KXXS] JJA.\IA-Gi:i;MAX. ■ ■ . S 


BV MU.-^. CHAI;LKS EVANS. , ' >' 

Upoi) tlic lofty iiKiLiiuaiii 's luako ' ' •' 

\Vitli vcrJaiit trees o 'ergrowii, ■ ^ 

"Witliin a little lowly cot, v 
Whieb seems l^y all the world forgot, ■ . 

Poor Mary lives aloiie. _ ■: 

To her, her garden niec and trim, '•_■ 

lb' worth a miser's lioard — i 

With iiianv a liloomiug ii(.nveret fair, | 

And many a shrub of virtue rare, .* 

And fruits and cereals stored. ft 

Beside her little cottage neat |' 

A hedge of briar grov.s, * 

Where berries red, with grapes entwine, ■• 

By cultivation nutde more fine, :; 

And niingltnl Avith tl)e rose. ■< 

And all around a meadow green 'u 

Slopes toward the mountain side, /-' 

The softened valley lies below | 

The woods above wave to and fro, |.i 

Extending far ami wide. I 


Beyond tli' expansive fertile vale, ^ 

A range ot moantains he. i 

^Miere cultivated fields are seen, 5 

Among, the wild wood 's thick 'ning green, i 

To charm the wanderer 's eve. I 


I've traced the footi'ath way that goes | 

Across the meadow green. | 

That passes this, an orchard fair, | 

Leads to a shady grove and there ■ > 

Displays a melting scene. | 


Within a little rustic fence '■ 

Beneath the dark wood shade, ij 

Dressed with affection's kindest care, | 

And dewed with many a tender tear, I 

Three shaded graves are made. | 

Two sisters and a mother dear, s 

Here rest tiieir kindred clay, | 

There Mary finds a kind relief 'i 

From every care an<l e\ery grief, 't 

For here she crimes to pray. •> 


Where M;ny 's self may shorfiy rest, 

Remains a uarrow spaoe— 
Tuo stouts y.y luiUire j'olisheil o'er 
From off the mountain siilo siio bore, 

To mark her future place. 

Iler's is a meek and Ii.wly mind, 

In heaven she puts her trust ; 
Her humble knees had- daily jn-essVl 
The sod that wraps her nn)ther's breast, 
And worn it to the dust. 

She never Leaves her pivieetul cot 

Of worLlly joys to hear, 
But by the bed of pain or yrief 
To watcii, to soothe, to give relief 

Js her peculiar care. 

A sacred piety of mind 

Illumes her pensive face — 
Her eyes are soft expressive, lilue. 
Her liair not (dianged, lier wrinkles few, 

Iler manners marked by grace. 

Her form is gently bent by time. 

Her voice is soft and meek; 
The rose and Jily had eombinetl. 
And still their tints remain behind, 

The' faded on her cheek. 

jS'o sad presage of future woe, 

Xo hope of future gain. 
None save the blessed hope of heaven, 
To have her frailties all forgiven, 

And then in bl'ss remain. 

No wild, tunnilluous, giddy .joys, 

Nor vain tormenting pains. 
Disturb the tenor of her mind; 
Alike to good or ill resign 'd. 

And free from worldly gains. 

From persecution 's iron hand, 

And fierce religious strife; 
From Belgian's hostile sliore she tied, 
And here for thirty years has led 

A peaceful, quiet life. 



Her ain]>le mind is unooiitroUeil 

By siiperstition's sway; 
]\o rigid sectary is she, 
Who thinks the road to heaven free 

To only such as they. 

Or in the world, or solitude, 

Grace must be sought by prayer; 
For even in the desert wild, 
The hunian heart may bo beguil'd; 
The tempter comes e'en there. 

She thinks the temple of the Lord 

Is all Creation's space. 
That every fervent prayer is heard 
Whether from mountain top preferred 

Or consecrated place. 

The Saviour's precepts, fair and mild, 

She studies to obey, 
And always prays with fervent zeal 
For those who cannot, will not feel, 

But trifle life away. 

No nie\ving cat or barking cur 

Coaiiianions of her way, 
For midst the hollow tempest 's moan 
She never feels herself alone — 

Her Bible is her stay. 

And all within her cleanly cot 

For comfort is, or use, 
No shrilly croak of chanticleer, 
A'or busy cackling pullet there. 

Nor noisy, gabbling goose. 

The dawning day beholds her rise 

To say her matin prayer; 
A sober, sleek, domestic cow. 
That feeds upon the mountain's brow, 

She cherishes with care. 

The milk is Mary 's daily food, 
Nor craves she aught beside. 
Save wholesome vegetable roots. 
And wild and simple mountain fruits, 
And these are all supplied. 


^Vhl•n the late blasts of Autunm strip 

The leaves from every tree, 
These Maiy heaps beneath a sheil 
I'o make lier cow a ^\ inter bed, 

And -vvarni and snug is she. 

'Tis silence— all save distant sounds, 

Borne by the breeze aK)ng, 
And if an evening mild anil still, 
Close by her side the whip-poor-will 

Will chant his mournful song. 

One winter night when not a light 

Was seen the country round. 
And hollow blasts came whistling by, 
And drifting snow and sleet di<l fly. 

And covered all the ground : 

As Mary lay in calm repose, 

Strange accents met her ear; 
"Open to me your cottage door, 
For I am cold and 1 am poor, 

Ana you have naught to fear; 

"I've wandered, anil I know not where, 

And can 't the road regain, 
My hair is stilf with frozen sleet, 
My hands are cold, benumbed my feet, 

Oh! haste, relieve my pain." 

The voice was rough, the time was late, 

'Twas at the midnight hour; 
"Protect me, God of Love, most bless M;" 
And as she whispered out the rest, 

Unbarreil the cottage door. 

She trimmed her little sinking fire 

And made a blazing heat, 
She dried his garb with kindest care 
And thawed and wrung his sleety hair, 

And bathed his aching feet. 

And when his kindliest eye confess 'd 

His life-bloo<l warm and free. 
She ?})read her simple cottage store. 
And what couM courtly grace do more — 

'Twas nature's courtesv. 

142 THE FhWx^iLi jmagj:i:mj.\. 

And now tiu' 'wiliU'ix'tl waiKlcriny giu'st 

Wuulil ti'inp! the ilroary night; 
Tilt' {latl; was hid hiiualii tlie snow, 
xVnd hanh.r ilnl the tuiiia'st l>l(.\v, 
2s'or iniMin nur star gave ligiit. 

Then Mar}- lit hei hmtera dear 

And left her waini aliude; 
O'er craggy nuks. txith v.ild aui.l slee]', 
And gh'ns whuse snows were drifted deep, 

She led him to the road. 

Anil ere the dawning morning rose '^ ■ fj 

Returned to wateh and pray — 'I 

May equal purity of mind, i 

As calm, as iioly, anii relined, I 

Eeward my latest day. \ 

May I like her life's journey end, * 

In calm and j eaeeful resl. i 

And ■nben the Vireatli forsakes tliis clay, 4 

Be mv soid "s sidrit borne a^vav, ?( 

To mansions of the blest. f 


These verses were written rnauy years ago by the late Mrs. Charles '; 

Evan^, of Keadiug, Pa., (wife of the ftauider of the Charles Evan? J 
Cemeten,-), for her friend, ]\Irs. ]^dary 3.1ay Kcim, wife of Cleneral George de 

Benneville Keim. f 

We are again indeljted to friends for photos, cuts or other assistance in the 
get-up of this nundjer. AVe make sperial mention of Rev. A. Stapleton, Dr. 
Thos. J. B. Rhoads. IMr. 11. K. Deisher. and G. A. Schlechter. 

This magazine desires agents in all Pennsylvania-German districts of our 
country and ■v\iil pay liberal premiums for securing new subscriptions. 

4b « * 

The Feasts of Roses held June Stli, in the churcties of Tulpehocken and 
Manheim were notable e\fnts. 

* A * 

The pastor of Salem Reformed churcli, of AUentown, Pa., Rev. A. R. 
Bartholomew-, D.D., has signaleil his retirement by the publication of a 
Brief History of the church in IGS pages of pamphlet form, giving in thirty 
chapters anil fifteen illustrations a complete account of this little over 
twentT-five-ycar-old ilock — now the most numerous congregation in AUen- 
town. We thank our oh friend 1. Y. II.. president of consistory, for a copy. 



'Jhe Vir ['iiljlishiny L'v., of I'hiladelphia, v.ith 

What a Woman of Forty- ^,^.^ ^.,,,^^,,,,, ....uipk.t.'s a seru-s of oxeeD.nt 

five Ought to Know. ,^^^^^j,^ ^_^. ^^j^.^.j^ ^_^ ^,,j ^.,,^^,^,„^^ ^j,,^ ^^^^_^. 

lie the luo^t cHiniue'idaljle. Tliey (.-dver a luiiiilnT i<f hitherld avoiiled 
puhjeets Init are all calculated to contribute to-^vanls health and purity. The 
only re:,M-et expres?ed in the appearance of this series is tliut these bouks 
slu.uhl not have been written and i>ablished generations ayo. To take a 
subject which has been abandoned to quacks and impostors for ages, and so 
to lift it into the realm of pure and ?a<-red thinking, that pastors can and 
do commend the seri.s from their ;iuli'its. tliat missionaries translate the 
books for use in the>ir work, that parents can give them to their suns and 
daugiiters, is an avhievenu^nt which will commend this series to every intel- 
ligent an<l thoughtful person. 

In this latest and coiieluding book of tlie series, Mrs. Drake has equaileu 
in stvle and interest the character of lier j.revious book, eutitleil, ' ' Wliat a 
Young Wife Ouaht to Kuow, '' for whieh she received a prize of one thou- 
sand dollars. It is written in that v.uolesome, sympathetic manner charac- 
teristic of all the purity books in this series. 

It should be read by every woman nearing and passing through middle 
life.- It will do much to reassure nervcms ones needlessly alarmed by patent 
medicine advertising and opinions of ill-advised friends, and will dispel ap- 
[irehcnsions aroused by groundless forebodings. 

^^'hile my readers are mostly men, this book is yet gladly brought to their 
notice since most of them have wives, or sisters to whom a copy might prove 
a veritable Godsend. Cloth, 211 pp., $1 net. Yir Pu..wshiug Co., 113 Heal 
Estate Trust Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 

The Pennsylvania-German, Society will publish about 
A History of the Q^.j^,p,^,j._ iyo2, in Volume Xll. of its Proceedings and 
Schwenkfelders. ^^^j.^i-psses a History of the Schwenkfelders prepared by 
the undersigned, as part of a narrative and critical history of Pennsylvania. 

A special edition of this history wiU be issued by the author at the same 
time in cloth bunding ^ntli gilt and uncut edges similar to the German Sec- 
tarians by Sachse, and will contain about '2'2') pages. 

The book will be illustrated by copious selections from abundance of char- 
aeteriptic Schweukf elder material. It will contain to a very considerable 
extent valuable historic material hitherto unpublished and will not be re- 

This limited edition will be sold by yuliseription only and not by the 
book trade. Orders must be placed at once, at $2.50 jicr volume, with the 
author, Prof. H. W. Kreibel, East Greenville. I'a. 


1i t* 


-^ ia 

Summary of the June Number of "House and Garden." 

Though domestic and a;.jriouitural in their tastes, the priuiitive Pennsyl- 
vania-Gerniaus ha%e ur.eoiist'iuusly euntributed tu the histury of Amerieau 
art hy means oi their beautiful househoM pottery. Its wonderful decora- 
tive character is shown in a paper, illustrated by half-tone and color, con- 
tributed by Edwin Atlee Barber to the .luiie number of House and Garden. 
Mr. Barber is the curator of the Pennsylvania Museum, in Fairmouut Park, 
Philadelphia, where the only collection of this pottery exists. "The Treat- 
ment of City Squares" by Charles Mulford Kobinson, the foremnst author- 
ity upon street designing, "Kcmodeling an Old Italian tiarden in the 
Eighteenth Century," by Eleanor G. Hewitt, "A House Recently Com- 
pleted at Gemiantown,' ' "Twin Oaks," a beautiful country place near 
Washington, D. C, are among the June contents of a magazine already 
familiar to those v\ho love beautiful homes, their interiors and their sur- 

"^Vayside Wanderings" is a published address of our poetically nurtured 
friend the editor of the Reading Times — <'ol. T. C. Zimmerman, who recent- 
ly delivered the ''Reveries of a Walker" before the stuiieuts of ^lulden- 
berg College, where the same was duly appreciated. It is fine reading, 
written in a lofty, fanciful style, urging walking as a means of healthful 
and instructive exercise, au<l abounding with descriptions of actual beauties 
and delights attained in his own " Fiissgiinger " experiences. 

The never failing novel of the month in the June Lippincott is attrac- 
tively named "A Real Daugliter of tlie Revolution." It is by Caroline 
Gebhardt, whose Southern birth has inspired her to write of the struggle 
for liberty as it centres to a finish at Yorktown. The heroine is a beauty 
■whose family are in sympathy Mith tlie liedcoats, but she releases their 
prisoner, her unacknowledged lover, sides with Sumter's raiders, and flouts 
the advances of the English commander, who is quartered on her father's 
plantation. The closing scenes at Yorktown are written with a patriotic 
ring that will thrill the descendants of the "Real Daughter of the Revolu- 

We have receive. I a very interesting pamphlet containing tlie published 
addresses delivered at the Sesqui-Centennial of the County of Berks, which 
event was duly observed at Reading ^landi 11, 19()"J, under the auspices of 
the Historical Society of Berks county, wh<i published these speeches as 
one of the regular issues. It opens witli an ode from the facile pen of Col. 
Tho3. C. Zimmerman, following which are the addresses in full by Hon. 
Henry ^{. Dechant, Rev. J. W. Early, Dr. X. C. Schaeffer, Judge G. A. 
Endlich and Louis Richards. Esq. 


5:.;: •■,-;-':. ir^vi^ 
V-. >^\.' 

Front'Spisce . . Henry Muhlenberg, D.D. 

Editorial, . . . ... . . 145 

Vacation, , . 146 

Famous Pennsylvania-Genrans, . . . 147 

Poetic Gems, 156 

D'c A): Ciccr Mueh!, M S:bcenie Ahie He'math. 

Kcftrcfa'Srktawg. Spoiiear, 

Die ^ilt Uf Vendue. Die Besht Zeir. 

Historic Pilgrimages, . . . ... 

From R:adin2 lo Yori. , ■ , 

>X'ho Was Logan? .,..,. 
Birthplace of the Tslcphenet . . . 
The Gerniaris a? a Factor, .... 
Tombstone Inscriptions, .... 
Curiou5 Inscriptions, ..... 
Der Ev-'ige Jaeger, ..... 
Book Notices, 


■ AthlJ^...1>. 


'^*v > 

'k.'j!oJi>-:8&tAS«eo£i!,d^*, ^ 

-*-t«^**^*i- ^vJVS^ ^ -1 ^^v 

^^Otx/^. •-yvi.oi.^fiA^yn. 



Pennsylvania- German 

REV. l>. C. CBOLI.. A.M. E1)\\AEI> K. <"KOLJ, 

Tfims: $1.(11-1 }>er ytnr in nijvfiiicr: fl i'^ nftfr ttirrt- inunlhs 

Vol. Ill LEBANON, PA., OCTOBER, 1902 No. 4 

(KntHrr.l ;\t tllf H.HI-oRi. ._• til T.-.l.ali..:, , 1',-, :i, ^..-uini-.-Ln- uinttLri 

Fv ^'.-^ ' -■ "-"^ ^•^ HIS nuniljcr concludes the third volume of this 

[■p^^p''-^^^;^fl unique niagazine. It is the constant gratifica- 

H ('•' ''H? ?^'i'r<''/M! tion of its editor that its issues fall into such 

•]j^S^/ J fl •'vOMI 3^J^6 siitl a])preciativc hands. lie has heard 

ffV^tN'-- f/''^^ V ^'^^^'^ kind and coniplimentary words since he 

i \\^\'Mf^i) y has played the editorial role than probalily in 

t^sy^c^, — .h-<._;?1 g|j ^j.,g j-pgj. q£ j^j^ jjjg together. He feels proud 

of the reception accorded it. For a dozen times, now, he rejoices 
that he has been the message-hearer of real heart-felt satisfaction' 
to the most select class of our Pennsylvania-German stock, tilling 
many of the highest stations, and distributed over the entire 
Union— a few in fc^reign lands. 

While this is enough glor}- for so short a period, the editor con- 
fesses that he shares the feelings of the little boy at picnic, whom 
his pastor rec^ucsted to pick some mountain tea that grew near by. 
After the boy came with an armful, the reverend clergyman pat- 
ted his head and remarked in PennsNlvania-German : "Du bist en 
schmarter Pub! Ich l)e(lar,k mich aw fer den G'falle!" The boy 
replied : " "Sis gern g'schehna : avver *n Cent war mir liever 
g'west." So we appreciate \er}- much the appreciation thus far 
shown. The m(_)st keenly appreciated compliment, however, is the 
kind shown by a numl)er whose renewal was accompanied by one 
or more new subscrii>tions, with the cash for same. Xow a 
gentle hint. As time for renewal has come for most subscribers, 
let me suggest that each one in some way strive to duplicate his 
own subscription by interesting (^r enrolling a friend. The books 
for 1903 are open. Thanks in a Ivance. 




WTTAT {licturos ami associations vliiig to this one simple word! One 
sets in it foreign huuls, towering mountain peaks and luxuriant val- 
leys, ocean breakers and pebbly beach, lakes and rivers, glens and 
grottoes, crowds and solitudes. The Ivlitor, loo, Joined the midsummer annual 
kick againsr monotonims toil, wlicn traces broke and harness tell otr his 
shoulders. This year he hied a\\ay to the sceiu s of his childhood and summer- 
ed among his n Litives. lie had three weeks to "do" three coun ies, and he 
cut a wide swath out of IVnnsyhania-Ciermandom. He took his wife and 
children with him to widen the pathway and doorway of his "open sesame." 
He had steam and trolley roatls; two, four and cight-wheelers at his com- 
mand; p>edal, horse, steam and electric j)0wer to convey him. Rural nature 
never was lovelier, iior sctnic landscapes more charming. He traversed the 
Lebanon and East Penu Valleys from Lebanon to Easton, the Sehuylkill Val- 
ley he surveyed frum Neversink to Port Clinton, the Lehigh Valley from 
Glen Onoko to the river's mouth at the I'orks of the Delaware, and the Del- 
aware from Kittatinny Wiiter Gap to Fhillipsburg, X. ,1. He criss-crossed 
the counties of Berks, I.eliigli and Xorthampttui by trolley and broke the 
record. (Oh I what a perfect electric^ locomotive system centers at Allen- 
town. Hither let all managers of trolley lines and systems come to learn 
wisdom^the secret of success and wealth In' a reduction of rates, one fare 
for from seven to twelve miles! Let Allentownians not fail to erect a mon- 
ument to Tom Johnson, who installed this IjChigh Valley system and short- 
ened his life by altruistic over- 
work.) But back to the Editor's 
vacation. He visited almost every 
relative above or under ground, in 
five generations of direct line and 
in four degrees of collateral con- 
sanguinity of his own and wife's 
line. He ate of everything that 
grew on tree or plant, in ground or 
air or water, or was covered with 
scales or hair, feathers or furs. He 
breathed God's purest air by day 
and slept like a top all night. He 
came back to find an average gain 
of wtight of si.v pounds avenlupois 
I»er heaii, his son of ten leading by 
an actual gain ef ten pounus. Hes- 
ter food, purer air, grander sunsets 
hnelier homes and finer farms can- 
not be found than these where the 
dwellers still talk in Pennsylvania 
"Dutch.'' A goodlier lit rltage or 
a mvvv prc^jiercus i-ir contented 
[leoplc uc know not. 

f^^^f^^sF?^ r 4',i 

:9p^-t^,v3^f snir3(flgwis«^qw^^3e«fv=?^ 



ifi^-ff , 


' .<..^ 







r- - 

... r^ ^ 

,PJ ' 




atsfcifefeit.^ „>*w>i»..'.^T il!^.:.t_^,iS^^?-J*:..i^ 


Famous Pennsylvania-Germans 


youngest .on of tl,c Patrinrch Henrv ^rdcl,ior .M„l,Ic„- 
IXTfr. a,„l I,,,, „iK, Anna Maria W.isor, wI,o survived the 



den, of the fan a r ' '"f"' "'"■ ""-' ''"-■ '*""'^- 'l'^' -^t- 

is the 1 '''"Y '^ ^""' ass.x-.ation „-„!, lu's |,ro,|,ers A. it 

IS. the uorltl speaks of liim as ■■Mulilc-ihrn-. ,„ i . ■ 

not as -xr,,.,! I , .. ■'lunK.iliir;;, tue l.otamst and 

not as Alunlcnljerj;. tiie divine." 

He reexivcd liis earlv education m v..„- i> •, 

^-"-- ^ '•----";^'.'^:/::n;:Ce::::!: 

]4S THE rE:,.\syLl'AMAGKi;MAN. 

to IMiilack-Iphia at the urgent reciuest of tlie German Luthtran 
congregation of that city, wiien it was continued in the schools 
of tliat place and congregation. In the earl}' part of 1763 the fath- 
er, realizing the necessity of an a.lvanced instrnction which conld 
not be obtained in that locality, determined to send the two older 
boys to the llalle Institute, in (jcrmany. and with them their 
youthftil brother, Henry, knowing that sneh an opportnnity might 
not again occur for him. 

On April 27, a mere child of ten, he embarked on the packet 
ship Captain I'.udden, at Philadelphia, bade farewell to his parents, 
and after an uneventful voyage of no unusual length, found him- 
self safely in the hospitable home of Dv. Zitgenhagen, the court 
chaplain at London, and his father's old friend, on June 15th. A 
sojourn of some weeks at London was followed by the departure 
of the little jiarty for Germany, via Rotterdam. Here the l)rothers 
separated, the two older ones proceeding direct to their destina- 
tion at Halle while Hem-y, under the care of an attendant, started 
for Eimheek to visit the home of his father. This journey proved 
to be the beginning of his real journey through life. After a while 
his guide left him when, for the first time he was thrown upon his 
own resotirces and left to his own action, guided by his c>wn rea- 
soning. W'e are told that as he. at last, approached the town, fa- 
tigued, hungry and despairing, a good Samaritan kindly took him 
on his back and carried him the remaining distance, charming 
away the lad's trouliles by his entertaining stories. 

At Halle he showed such marked proficiency in his studies, and 
such diligence in their preparation, that he attained the head of 
his class. On September 2, 1769, came the death of his friend, and 
his brother Frederick's sponsor, the Director Gotthilf August 
Francke. The sponsors of Henry were John Henry Keppek and 
Herr IL'inzelman. IL^ doubtless receivLd his second name from 
.'Mr. Keppele, who was a prominent Philadelphia merchant, elder 
•of the Lutheran church, member of the Pennsylvania Assembly, 
first I'resident of the German Society and father-in-law (3f Dr. 
Helmuth. It is not unreasonable to presimie however, that his 
first name, Gotthilf. was derived from the same source as his 
brother's middle nanie, Augustus. Pe tliat as it ma}', Julius F. 
^achse. r'srp. has disci">verctl and given to the public a luijst inter- 


esting poem, which is truly a literary curiosity, written at the 
time to give expression to the feelings of the two brothers upijn 
the decease of their friend and benefactor. It is possible that 
P'rederick ahme may have written it, but it is signed by both tlie 
boys, and it is but right to assume that Henry had some small 
part, at least, in its preparation. 

In 1770, accompanied b}- his brother Frederick, and future 
brother-in-law, Rev. John Christojther Kunze, he returned to 
Philadelphia, having completed his course at Halle. So marked 
was his proficiency at the Synodical examination, and so thorough 
was his classical and theological education, that, though but seven- 
teen years of age, he was ordained to the Lutheran ministry on 
October 25, 1770, at the meeting of the ?\Iinisterium held in Read- 
ing, at the same time as his lirother Frederick. 

As assistant to his father he remained in Philadelphia, serving 
the congregation of that city, as well as those at Barren Hill and 
on the Raritan, in New Jersey. 

On April 5, 1774, he was elected third associate pastor in Phil- 

On July 26, 1774, he was married to Mary Catliarine Hall (born 
December 26, 1756. d. ]\Iay i, 1841) daughter of Philip and Susan 
Catharine Hall, of Philadelphia. 

The outspoken loyalty of the entire [Muhlenberg family, coupled 
with their patriotic deeds, marked them for Tory vengeance as 
opportunit}' might occur. \\'hen, therehire. the arrival of 'the 
British was expected in December, 1776, with his wife and eldest 
child, ]^Iary Cartharine. but three months okl ( b. September 2. 
1776, d. 1843, "i- Jf^hn ^vlusser, of Lancaster, I'a.) he fled to the 
country, returning when the alarm was over. After the battle of 
Brari(l}-wine, when the "red coats"" had, iti fact, occupied the city 
he remainel until safety once Tuore demanded flight. Disguised 
as an Indian, n^bed in a blanket and with a gun on his shoulder, 
even then the treachery of a Tory inid<eeper might have resulted 
iri his detection had it not hccn \or the friendly warning of a 
Whig occupaiit of the buildiug. He reached Xew Hanover in 
safety and there, for a year, devoted the time of his enforced 
leisure to a vigorous study of botan\', or rather to a practical ap- 
plication of the- knowledge which he already possessed of it, until 


THE ri..,.,syi.\ AMA-ULUMAN. 

the evaciiation of the British troops June, 1778, enabled him to 
return once more to the field of his labors in I'hiladelphia. 

Early in 1779. after his brother bVederick had entered the po- 
litical arena, he succeeded him as pastor at New Hanover, but 







■-^J .". 




.-.w-. ;■•'. .,ff-'.'.'^^''('0'-"*-'.^*'''**"'-"i"' 

;■■■:• ^' ■- ■- - ,■- m 


remained there only until the fDllmvinij: \ear when he called to 
Lancaster. I'a.. as Dr. ]Iclmuth"s successor in the pastorate of 
TrinitV Lutheran cumji'csialion. 

GOTTHILF IIKXUy Kh'XST ill^HlJ'.^ HtAiCi, I). I). 151 

Here, for thirty-five years he labored unceasingly and untir- 
ingly. Those wlio have reaped the fruitage of his planting alone 
can truly realize tlie real nature of his work. Most diligent and 
faithful, in season and out of season, winning the dtcpest attach- 
ment of his people, the luiiversal esteem of his brethren in the 
ministry, and the admiration of his associates in the world of 
learning and letters, it was all too soon when, on May 23, 1815, 
he succumbed to a stroke of apoplexy, and, with his Bible clasped 
closely to his breast, gently breathed his last, in the sixty-second 
year of his age. His funeral sermon was preached by Dr. Hel- 
muth, from the text Heb. 13:7, and his body interred in the grave- 
yard of Trinity Lutheran church at Lancaster, Pa. Following is 
his epitaph : 

Hier ruhen die Gebeine Gotthilf Heinrich Ernst Muehlenberg:'s, 
S. T. D., der diese Gemeine 37 Jahre lang mit dem Evangelo von 
Christo als treuer Hirte geweidet hat. Sein Geist entriss sich froh 
der hier nieder gesenkten Hutte den 23ten Mai, 1815, im 62ten 
Jahre seiner Pilgrimschaft. Die ganze Gemeine beklagt in Ihm 
den grcszen Verlust eines Vaters und treuen Lehrers. Einer Witwe 
und 8 Kindern die Ihm dieses Denkmal errichten bleibt sein An- 
denken auf immer heilig. 

Heil Dir Du hast nach trueben Kumer Stunden 
Auf ewig Ruh' in deinem Herrn gefunden; 
Wir Kaempfen noch; der Herr sieht unsere Thraenen 
Womit nach Wiedersehen wir una hier sehnen. 

Llis studv of botany began at Halle, while the star of Linnaeus 
was in its ascendency, and his interest in it must have been greatly 
enhanced by what he discovered as he roamed througli the tields 
of his native place in ij/j and 1778. It became his recreation at 
Lancaster t(3 drive away the cares, trials and discouragements 
from which no faithful pastor is exemi)t. His nature and learn- 
ing, however. wouUl not permit him to take the subject up in a 
merely sui)erficial manner. Lie carefull\- explored not only Lan- 
caster county but opened u[) and ke|)t up a correspondence with 
the eminent botanists of his day both in luirope and America. The 
superirir excellence of his work won acknowledgment and com- 
mendation fri'Ui nianv learned men and societies. 

152 THE PES y SY LV AM A-GiUiM AN . 

The priiiU'd works, upon whicli rest liis fame as a botanist, are 
but two in number, neither very voluminous, and yet of the highest 
value to students. The first is his "Catalogue of the Hitherto 
Known Native and Naturalized Plants of North Ameriea," print- 
ed at Lancaster, under his own supervision, in 1813. The second 
is "A Fuller Description of the Grasses and Se;'g^s of North 
America. Indigenous and Naturalized,'' in Latin, with a preface 
by his son Frederick, published in I'hiladelphia in 1S17, more than 
a year after his death. 

The "Catalogue" is much more than the title itself would indi- 
cate, as it embraces in condensed form, a description from which 
the species can be generally identified. With but few exceptions 
they belong to the Atlantic Slope of the United States. The num- 
ber of new species discovered and described by him is about one 
hundred, nearly all fiowering plants. But of the eightv species 
described by his e'orrespondent. Willdenow. most were obtained 
from him as the collector and should be counted in the extent of his 
contribution to science. No single one of the early botanical ex- 
plorers of our eastern'field, except perhaps. Michaux, did so much. 
and what he did was well done. For the advance he made in the 
science of botany. Dr. Baldwin declares that he is worthv the 
title of "The American Linnaeus."* 

It is to be regretted his death prevented the publication of man- 
uscript on "Flora Lancastriensis" which he left behind him. His 
herbarium was purchased and is preserved by the American 
Philosophical Society. 

As has already been said, man is prone to forget the deeds done 
for his spiritual welfare and to remember only the learning or 
bravery of his fellowman. The deeds of Afuhlenberg, the pastor, 
might have perished from the memory of the world, but as the late 
Dr. Porter (to whom I am indebted for nuich of this botanical 
data) has wtU remarked, "dhe name of Muhlenl)erg, the botanist, 
can never perish." His name has been fittingly recorded in the 
plant world in all the three ways which admit of perpetuation. In 
the first place it has been api)lie(l to denote a species, as in the 
Quercus }*Iuhlenbergii (Muhlenberg's Oak), which he discovered 
and brought to note. In the second place it has been attached to 
a series of at least Diie hundred S})ecies which be found, and 

GOTTfllLF HEM-y KLWST Ml'Il LKX BERG, J). J>. 153 

last]}-, it has been embodied in a g-enus, as when I'rof. Scbreiljcr 
created tlie g-enus Muhlcnbergia, to include a large number of 
beautiful g^rasscs. 

The Pennsylvania- German has been accused, most ignorantly, 
of a lack of interest in matters pertaining- to public education. As 
a matter of fact he has been closely identified with all proper ef- 
forts in that direction, frecpiently taking the lead in them. He 
had much to do with the org-anization of the University of Penn- 
sylvania in 1779, at which time the Rev. Dr. Kunze was chosen 
German Professor of Philology, and in succeeding years, opened 
up the German Department of the University. Four years later 
Dr. Kunze was called to Coluiubia College, Xew York, and Dr. 
?Ielmuth, succeeded to his chair in Philadelphia, which he occupied 
until 1810. 

Even before the Revolution efforts had been maele to establish 
a college west of the Susquehanna, but the necessary charter was 
refused b\' the Provincial authorities. After the war the subject 
was again agitated and, with the co-operation of many leading 
men, a charter was obtained from the Legislature to locate at Car- 
lisle. One week after the charter had been secure*] the first meet- 
ing of the Board of Trustees of Dickinson College was held, Sep- 
tember 15, 17S3. at the home of John Dickinson, in Philadelphia, 
after whom the ceillegc was named, \\ho became its tirst President 
and one of its most liberal supporters. The first Board of Trus- 
tees consisted of forty men, luany of the highest prominence in the 
State, amongst whom was Henry Muhlenberg \\ho serveel on it 
from 1783 until his death in 181 5. 

The German Department of the University of Pennsylvania 
flourished under the charge of Dr. Helnuith, until about 17S7 or 
1788, when it began to decline gradually and was finally discon- 
tinued. This was partly owing to the desire of the German popu- 
lation to have a college, devoted entirely to their interests and lo- 
cated more nearly in the midst of their people. It having been 
decided to found a ce»llege of this character at Lancaster a charter 
was secured from the Legislature on ]\Iarch 10. 1787, and the new 
institution named Franklin College, after Benjamin Franklin. 
Having been greatly instrumental in its founding Henry Muhlen- 
berg was elected, it'^ first President, on June 5, 1787. The cohege 
was dedicate.! June 6, at which time both the Lutheran ]\tinis- 

154 THK rKyWSVLl-AMA-aKh'MAN. 

teriuin and the Reformed Coetus were in session in Lancaster. 
Dr. Muhlenberg preached a German sermon in the Lutheran 
churcli which was at once printed in pamphlet form, and Dr. Jo- 
seph Hutchins, the newly elected Professor of English and Belles- 
lettres, delivered a discourse, which, however, did not appear 
until 1806, when it was published by the author himself. In the 
course of his college work he, doubtless, soon realized the necessity 
for a thorough knowledge of the English language and so, with 
the view of aiding his countrymen to that end, in conjunction with 
Benedict Schipher as co-author, work was begun on a large "Eng- 
lish and German Lexicon and Grammar," which was issued in 

In 1780 the L'niversity of Pennsylvania conferred upon him the 
degree of A. M.. and a few years later, that of D. D. On Januar\- 
22, 1785, together with General Kosciusko, William Hersheh 
James Madison and Thomas Paine, he was elected to membership 
in the American Philosophical Society, in 1798 in the Natur- 
forschender Freuncjc of Berlin, in 1802 in the Philosophical and 
Physical Society of Gottingen, and in other associations in Ger- 
many, Sweden and elsewhere. 

Dr. ^Muhlenberg was of medium height, of a florid complexion, 
a robust frame and remarkable phvsical strength. He was a great 
pedestrian, frequentl_\- making trips to Philadelpiiia and other 
places at considerable distance almost without fatigue. He was 
an earnest and able preacher, delivering his sermons from notes 
written in a clear but minute hand on narrow slips of paper, so 
minute being the w ritirg as to be almost undecipherable to the or- 
dinary reader. 

The fruit of his union with \Mary Catharine Hall was: 

1. Mary Catharine Muhlenberg, b. September 2, 1776; d. 1843: 

m. Mav II, 1802, John Musser, b. November 2, 1774; d. 
1813. ' 

2. Susanna Elizabeth Muhlenl)erg, b. October 26, 1779; d. July 

9, 1838; m. Peter Schmidt, b. February 10, 1780; d. July 
18. 1831. 

3. Henry Augustus Philip Muhlenberg, b. 'Ms.y 13, 1782; d. Au- 

gust II, 1844. He was pastor of Trinity Lutheran church, 
Reading. I'a.. fmni 1802 to 1827, C S. Congressman for 
five terms. Minister to Austria in 1838, i)opular nominee 


for Governor of Ptnnsylvania at time of death. 1844. He 
married first, 1S05, Mary Elizalieth Hiester, b. 1784; d. 
March 21, ]8o6; dau. Governor Joseph Jliester. Married 
second, June 7, 1808, Rebecca llicster, sister of his first 
wife, b. July 4, 1781 ; d. January 22. 1841. 

4. John I'hiHp Emanuel ^Muhlenberg-, b. March 31, 1784; d. 1825; 

m. Susan Ann Craig. Xo issue. 

5. George Peter Samuel Muhlenberg, b. October 7, 1786; d. 

1827. Single. 

6. Mary Henrietta ^Muhlenberg, b. April 26, 1789; d. 1850. 


7. Phillippa Elizabeth Muhlenberg, b. December 19, 1791 ; m. 

Henry Hufi'nagle, b. 1787; d. 1823. No issue. 

8. Frederick Augustus Hall ^Muhlenberg, b. March 28, 1795; d. 

July 5. 1867; m. first, February 6, 1816, Elizabeth Schaum, 
b. Dectmber 23, 1799; d. January 8, 1826; dau. Benjamin 
and Mary Schaum; m. second. May 8, 1828, Ann Eliza 
Duchman, b. Xovemlier. 1807; d. April 25, 18S1. His son, 
Rev. Prof. Frederick A. ^luhlenberg, D.D., LL.D., served 
five literary institutions of his State, for over fifty years in 
all. including eleven years of Presidency of Muhlenberg 
I am indebted to Rev. Ernest T. Krttschmann, Ph.D., for ex- 
tracts used in this sketch. 

$ ^ «> 

This iiuk'h belated and auxiouslv luok- 
The Pennsylvania-German Society , „ .. ^ ,. " , 

ed lor voiunie 01 Froeeediugs aud 

Addresses of the Eleventh Annual 
Proceedings and Addresses. ,. <■ ^> r> 1 • r^ 

meeting or the Feunsylvania-Cttrmau 

Society, convened at Eas'.on, Pa., October 2(5, 1900, has come at last. If the 
delay of its puVilicatinn was caused by a desire to complete the work in 
minute researL-hes and verifications of its historical ])aiiers or the elaliorate 
illundnation of i s many tine illustrati(jns, tlien the patient'e of those entitled 
to copies was not tried without amends. Certain ir is that this elalmrate vol- 
ume of over .'^00 large quarto pagts justifies almost any proud boast of this 
virile St)ciety, or any uneasiness of its anxious members. The histories given 
and covering over 700 pages are the early history of tlie Lutheran and Ger- 
man Ffefornied Churehes in Pennsylvania, treated respectively by Kevs. Dr. 
T. E. Si-hmauk and Jos. H. Dubbs, two pains-taking and aekuowledgeil and 
broad-gauged iiistorians. To tins volume generations yet unborn will repair 
for historieal data. Dmil.'ly fortunate he who possesses a copy. The C(mtents 
are enticing and [day haoe wi;h one's time, if he begins to nildile at same. 



Doll steht die alt, alt Cidor.muehl, 
Als haet sie noeh en jiingos G 'I'uehl. 
Der Grossvater in alter Zeit 
Hut sie fuer ihreu Zweek bereit. 

Die Aepel-schale 

Hut er vermable, 

Un Droesehter g'macht 

Bis es gegracht. 
Yergang die Zeit, un all die Leit. 

Sieht jetz die Locchcr doh im Dach. 
Dreh ' niohl die Raeder. "Sis en Saeh ! 
Doh is ke' ZTseck, doh is ke ' Ort ; 
Die Wuerm hen den Korb verbohrt. 

Der K'orb %"ergosseI 

Die Saft verflosse! 
Hie-her! Her-hie! 

Du suesse Brueli ! 
Wu sin die Leit? l)ie Zeit verfohrt. 

Holt den Shinmiel an des G 'spiel; 
Shuet die Aepel in die Muehl. 
Eens is g'cheit, des anner dum, 
Dreht die Raeder rum un rum. 

Roth wie Farbe 

Aus deni Korbe, 

Fliesst doh die Brueh. 

Die Blecher hie! 
Es Stromt wie Blut ira Sehaum 

Fangt den Cider in des Fass; 

Den Droesehter warft mer uf dis 

Jetz schallt des schoene Mittags- 

horn ! 
Die Lieb bleibt doh. vergeh der Zorn. 

Dann e'niohl G'messe, 

Un drei Mohl Gesse! 

In 's Bett dort nuf ! 

Dann wieder uf! 
Die Rosa lieit, un nie die Porn! 

Die Aepcl graunze in der Walz; 
Dort sprit St vom Stroh des gruene 

Bedeckt den Korlj, un ziegt die 

Es fliegt die Zeit grad wie die Daub. 

Die Buwe laehe, 

Die Kanirne graehe; 

Die Maed sin doh 

Un sin so froh. 
Wer denkt au jetz an's kuehle Grab? 

Doh steht sie wie en grosser T — 
Die Cider-muehl im Mond, o je! 
Der Baum is, wie der Shimmel, fort, 
Die Blank un Shindle sin verdorrt. 

Die Blocck versimke, 

Der Dag versehwunde! 

Es dut em -neh, 

Mer muss vergeh ! 
Der Mond gukt draurig uf den Ort. 

Die alte Muchl steht still un dum ; • 
Es geht nix nieh im Ringel rum. 
En Amschel, %vie en junge Braut, 
Hut in dem Korb ihr Xtseht gebaut. 

Dort singt sie lieblirh. 

Un waes nix drueblieh; 

' ' Mei Heini is doh 

Ich bin so froh ! 
Dem Herr is alles zuvertraut! " 

Adieu, du alte, Hebe Muehl, 
Du gebst mir jetz en wches G'fuehl. 
Die Lust der Kindheit uie des Laub, 
Geht mit dir zu Aosdi un Staub. 

Ganz vennahle. 

Bis an die So hale, 

Zehrt uns die Welt, 

In unsrer Zeit, 
Un drcibt des Lobe in des Grab. 


Wo's Seidel's Kop' am Himmel hengt, 
Wo's llaaga Dahl ins Lutza zwengt, 
Dazwischa uf rler Summer Seid 
Und iwwers Dahl, paar Kuda weid, 
Der winlcrseidig lliwwel nuf 
Bis in der Biisch ganz oAvwa druf, 
In diesem Dahl beschiitzt und kle', 
Bescliteht 'n lie 'math ait und scho. 

M'r wolla's widder schna gch, 

Die alt forbildlieh He 'math seho. ' - ' 

M 'r kumma uf die alt Schtiit Sohtros, 
Die macht ans Kricka Miihl sich los 
Und sehpringt ans Kloppa Schtohr ferbei 
Bis uf der Schtiit Berg hooh und frei. 

Ans Kloppa is m'r als bal dort ; 
M 'r laufa dann nach ATesten fort, 
E' Hiwwel nunner, der niiehseht no nuf, 
Und schtoppa bissel owwa druf 
, Paar Yard am Schtchn'na Haus ferbei; 
No dreha m 'r reehts der Busch-schtick nei 
Und grattla iuwer die Fens ins Feld. 

M'r laufa fort ivie's uns gefellt 

Bis owwa uf die Schnerr; now schtop; 

Dort driTST\a is der Seidel's Kop'; 

Do hunna, links, is Lutza Dahl; 

Und weiter drunna sehnsrdit 'n Sohtrahl,— 

Sell is die Crick im Haaga Dahl; 

Und grad do hunna iuwer die Wiss 

Die alt, bequcni, schr He 'math is. 

'Sis gar nix fanciess dort am Haus, 

'Sis auwer sauwer, Dreck all h'aus; 

'N dopplet, zueh-sehtock, Block Gebeu, 
Bal alles alt, sehr wennig neu. 

'N feiner Bamgarta ov.wa dro 
Maoht Winters, Summers, Herbscht f roh ; 
Tm Winter halt 's der kalt Wind \veg, 
Im Sunmier gebt 's manch Schatta Fleck, 
Und dann im Herbscht sinn Eppel do. 

Now guck's mohl a', wie scho der Platz; 
'N herrlich Tied, 'n Baucrer ^''liatz! 
Von Schcuerlinir zu Uamgart ' Fens 

158 TUE J'h\.\syLlAMA-GKi;MAN. 

Js Frelul uud Uut iiud ko P^xpens; 
Von l^iiingart' End zii yelicuereck 
'N berrlic'her Vergniigeu St-htreck! 

In all (.lie Diiblcr woid licrum 
Hot NifHiand so 'n Eigfuthuni, 
Vorbildlicli, heniicb, soho, bequeni, 
XJnd so ErinnerungsvoU an He'm! 

Mei Grossdaadie, uf der Mutter Seid, 
War do dahehm sei Lew eszeit ; 
Vor ihni, sei 'ni Fater war des Land, — 
John Sc'haeffer alia zueli genannt. 

Beini Yiingt'ra Jobii wara siwwa Miitl 
Die macba in dcm Dahl fiel Frebd: 
Die iiltscht dafun hchst Mary Ann; 
Die niicbsL'bt, ibr Mutter no, Susanu; 
Dann Sarah; die Priseilla 's fiert, 
Und ^var dann 's zwet der Tod weg fiibrt; 
Die 'Liza Ann kummt 's nacbsebt danei, 
Und war die erscbt das Grab nahni ei; 
Die seehst als Wlilia is bekaunt; 
Die yingsebt Elmeia is genannt. 

Die iiltsobt is als bal sicbzich Yabr, 
Und bei niir 's hochseht gescbiitzt sogar; 
Sie hot so fiel f 'r niich gcduh 
Als yunger und als alter Bub. 
'Sis gut zu rota -nas ieh niehn — 
Sie is niei flutter sell niaebt's plain. 

In sellem Haus hab' icdi die \Yelt 
Mei ers<:bter Olid 'ni a gemeldt; 
Und wie ic'h dann dort ueg war g'numma 
Bin ieh als nocli uf B 'such hie kununa. 

Seb yuscbt eniohl sell ebwa Sebtick 

Voni Scl-euerbot!' bis ganz znrick 

Wo 's binnig'ni Bauigarta dort ut'h<irt ! 

'Es Haus sebtebt drut' \\ ies ib^rt druf g 'bort, 

Die Scheuer si'dlt net anntTSebt sei, 

Und dann was niacbt sell Srhtick so fei 

Sinn sellie Eppelbiini dort druf. — 

Sie nenima grad der reebt Platz uf. 

Ken He 'math findsebt uf ueid und brebil 
Die in sicb selbst fasst so tiel Frehd. 

Washington. [\ ('., January 20, inO'J. M. A.. GiaT.KR. 





Doh buck ich om fenschtor 

Uu guok cl 'tzu nous, 
Wos is s so reg'rich 

Un' sehtoiuiich dort drous. 
Wos peift 's net im SL-hornsehteli, 

\Vos robbfit 's ill! dach, 
So'n wettor is imnicr 

'N unt'reiudlichie soch. 

S'is dies so trauriuh, 

'S guekt olles b'tnebt, 
Ken fogel uni singa— 

Sel hov ich g 'liebt. 
Wos treibts net der rega. 

Wos rouscht 's in de behm, 
Ken wunner wer drous is 

Dei- schotYt sich glei hehni. 

Der summer is ivver, 

Uns sohpoteyohr is doh, 
Wos geht's noch'm winter! 

'M 'r kon schier net noh. 
Der busch is gons nockich, 

Die felder sin blohs, 
Der winter hut summer 

Vn 5i?bpoteyohr im schohs. 

Wos fliega die dawga, 

Die muhnet un yohr; 
Die yunga fun geschter 

lien heit groha hohr. 
So schtehts mit 'm lehwa, 

So geht 's in der welt, 
Wer schpont uff der morya 

Hut's ufft schun ferrehlt. 

Die yohrstzeita fliega 

Wie wolka for 'm wind, 
Sie kumma un gehna 

So merkwerdich g 'sohwind. 
Xoh meliu ich aw immer 

S 'wacr 'n gleiihniss un bild 
Fum mensrli un seim lehwa, 

UtTt schtormich un wild. 

For's aerscht kummt mohl 't frieh- 
yohr — 

Die yugend so tzort. 
Noh geht's in de summer — 

Der mon mit'ni bort, 
Un's naigsidit noch'm sehpoteyohr — 

Der kup wert em weiss, 
Un emllich der winter 

Mehnt 's graub kolt wie eis. 

O yugend so fraehlich! 

U yugend so scheh! 
Du luebscht in der huffjumg, 

Dei sorga sin kleii. 
Un doch net tz'fridihi, 

So gut wie du 's liusht, 
A-ch! wart yuscht, es gebi noch 

G 'nunk sourie Kuscht. 

Ihr menner so kreftich, 

Ihr weiver so schtuls, 
Bei eich is's summer 

Un frisch sehlogt die buls, 
Doch gebt 's yuscht eh summer 

Im niensch seiu 'ra tzeit, 
Un doh sin fiel dawga 

So schtormich wie heit. 

Ihr Faeter un Muetter, 

Wos bringa die yohr? 
Yuscht triebsal un sorga 

Un schuehweisa hohr, 
Die hend werra tzitt 'rich, 

Der leib wert em mott, — 
Wer lebt bis in 's olter 

Der wert a 'mohl sott. 

Die yunga die winscha 

Sie waera boll grohs. 
Die gruhsa die hetta 

Die Welt gern im schohs.. 
Die olta die wissa 

Schun besser wie's is — 
Sie warta schun lengsoht fer 

Der riei Paradies. 

So trieb wie der himmel. 

So dunkel un Schwartz, 
Guckt 's ulft bei de nienscha 

Im innerschte hertz. 
Won tricljsal un ehlend, 

Won kummer un noth. 
Wie 'n sch.tormwind ilrin housa 

Mit sehrecka un doht. . 

Ach I fort mit'm klawga, 

S 'wert besser in tzeit; 
Es wert widder summer, 

Wer denkt noh on heit? 
Dcrt liinner de wolka, 

Wie's lied'l yol, secht, 
Is Ehtier om rulider 

Der mocht's schun oil rccht. 
Gilbert, Fa. 





Wie ruft (lie Stiium so siesa 
Yum Wasserfnll der Wies, 
\Vu dor DisuhteiUauin im Wiud rum- 
Dtr znrt uu lieblich weht, 
Sic'li kreiselt kuiiimt un geht 
Darch welke Giirtc, -n-u die Blum 
verbliht ! 

Im Stoppelftld, net ueit, 
Frih 's Batteriesel sehreit, 
Uu der Wail lioch iu der Luft runi- 
Am Wa?ser dart so still 
Inseeiile glitz 're veil, 
Wu die Spinu cs Gras mit Xetz ver- 

Ou-ets falle Se-hatte 
Iwwer Fenz un Latte, 
Wu die Keb bio vol! mit Trauwe 
Aus sellem Dal, solum feicbt, 
Ed Dunsoht wie Xewwel steigt, 
Wu der \'ollrnond iwwer 'n Iliwwel 


Translation by H. A. S. 

How sweet the voice that calls 
From where the brooklet falls 
In yonder mead, where sails aloft 
in air 
The thistledown, while sports 
With it the wind, that courts 
Sere flowers, roving gardens well- 
nigh bare! 

The stubble-field hard by 
Kings with the plaintive cry 
Of quails, while proudly soars the 
hawk o 'erhead. 
Bright-colored insects fill 
Yon yellow pool so still; 
The spider in the grass his snare has 

At eve the shadows fall 
O'er fence and hedge and wall, 
Y'here stands the vine with load of 
luscious blue. 
From yonder lowland vale 
Rises a vapor pale. 
While o'er the hill the full moon 
creeps to view. 

Bal iwwer Berg un Feld 
Kummt rauer Wind un Kelt. 
Die Schwalm ihr Brut schun zani- 
mer ruft ; 
Bang vor der Kelt un Xot, 
Die do im AVinter droht, 
Ziegt sie fart ins Land der Sununer- 

Ah, soon the northwind chill 
Will sweep o 'er vale and hill ! 
The swallow calls her brood without 
delay ; 
Of cold and want afraid, 
Stern winter to evade, 
Toward the summer-land they hi'e 

Die flcissig dem noch schaflft 
Un sucht for Hunigsaft, 
Wu die Blunnne noch voni Reif ver- 
Die Fenzemaus voll Freed 
Die branne Keschte seht, 
Tragt sie ins Xescht wu sie im Win- 
ter wohnt. 

Still ever busy see 
The honey-gathering bee 
Where'er the frost a flower yet has 
The chipnuiik overjoyed 
Is actively employed'. 
Filling with nuts the home he has 

Uf sellem diirre Baam. 

Dort in der Wies am Damm, 
TrauervoU der Datteldaubrich klagt; 

Dass bal schun 's Spotjohr komm 

Singt scinera Weibche fromm, 
Un die Liebzeit mit Gevalt verjagt. 

Hid in a leafless bough 
Beside the pond, sits now 
The turtle-<love and coos in mourn- 
ful tone. 
He tells his mate so dear 
That winter's very near. 
The hnpjiy time of love has almost 



En licblich siesse Liift, 
Yoll Obselit un Tramveiluft, 
Als nooli b€'i int-r ■noilt un ziirtlich 
spiclt ; 
Lielikost uiit nit-ine Iloor, 
Wio als vor viele Johr 
En Hand so liob an ineiue Locke 

'S fallt von die Beem sebun 's 

Werd \\iilder ErJ un Staab, 
Wie die Dinge all uf dere Welt. 

Dooh die niei Tranrii,'keet, 

Wie SiimmeiheiTlichkeet, 
Aus der Ewigkect en Strahl crliellt. 

Es Spot.johr meinor Dage 
Misst icb ah beklage, 
Wann ich m t en schenn'rer Sum- 
niev \\ist, 
Dart driwwe aus der Zeit — 
Es is von dn net weit — 
Wu ken Winter nieh, ken Spotjohr 

A mild and grateful breeze, 
With scent of vines and trees 
Full freighted, lUmts around me, 
with my hair 
In wanton dalliance plays, 
As in long by-gone days 
A loving hani] was wont to linger 

With sad and rustling sound 
The leaves drop all around. 
Alas', all tilings on earth nuist pass 
away ! 
But on my tearful sight. 
Like suniiner-glory Vjright, 
Falls from the fair Beyond a cheer- 
ing ray. 

My summer has an end, 
And mourning I might spend 
.My autumn days; but happily 1 
Beyond this vale of time 
A never changing clime. 
No autumn there, no winter storm- 
winds blow. 


(After the Englii: 

BY DR. K. 

O, yes! 0* yes! Now harr'cht amohl 
Un kommt yetz by, ihr leeva Leit, 
Ihr oil wo wolf '1 kaufa wollt 

Kommt by, for do is A'endue heit! 
De Welt is""uf," mit Shlechts an 
Der Croyer nenunt kae falsh Ga- 
biit; — 
De Welt mus fordt, se wardt fer- 
Jlit Glueck un Aelent, Eh.- un 

En grotsy 'Shtate wardt do fer- 
En Welt mit Pein, Gafncht un 
Waer beet ? Was haer ich for 'n 
Waer broucht 'u Iloufa Sorga 
heit ? 
En goty Chance for Yung un Oldt I 
Waer beet ? We feel for Shtaub 
un Shtro'i ^ 
Now g'shwindt! Eennt aens 'm on- 
nera fore 
Un kauft eich doch 'i Grab loch 


di of Balph Hoyt.) 

Gook! was 'n brechdig Keichdum do! 
Waer beet for 'n reichv, widy 
For hoachy Ehr. for 'n Nawma gross, 
For Lond un Lob, for Goldt un 
Gelt ? 
Sac usht de feela Acker aw! 

Dc g'haera oil tzu nuriera 'Shtate. 
Hob Ftndoo heit — 's muss olles 
fordt — 
'S gons Yammerdahl so wide un 

Was haer ich vetz? We feel 's Ga- 
but ? ' 
'S wardt oil ferkauft — un bv der 
Doch harr'ch! es is 'n falshy Welt 

Un mich hut se nuch nix gabodt. 
For awtzugooka is se shae. 

Doch is se nix as Dreek un Shtaub; 
Se 's full Batrug, un Meeh, un 
Un dart om end, der Doat un 's 
Graub ! 



St'it g'shwiudt ! leli ncin 'n glao Ga- 
Do kftit ihr goota bar>,'a niacha^ 
De "Wolt, de ktnt ihr kaufa heit, 

Mit jniota \\n iiiit shliniina Sacha. 
Dc Lieb muss fonlt, de Freundshafft 
aw ; — 
De Lieb! Was wore se imil my 
Ach, Freiind sin falsli un Freuud- 
shafft hohl. 
De I'ein is loug, de Lieb is kor.z! 

Der Kulim ! De Ehr ', was glentza die I 
Was hoachv Nawma, hell we 
Un was 'n Shell doreh Berg un Dahl, 

As won 'u Donuer-wetter rollt ! 
Waer beet for Ruhm un hoachv Ehr? 
Dcs sin yo was 'u man 'eher 
sooeht ; 
Komm, kauf, un beek der Welt de 
Un werr no fon der Welt fer- 
flooeht : 

Un seh, de Hotfnung geht aw mit — 
De shae, de foehreud, glentzent 

Ich un de Holi'nung hen yetz Shtreit, 
Un hovva nonner uinuny gern! 

'N nuin 'eher Dawg wore se my 
'N mon 'ehy Tzeit niv Shtaub un 
Shtock ; 
Hoit awvcr wart se aw fcrkauft 
Mit Sock un Pock, mit Hoot un 

Waer beet for ITociimoot, Fash 'n, 

Ich brouch se ninmiy. Beet for <lie, 
Sin wulf '1 oil — was wollt ihr don 

Das niederrechtielier is we so? 
Se wolinta long in niiuera Brusht, 

Awver Kummer hut my Hartz ga- 
drickt ; 
En Lasht fun Sorga, Aelent, Fein 

ilut olles sonsht in mir fershtickt! 

Now nuch amohl! Tzwae mohl! Dri 
Ich shlag se ob, warhoftig gli! 
Do is 'n chance for glae un gross — 
Kommt, beet un kauft, un macht 
niich frei ! 
Doch eppes b'holdt ich ye;z tzurick, 
For sel froag ich heit kae Gabut — 
My Beev'l wardt nuch net terkauft, 
Ich b'holdt my Glawva uu my 



Mer schwiitze vun alte Zeite 

Uu deuke gar net dro ' 
Die Zeit werd net iilter uoch jiinger, 

Jusht mir werre alt un gro'. 
Sie ziihlt ihre johre bei dausend, 

I)ie Welt, un werd net alt, 
Mir ziihle sie jusht bei zwanzig, 

Un die vergehne bald. 

Dal niehne die Zeit war besser 

In ihrer jugen<l. Xe' 
Sie ware jiinger, gesiinder, 

L^n do war AUes ship'; 
Jetzt sinn sie ausgewohre, 

Jetzt sinn sie miid un satt, 
Un die Welt sheiut shlimmer wie 
Un liiderlich un matt. 

Frog jusjit amol die Junge. 

Die hen en anner Lied. 
Die ihrich Zeit is de beshte, 

Do sinn sie All agreed! 
L'n ich glab wol dass sie recht heun, 

Un jedes Alter ah. 
Das is jedenfalls die beshte Zeit 

An unserer Jugend uah. 
Lititz, Pa. 

Historical Pilgrimages into 



r(.>R sumlry reasons, all of uhii-li (-(jmbiue to inako it tlii' thing to do in 
the opinion of the eilitor, our pilgrimage in this number sliall be 
exteuih d in a sontlierly direcion. instead of making headway to- 
wards the castirn borders of the State, where Pennsylvania-Germandom 
sits enthroned, and has for six generations. But surely no one will question 
the propriety of our historic jaunts into the county and city of York, nor 
wonder what the I'ennsylvania-German ]>ilgrim wants there. 

From Berks to York via Lancas'.er, sounds like tra\eling in England. 
Alas! for the futility of nomenclature. A ruse might smell as sweei by any 
other name, but surely no other llouer eould be given the Iragrance of this 
queen of blooms, even if the rose's name were afudied to it. Our today's pil- 
grimage leads through territory that has been named by and for the Indian 
and Englishman, but the tlavor of the Pennsylvania-German life and speech 
and thrift and thought is over it all, having leavened the whole lump. The 
streams Viear Indian names, \Vy(;missing, Cacocsing, Cocalico, Cones; oga, 
Conewago, Susquehanna, Codorus, etc., and on their banks Indian arru'.t 
heads may yet be picked up, but for a century and three-quarters these 
streams have babbled in Pennsylvania "Dutch'' and crooned their lullabies 
in that euphonious tongue. The counties, some towns and townships, and 
the capital cities are bearing English names — Reatling, Lancaster, York — 
but the domestic, ecclesiastic and civil life is ])eculiarly Pennsylvania-Ger- 
man. The cooking, the preaching and the bartering is done today on the 
banks of these Indian-named creeks as it was done two centuries ago on the 
banks of the Rhine and the Wcser. Hence my host of pilgrims will feel 
at home in the territory we shall traverse in this trip today. 

We shall make our journey in a sort of "a run, a skip and a jump"' 
fashion to land us. at its close, about sixty miles to the south. From the 
captal of Berks to the capital of York it will take us. The Eev. J. \V. 
Early, of Reading, will lead us on our run out of Berks; the editor will help 
us make the skip over Laiu-aster, and Dr. I. II. Betz, of York, will help us 
make our jump into York. So all aboard I for here we go! 

The writer of that inimitable satiie " Urian 's Reise in Schlaraf- 
feuland, ' ' says: 

Wenn jemand eine Reise thut, 

So kann er nas erziihlen, 
Drum nahm ich einstens Stock und Hut, 

T'nd thiit das Reise n wiihlen. 


Sogleich zog ieli die Stiefel au, 

Uud griff iiarli nu>iiii'in Stocko, 
Sotzt auf i.ltn Jlut — inai>;(hirte ilaiui 

In niciii.Mii Spitzfrcck Kneke. 

And so Avc shall erdss lowtr ]?crks intu Lan.-asier, declining such new-fangled 
novelties as steam railroads or air lino troilovs. Proceeding southward on 
Fifth stioe:. Reading, mo j.ass at Franklin tlie fine residtuce of Horatio 
Trexler, for many scars one of Reading's prominent men of affairs. On 
an opposite corner is Reading's Public Fibrary, the gift of a number of 
the city's public-spirited citizens. From this corner on Franklin we pass' to 
Third street, thence on Third to Chestnut and thence down the river bank, 
along which route are located many of Reading's present-day industrits, such 
as Sheet Mills. Rempis Ornamental Iron Works, tlie I'enn Hardware Works 
and the Reading Hardware Works. At the foot of Bingaman street is an 
old graveyard, huig kmnvn as Gerber's (now Fix's) burial groumls. Here 
rest the bones of early German settlers, the waves of the on-llowing Schuyl- 
kill bablding to these wakeUss sleepers, wliiJe not even the rush of trains, 
the rattle of machinery, or the roar of repeated floods have mad.' din and 
tide enough to wakm or wash them from their sacred slumbers. Litigation 
even has tried in vain, and hence it may be concluded that a Pennsylvania- 
German burial idot is a pretty secure place against these days of' change 
and progress. The territory about here was first a Welsh settlement. Many 
relics rtmain. 

Passing through, under and over a variety of bridges at this point we get 
beyond river, railroad lines and belt line lately opened here, bound in a 
straight line "over the hills for the Poor House" and Mohnsville, Adams- 
town, etc., beyond. Our fust stop is made at an old-time Pennsylvania- 
German hostelry, known as the Kurtz Ibnise. Whilst this is an ancient land- 
mark, no important history clings to it. Between this and Sliillington 
stretches the rieh and broad-acr'M farm of the county used for the mainten- 
ance of its paupers'. This property was once the country seat of General 
Thomas MiUlin, of Revolutionary fame, and the first governor of this Com- 
monwealth. He named it "Angelica," and one of the houses is yet stand- 
ing, but emboilied in the main portion of the present alms house. It is 
located three miles to tlie southwest of Reading. 

It is plain that tlie Welsh nationality w;is the first upon the ground in 
these p.arts when it is sta'ed that ."",(10 acres of his cmnty farm were in 1735- 
50 the pniperty of Fvan Lh.yd, .bdm Davis and Kvan .loncs. General Mif- 
flin owmd about (500 acres, and was visited here by many illustrious men, 
among whom were John Penn. who left a diary account of it, and his horse- 
back itinerary up througli the Lebanon Valley. Tliis occurred in A[.ril, 17SS. 

We quote from Penn 's diary: "April 9, (17SS). Set off accnmiianird by 
!Mr. Bid<lle. who was so obliging as to slmw me the way to General Mifflin's 
farm, three miles from Reading. Finding the river too <leep to ford, we 
passed at a Inwer ferry on tlie road to Lancaster. The General and Mrs. 
Mifilin rec.ived us in a neat farm liouse, and being \erv earlv thcmsehes 



j>rovided anotlicr l>reakt';ist for us, lliou^'h it ^vas tlicii only IkiIi [mst seven. 
He took us round seme of his ini|ir(:voi!ii'nts and J rndo witii him to various 
poiuts of vii/w which eonunanik'd the town of Ktadiiig and tho circuin jacout 
hills and valleys, llo faiiiis aliout l.i^no aeros and has a SL-otdi fariuer who 
coudutds tho business. (Jne hundred of meadow land he wa', ers. One neigh- 
bor of the General's is one of the marrying Dunkers. They live in their own 
houses like otlier countrymen, but wear their beards long. 'J'his jicrsun is 
a principal one, and wlien we accosted him he was working in his meadow. 
General ^Mitllin, with agreeable frankness and atTability pressed us both to 
stay for an early dinner, to wliich we sat down at one o'clock. After dinner 
I mounte<l my horse and came into '.he Carlisle road, about tliree milts off. 
at Sinking Spring. Aliout sunset I arrived at ^Nliddletown (now Womels- 

, ■% 





■■■' 1 :7 


dorf), fourteen nrd(s frcua Reading, and put up at a tavern, he master of 
which ownetl the town and 100 acres in the neighborhood." 

Passing the Three 'SUle House, we come to Shillington. a thriving village 
which has grown up right upon the borders of this county farm. The next 
turn brings us t(^ Mdisiui, a \illage of recent date, perjutuating the name and 
fame of that great electrical wizard liy whose magic power this wdude com- 
munity and ;he modern world is accommodated with subservient lightning, 
which now carries our passengers, lights our streets and houses' and carries 
our messages without the loss of a single emphasis or peculiar intonation. 

At Edison the trolley line leads to Mehnsville on the left, while the old 
stage roail goes on to tlie Five Mile House, to Gouglersville and un to Adams- 
town. iMohnsville is a busy and anticjuated lit le German town of about 
1,.500 inhabitants, who have contrived for several generations to give the 
place a reputation for its manufacture of hats. The churches are Germanic, 
Lutheran and P'.vangelica!, tlie language long { revailing is that of our stock, 
an<l the virtues* and domestic order are high. 


THE rh.\.\ SYLl ama-<!Ki:max. 

lii'Vitud Miihns\ iile stn tch the wooded crests that ^ive rise to the Wyomis- 
siiig, the (.'oe:'.li*'o and the Miuhly ('reeks. And then the traveler arrives at 
Adaiustowii, a small \illa^e strung along ihe State road for half a nule or 
more. It is also kno\Mi tor its liat industries and many a man has gone to 
field and fair, to eoiur.ry ehurch and eity eouniil, to see his best girl or get 
a di\oree from iiis tarmagaiit wife, \\ill'. a lieadgear made in this town, 
named for the very first man, whose Kvc got him into trouldc. 

About two miles west of AdamsUnvn stands the ^fuddy Creek church, or 
"Church oi; the Cocalico." Here is' enough history written in church rec- 
ords, entomlied in gra\eyard and enacted and evaporati'd into air to make 
the atmosphere balmy with Ihe noble, pious deeds of a worthy German an- 
cestry. One of the earliest churches of eastern Pennsylvania was here or- 
ganized by Kev. John Casper Stoever, that illustrious founder of Luthtran 



Churches. Ilis Reformed colleague for a few years was the Rev. John Pe'.er 
IVIiller, afterwards prior among the Ephrata community. The following is 
the inscription of tlie title page of the ]\[u<ldy Creek church register: 


fiir die Evangelische-Luthcrische (iemeinde an iler Gogallico, 

Worinuen beschrieben uud aufge/.cichnet wenlen sollte 

1. Das zu Ilaltung des Gottesdienstes erkauftte oder vorliabe. 

2. Die getaufte Kinder. 

3. Die zum erstenmahl zum Abendmahl admitterte und Contirmirte Personen. 

4. Die Copulirte un^] in den Ehestand getretene. 

5. Die Ehrlich zur Erden bestaltete. Theils au( h anilern. Etc. etc. 

Angefangen von mir 
Johann Casjiar StiUer, ilernialiger E\angelisclie-Lutlierischo hochdeiitschen 
I'fiirrlierrn in Penn.--vlvanien, ini Jahr riiristi, 1733. 


Anionp the LulhcrMn i>a>itnrf! who have served lliis aneieiit eliureh may be 
named besides SteeNer, T(d]ias ^\'aKIlel•, Scliw enltt'eijer, Win. Kurtz, S(.hr(je- 
der, Melsheiiner, Mueller, i'litt, Filbert, Eiij2;el, L'uetze, l\iehards, Weldni, 
Friedrieh, Jaeger (T. T.), Kecsc, \Va<iner, Boger, etc. On the Keforined 
sido \\ere Boehin, Miller, Stahlschinidt, ])eeker, Ijeinbach, Ilenilel and others. 
First log church was built 1730-;{, heated by the primitive method of burning 
logs. Second edifice, -with stone walls and tile floor was in use aViout one 
hundred'. Present building was erected in 1847. 

From Muddy Creek we have but a short distance to Ephrata, where arc 
enshrined the most noted historical events of this community. But having 
already treated Ephrata, Lititz, Manheim, Elizabethtown and the territory 
of I^ancaster county lying thence to the river, this is a convenient place to 
take our editorial skip and land just across the Susquehanna from Columbia, 
whence the genial doctor, of York, with strong historic ins'.incts, will comluct 
us over an his'oric highway into York. But let us hear him. 

In approaching York county from the east we encounter the broad and 
majestic Susquehanna which has been famed in song and story. York county 
has a river frontage of fifty-five miles. In the early settlement of the S.ate 
the river \\as a line of division. To the west everything was regarded as a 
dense wilderness to the "setting of the sun." The red man alone was its 
possessor and its denizen. The Indian trails that led through the eastern 
part of the State were continued westwardly from the nver from particular 
I'oints. These rude trails were utilized by the white traders, missionaries 
and settlers during ''ihe j>ack-horse era." This methoil of travel and trans- 
porting goods was vtry common in York county for a half century. As 
many as oi)0 [lack horses were to be seen in York at one time. The appear- 
ance of these pack-horse trains was grotesque, in their method of loading 
and travel. Each horse carried about two hundred pounds. 

The trails were later chietly improved and used as wagon roads. This, 
however, aroused much opposition as does every innovatiim upon established 
habits and customs. 

Wlule ti'.e rivtr seems or appears formidable in width, yet at certain sea- 
sons of the year in its low stages at certain places it permits fording. Dur- 
ing severe winter weather it permits being crossed on the ice in safety. 

The primitive canoe of the red man, except so far as it was improved upon 
by the Vvhite man. \\as the <mly remaining source of passing its portals. 
Early in the ISth century pulilic ferries were estaldished friim the confluence 
of its great branches to tliO bay in which it empties. These ferries were nu- 
merous in York' county, being chartered, at a distance from each other of 
about five miles. The most noted ami perhaps the most traveled was 
Wright 's Ferry. 

In 17'2tl Hobert Bar])er, Samuel Blunston and ,Tohn Wright, who were 
Friends, caine from Chester county, and settled upon the east bank of the 
river, the present site of «.'olumbia. John Wright several years afterwards 
took up land on the wi st liank of the river o]iposite. 

The I'roprie-tarit s i.f the pro^ince prohibited any setth-niont west of the 


THE rKy.\ S 17. 1 A MA-GEUMJ A'. 

river an,-l refused to issue any lietiise ex.ept to .loliu Wriglit and ihe Jleu- 
drioks brothers. John Wricrht sought to obtain a patent for a ferry, but 
in this, owing to some oj.pusi;ion. he did not sueceed until i7;;;5. limnedi- 
ately with Samuel P.lunston he petitiun.d for and obtained a road from 
Columbia to Lancaster, whieli was granted the following year. His son, 
John, Jr., reeeived lieense to keep a puHie house for the years 173G-7-5-9[ 
on the west side of the river. 

In ]7:?<1 the Monoracy road was extended through York county commene- 
iiig at Wright's Ferry, connecting with the Monocacv road in' Marvhmd. 
The York county road covered a distance of nearly t'hirtv-five miles. Its 
view and survey is on record. Jt larg< ly followed the former trail and has 
Itself been supplanted by a turnj.ike in 1S17, and a railroad in 1S40. 

The three lines of communication with York followed the same general 
trend. The :\ronocacy road was about two miles longer than an air line, 
while the turnpike appruached it most nearly, although the railroad follows 
as a close second. The distance from Wrightsville to York by pike is eleven 
and one-half miles. 

The old road in its day was a prominent highwav of travel. 
It was the route taken by tJeueral Wayne on his way to Yorktown, Va., 
near the close of the Kevolution. On this road were tninsported the'large 
numbers of Hessian and British prisoners t.> York, Frederick, Md and 
Winchester, Va. Genu-ais Wayne an,l St. Clair in 1792, used it on 'their 
way to Ohio to quell the Indian troubles there. Immense wagon trains of 
cotton from Alabama, Georgia and other States used this route on their 
way to Philadelphia and New York when AVashington was occupied and 
Baltimore was threatened by the British in 1812-14. 

It was this road that was used by the Continental Congressmen when 
they came from Lancaster. They, however, crossed the river at Andersou 's 
Ferry, a few miles above Wright's Ferry, at what is now Marietta. They 
traversed a road that led from there joining the Monocacy road. The site 
of Wright's Ferry has been much changed from earlv davs. The river ha& 
widened very much, it is alleged. The crossing was marred bv rocks, some 
of which rose above the water. Lieutenant Anberry, a British' prisoner and 
ofiicer, in his "travels in America" relates that the current was verv rapid 
and the great number of rocks just appearing above the water put them in 
great peril. One of the scows came mnv being lost with its occupants. In 
later years General Washington met with an unpleasant experience in cross- 
ing, and was delaytd some hours. Pr,d,ably for this reason and from 
choice of on the eastern side of the river the upper, or Anderson 's 
Ferry, was chosen in many instances. 

John Wright, Jr.. was a man of pr(;minence. He was elected a member 
of the Assembly for York county at the first election after the erection of 
the county in 1749, and was annually re-elected till 17.;9. He died in 1763. 
One of his daugliters was married to General James Ewing. He removed 
to "Woodbine." ab,,ve Wriglitsvill... :,nd died there in ISOO. in a house 
which is stil standing, bur no longer occupied. Another .laughter of Wil- 

FUUM KEADLW. TO y<)i:h\ ' j,;j, 

Ham ^Wright, Jr., .a. marrial to Jonathan M.tllin; anotluT to Dr. John 

The buiMings oceupi..! by deseondam. of John Wright, Jr., are s;ill stand- 
ing and are very nUer. sting from an historical point of view 

U.dled 'snr ' 'T ''" ""^ P^^"'''"'"^^ ^""^ ^^^ ^.eing the Capital of the 
Lmt.d states. Part.,n, „x h.s -'L.tV of Jefferson," and Benton's - l^.- 
cally ^^as ta.-lamed an.l known yet it was not laid out as a town until Isll 
and incorporated as a borough in 1S34. ' 

The era of across the Susqud.anna did not begin before 
tI.o second decade of the JUth century. The tirst bridge at Wright's F v 
-as in 3S14. It was destroyed by an ice Hood in 1S32.' V second 


h i- 


thi I b 1 • ":' '"■"' '"""^' ^"^ Confederate invasion of 1SG.3 The 

third bridge was destroyed by the great storm of 1S9S. The prescn 
bndge IS a fino substantial structure. These bridges, excepting the fst 

::t::x iw^'-r^r'^^^-r'^-^^^- ^^^^ bridge. u^c'^imS 

two altrti:::? e^:^^:"^^""""^' ^-^ '-^-^^^ ^y ^- ^-^^^ ^ year or 

seen^y Chines .oc. across the river, is! co::;^: Jiidn^ ""^'^^^ 
\\r ghtsMlle IS interesting not only from i:s historical associations traces 
of wdnch meet us on every si.le. Its population is enterpr m ' inte, 
hgent and progressive. It is notable also from the fact that h e th'e li Ih' 
water mark of the Confederate invasion reache,! its most eas e n an 1 n rth 
ern hmit. General Gordon's headquarters is pointed out to the v 
Houses marked by rebel shells are also to be Jn. V rio . Ir ';• 

interest abound. Goin.- to ami bevon 1 f l, . various otner points ot 

'-^ni^ ,0 and bevund the western extremity of the toun a 



fine na'airal panorama greets the observer to the east. The manor of 
Spriiigct.<bury, which was surveyed by Governor Keith, witli tlie consent of 
the Indians for tlie use of Springet I'enn, the grandson of William Peun, in 
1722, embraced o\er 75,000 acres. It fxtended due west from the river, a 
distance of nrarly fifteen miles-several miles above York, as laid out later 
iu its domain. It extended north and south of the latter town almost four 
miles. It was re-surveyed iu 17GS. 

The Susquehanna and York borough turnpike leads in an almost direct 
line from the river at V.'rightsville to Y'ork. For a little over half of the 
distance it runs to the north of the railroad. It then crosses to the south 
side and remains thus until it reaches York. It runs almost across the 
middle of the oM-time manor. 

rliiii il 

- %' 

i: 11 



Ml. 1 i,! 


The eontlicting claims of Maryland and Pennsylvania made this locality 
one of great contention. The IMarylanders encroache<l upon this locality, 
settling a few miles to the south and also to the west of Wriglit's Ferrv. 
They were ejev-ed l,y the authorities of the I'rovince of Pennsylvania. It 
was not until the running of the famous :\rason and Dixon's Line that the 
disturbances were settled in 176S. 

Probably the famous Kreutz Creek Valley, which is traversed bv the creek 
of the same name which empties in the river near the lower border of 
Wrightsville, is one of the finest in the State. To the south of Wrightsville 
we have the 1>eautiful (' (inojnhela Valley which Tvas the scene of violent bor- 
der disturbances. AVe pass up the pike over which General Gor<lon made 
his rapid march to Wrightsville. We are filled with admiration akin to 
that expressed bv the rebel soldiery \\hich still lingers in the rei^dlection of 
the ecpially a-t. :ni>hid inhabitants. The substantial thrift of tho cuninun- 



ity, the large liouses and still larger bai'os, tilled tlieiii with \v(itidor. Many 
of tlieiii had never been heyoiid the borders of their own States in whieli 
the condiiions and iinprovenn'nts \vere far dilVereiit. Tiie valley is limestone 
and exceedingly fertile. General Early apjMeeiated the returns and fertility 
of the soil -whtni be declared that York county and its vicinity was well able 
to pay tribute, judging by the extent of its market productions. 

Our route will lead us through the townshijis of Hellani, Springetslmry 
and Springgar<len. In this locality were made the earliest legitimate settle- 

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THE SCHULTZ HOTEL, Erected 1734. The oldest house in York County. 

nients west of the river. We approach Hellam (formtrly written Hallam) a 
beautiful rural town, tastefully built up and presenting a rare charm (^f 
abundance and contentment. Tlu' railway station is to the south of the town. 
Several churches are found here. Still farther to the south is found the 
Eniig homestead, a coun:ry seat of rare charm. Here is where occurred the 
murder of Morgan, tiie then owner, by the Hessian prisoners from the stock- 
ade, several miles above. 

The Kreutz Creek and its branches meander about ilellam and viciiuty. 
The clear, sparkling water gives the wiu)le conununity an air of coolness dur- 
ing the heat of the summer. 

We j>ass up the jiiko and stop at the rt sidence of Miss Kaidiel Balm, tlie 


THE i'iv.VA .si7j-.l\7.i-(;a/.m;j.v. 

poetess. She shows us evideiiees of application to literature. Her note books 
and their e(Uit<n'. s are nioileis of jirecision and ele;:^ant peninansliip. For 
fifty-three ye.nrs siie has been a helpless invalid.* 

Here the old Monucaey road swings diagonally to the southwest, passing 
in front of the John Shultz house built in 1734. We are kindly shown through 
i;s'.iir. We are shown the ohl-tiine bar-room, the vaulted cellar, the 
low ceilings an<i the duraljle walls'. The house is the oldest now standing in 
the county. We are iiifomied tiiat Martin, a brother of Jchn S.diultz,- also 
built a stone house al)Out the same time, of which no traces remain. 

It is said that .Morgan before mentioned was the onlv English settler in 

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THE HESSIANS' BURIAL GROUNDS— Containing over 1,0C0 bodies. 

this whole region. The nanus handed down seem to he German. Of course 
the old Monocacy road has been vacated and i', s pathway is for the most 
part a matter of tradition. Still the survey is on record and it would be 
possible to reconstruct the highway. 

"We pass up a little farther in devious private roads and pass over the 
Kauffman farm up the ridge and view the site of the famous stockade and 
encampment of the Hessian and British prisoners. The views to be had of 
the beautiful Kreu'. z Creek Valley fn m its summit are charming. t Every 
thing is now quiet and almost every trace has been removed. We pass over 
the brow of the hill and come upon '.he site of the Hessmn graveyard, which 
is a token of so n^ich forgotten misery. The ground is now farmed over. 
We view the famous ''Hessian Thai'' and take j)ictur(S of these surround- 
ings. We retrace our steps across to S'.ony Brook, where the railroad now 

•Dierl Aiiir. IV IPn:. 

t F'>r a tint- n.."ni in I'fiiii^ylvania-i Jorniaii celebrating th«' beauties of this valley, sf-e It. L 

ler's ■Kreutz-Krii'K Walli" 

FROM 1:eAI)1\G to YORK. 173 

crosses the turnpike. The old Monoea.,v rua.l also n.a.le a turn from the 
Sehultz home towards the north approaching the pike 

Our next stopping place is the Mell-known Hicstand Ilotol. This is a very 
mZ:Tv7 '''^''''.^f ^r-^ --■"^>- ''^- ^-ty-five feet, which was buiU 

nn^ :T '"■"''" "" '""-'^ =^'""^ ^"•^ J^'*^^'^ -^^1 ^'-^l^- t-veled 

^auz^unoug tares averaged one to every nule. We take severaf views of 
tL.s fa-fanied hostelry and take a view of the highly cultivated surround- 


Here President Washington wa^ entertained in 1791. 

ings On all sides the view takes in colossal barns and lar.^^ tastefullv built 
^bs antud nsidences. To the northeast stretch the HellL Hd n ^ t ^ 
of which IS found the noted Joel Sraney. A vtsit to this n,an d 
h^ s,n-K.undings is invested with considerable inrerest. We seeu^d n 
ber of large photographs of the hernut and his surroundings fnl k le 
hernms of more southern oriental climes. ,h.s hernut at the approach 'f" c 
weather retires into wint'T .iu-irtpr<; Ti, . . i . .- - ^'I I ^oa. n or cold 

in his accustomed place. ' "'"^"' '' ^'"'"^' ^"^^ ^"^ --'.^• 

"^0 as a hotel. In ns palmy days ir was presided over bv a landlord 
by the name of Bard, -he hi.t.ry of this hotel, its balls and pa^i ^^^ 
^t be wrm.n, w,.„ld till . vohune. Local historians main:ain that thi; tile! 

174 THE ri:S .\ S,Y L\- AN lA-GKUM AN . 

had the hmior of ontortaining President Washington \vhen hd passed through 
the county. That is very probable as he was accompanied to Wright's Ferry 
by a hirge nundK'r of friends and admirers. No comnuuiity in the country 
e.xceeded York county in loyalty and devoti'ju to the Revolutionary cause and 
its belo%ed conunander-in-cliief. 

While the notorious Conway Cabal had its headquarters in York and there 
met its quietus, its people were in no wise connected with its machinations. 

Our advance towards York is greeted by a vision of the town as it grad- 
ually appears to our view. Situated in the great York Valley with its diverg- 
ing sub-valleys it presents a picture of beauty. The spires of its churches 
and the towers of its public buildings arouse our expectations, which on 
closer view are not disappointed. The surrounding farms are delightfully 
clean and well kept. The smoke of its large chimneys shows that it possesses 
numerous and bus}- manufactories. The town stretches away in the distance. 
Its location is admirable. Its lines of railways to the east and west, to the 
north anil south, give it a<lnurable facilities for connnunication with renmte 
points. Thus we reach York, towards wl\ich all roads converge. The traveler 
has the choice of a nundjer of wdl-kept, first-class hotels at which he can be 
delightfully entertained while he makes a closer acquaintance with the town 
and its hospitable inhabitants. 

The news of the Declaration of Independence by our Continental Con- 
gress was first published to the world by a Pennsylvania-German printer. 
Hcinrich Miller, at the head of a flourishing German press in Philadel- 
phia, and recognized German printer for Congress, issued his "Staats- 
bote" weekly at this time, which was the only Philadelphia paper making 
its appearance on Friday. As the Declaration was adopted on Thursday, 
his paper was the first to publish the interesting news to the world in the 
following language, set "in the boldest antique type that the office could 

"Philadelphia, den 5 July. Gestern hat der achbare Congress dieses 
vesten Landes die vereinigten Colonien freye und unabhangige Staaten 
erklaret. Die Declaration in Englisch ist gesetzt in der Presse: sie ist 
datirt den 4ten July. 1776, und wird hent oder morgen in druck erschei- 

It is noteworthy that anotiier Miller— the Ephata prior — soon after 
translated the same English form of this "Declaration" into seven 
European languages. ^ — -"Hoch dem Deutchen in Amerika!" 

IV no 11 AS LOG AS f lib 



AMONG tlie first of my sc-hool-boy deulaniations -was tlie famous speech 
of Loyan, the ^(ingo chief, -witli its pathetic cU)se: " \Vho is there 
to mourn for Ijogaii ? Not one.'' 

I propose to change the form of the cpiestion and will try to answer the 
interesting cjuery ''Who was Loi^an himsdf ?" 

It is not generally kno^vn that Logan was the second sun of Shekallamy, 
the firm and fast friend of Colonel Conrad Weiser, the great Indian in- 
terpreter. His father was a memher of the Moravian church and had this 
son baptized Logan in honor of dames Logan the distinguished secretary 
connected with the Proprietary Council of Pennsylvania in Provincial days. 
Shekallamy was* a chief of the Cayuga tribe of Iroquois, or Six Nations of In- 
dians, and resided for many years at Shamokin where he died and was buried 
in 1749. Mingo was the Indian name of the Iroquois. Shekallamy (^whose 
name is spelled in different ways by writers of Provincial times) and Con- 
rad AVeiser were in constant communication with each other and they and 
their sons exchanged many visits of hospitable friendship as well as of a 
more official character. As agent and representative of Pennsylvania, 
Maryland and Virginia. Conrad Weiser, wi(h the assistance of Shekallamy, 
negotiate<l many treaties and preven: etl many hostile contlicts between the 
Indians and frontier settlers in pioneer days. 

On one occasicui, in September, 17-14, Conrad went to Slianu>kin with eight 
young men from Berks county and in seventeen days' time erected a very 
commodious d\\elling for Shekallamy out of the raw material. It was forty 
nine and a half feet long by seventeen and a half feet wide and covered with 

When bad Indians committed outrages upon the whites Shekallamy had 
them arrested and punished, and when lawless frontier men occupied the 
Indian territory contrary to treaty sti])ulations, Conrad went wilh a posse 
and ejected them. 

The Indians generally in the many councils held at Easton, Onondaga, 
Lancaster, Philadelphia, etc., bore testinumy to the fact that Conrad Weiser 
always spoke the truth and did the right thing between the red man and the 
white man. Hence he enjoyed the full confulence and esteem of both races. 

There was, however, one excejdion among the Indians, Keekyuskung, a 
Delawarean chief, who wanted a price set upon French scalps at the Easton 
treaty of 1757, which Conrad opposed both on grounds of humanity and of 
policy because if such premium were offered they would probably be called 
upon to pay for sctilps of their own kindred. Keekyuskung denounced Con- 
rad on several occasions but was promptly reprimanded by ottier chiefs wno 
praised Conrad as a friend of truth .'uul defemh^r of the rights of the In- 
dians. After a treacherous, dissijiated and bloodthirsty career Keekyuskung 
met his merited doom on the g<iry field of Pushy Pun, 17()."!, at the point of 
Highland Imyont ts after being largely instrumental in fomenting tlie Pim- 


tiac Avar. .During the droailfnl night of 5. when Colonel Bouquet's 
little army of deli\ oranoe was sorely be&'et liy howling savages Keekyuskung 
was eo!is}ucuous in taunting tlie thirsty ami weary troops with Ijlaekguanl 
threats anrl epithets bellowed from behind a large tree at a safe distance 
from the picket line. 

After the death of his father and Conrad Weiser, his father's friend, Lo- 
gan remained on frien<lly terms with the white settlers iu spite of Indian 
upbraiibngs, especially during the French and Indian \\ ar, and the Pontiac 
Outbreak of 1763.4. 

He locateil for some years in Kishicoquilhis A'alley and then, owing to 
encroachments of white settlers, moved to Oliio in 1771, and located at the 
mouth of Yellow Creek, thirty miles above AVheeliug, whtre be collected and 
formed a settlement largely composed of friends and relatives from the re- 
gion of the Susquehanna. In May, 1774, one Daniel Greathouse, with some 
thirty other white settlers, hearing of Indian depredations do^\ n the Ohio 
and not knowing perhaps the character and antecedents of Logan, made an 
attack upon this village in tlie absence of Logan, and killed a dozen and 
wounded a nunilier of other friends and relatives of Logan, including his 

Ou his return Logan buried the dead, made provision for the wounded and 
then with the remnant of his Mingo band wont into Ohio and joined the 
ferocious Sharonees and fought with vengeful fury against the whites. lie 
was over six feet tall and weighed about two hundred pounds, but was very 
swift afoot. Had a frank, open, manly countenance and was pronounced 
one of the finest specimens of humatiity ever seen among cither red or 
white race. '• 

Logan Mas mistaken as to the author or leader of the lawless outrage ' 

committed against him and his kindred. It was Greathouse and not Cressap 
who slaughtered his relatives and changed Logan from a friend into a re- ■ 

vengeful foe of the Mhites, and led to the slaughter of hundreds of innocent ; 

people. But Heckniel-der, Zcislierger and famous Moravian missionaries,' 1 

residing in Ohio among the Iiulians at that time, tell us that such was the { 

current rejiort at the time, and Ciessap was the one blamed. After the battle ■] 

of Point Pleasant the Indians sued for peace lest Lord Dunmore's large \ 

army should desolate their homes on the Aluskinguni. Logan disdained to 3 

appear as a suppliant at the great rouncil In Id between l^ord Dunnmre and -■ 

the hostile chiefs near where CircleviHe. Oliio, now stands. But he delivered :' 

in person to Colonel Gibson, of the Thirtcentli Virginia Reginu'Ut, the ad- c 

dress which the Cohmel translated and handed to Lord Dunmore, along with \ 

a belt of wampum. | 

Thomas Jeiferson found Logan's speech in the archives of Virginia and f 

copied it into his Virginia Xotes just as it was translated by Colonel Gib- S 

son at the time of its delivery by Logan. Lutlior Alartin, the distinguished \ 

Maryhind lawyer, related liy marriage to Ciiptain ]Mii-hael Cressap, and others i 

fiercely di'iiounccd .FetTer-'m and evon chargi'i] lijui witli manufacturing the | 

s[ieech. < 'chun 1 tlibson, however, \ inilii-ni«_d .TclTcrsi.n "s vt-racitv and the ., 

irno irjs logax.' 177 

reality of the transaction with Logan itself. His relative, Chief Justice, one of the greatest jurists anil intellectual giants ever pro(luce<l by 
the Keystone State, iJefland in subsequent years not only that (Joluuel Gib- 
sou was perfectly relialile but also fully eoin],ietent to gi\'e the speec-h of 
Logan the correct anil grapliu- setiing uhii-h has nuole it famous all over 
the world as a noble specimen of untutored eloquence. 

My great-grandfather, on my mother's side, Jacob P.yerly, was a member 
of that p>art of thf Tliirteenth Virginia Jiegiment which was located at Fort 
Pitt during the Kevolutionary War and served under Colonel Gibson. As 
for Logan himself, he became melauidioly and addicted to strong drink like 
the great Pnntiac, Red .Jacket anil other typical Indians, and was liualiy 
slain in a drunken debauch on his way between Detroit and the Miami. His 
case is but one among many illustrating how. innocent white settlers be- 
came the victims of savage brutality because of wrongs perpetrated against 
peaceable Tmlians by unprincipled wJiiti' men and often by i>ublic oftlcials. 
We give the sjieech itself to illustrate this point. 

"I appeal to any white man to say if he ever entered Logan's cabin and 
he gave him no meat ; if he came cold and naked and he clothed him not. 
During the last long and bloody war Logan remained idle in his cabin, an 
advocate of peace. Su(h was my love for the whiti's that my countrymen 
as they passed said, 'Logan is the friend of the whites.' I had thought of 
living among you, but for ;he injuries of one man. Captain Cressap, last 
spring, in cold blood and unj)rovokcd. murdered all the relations' of I^ogan, 
not sparing eveu my women and chihlren. 

"There runs not one drop of my blood in any living creature. This called 
on me for revenge. I have sought it. I have killed many; I have fully glut- 
ted my vengeance. For my country I rejoice in the beams of peace. But 
do not harbor the thought that nnne is the joy of fear. Logan never felt 
fear. He will not turn on his heel to save his life. Who is there to mourn 
for Logan? Not one." 

j^ * ^ 

For seventy-five years the Youth's Companion has been published every 
week as a family pajier. In thi>se seventy-tive years the paper's constancy 
to a high standard has won the confidence of the American people. It has 
keptt pace -uith the growth of the country, its stories, its special articles, its 
editorials, its solections all that is best in American life. 

Lipf-incott 's Magazine each month {)rinfs a comjilete novel which, when 
they ultimately take book form, cost a sum equal to a subscription to ' ' Li[)- 
pincotf' for an entire ye.-ir. Hesides, thore are each mon;h short stories 
chosen because they have something in tiicm to move, to etitertain or to di- 
vert. Besides, again, there are eaca month one or more papers of practical 
value in American ideals, on Gardening, on Out-door Life, and on themes 
of pressing interest; and there are always the best poems that American lite 


THE 1 'KSy SYLIA .V lA-G KRM. I A'. 


[We insert the following from "The Miller's Review," kindly sent us 
by its editor, Mr. \V. IL Riehardson.— lulitor.j 

TiE telephone of ii^'Cj vs. the telephone of iQooI The mutations of 
a third of a century have brought out changes in arts and sciences 
which would recjuire volume upon volume to describe. Here is 
one of the inventions which in 1S67-8 was looked upon with much curi- 
osity and as a real novelty drew many neighbors, and others from a dis- 
tance, to the sliops of the modest inventor, Daniel Drawbaugh. of Eberly s 

% -4 


■k > 


^r?. -1» -I.,t;-L-- 

^^'V•■-'»-^^.; .*■"■ 


, z:<-_^-/='. - -l — -.-■*i'>-/"'T i'r.*'-*-«\u%v .."-.'. '--■'-i^^*'L■VJ^.t 


Mills. Cumberland county. Pa., to see the wonderful "talking machine," 
ihen in its infancy, but now developed into the great teiepiione systems 
which spread their network of wires over almost every inhabited country 
i>'\ the globe. Under the combined efforts of difYerent inventors this 
great commercial agency has been brought to a state of admitted per- 
fection and universal usefulness. Next to its elder kin, the telegraph, 
it has stripped the world of ancient distances, it has relegated to a mem- 
ory the long delay in communication by messengers and it has made, so 
to speak, family communities of whole States. 

Do we stop to think, or can we even conceive the advancement to 

riii: liiirniPLACK of tiii: riiuinioyK. 


civilization to whicii this ^rt-'at inedimn of rapid coninuuiication lias given 
the impetus! Xu doubt many inipro\ emcnts will I)e made in the future-^ 
but let the I'uiuie take care of its nvvu achievements and let us dial with 
the present and as far as lies within our power lei us do justice to the 
pioneer of this great invention. In order tiiat we may be perfectly fair 
toward all those who contributed of their brain and thoughts to the 
accomplishment and perfection of tiiis time and distance annihilator, I 
must submit each relative claim to the judgment of those who care to 
investigate the merits of the different inventors concerned. 

My personal knowledge and observation comincc me beyond any 
doubt that Daniel Drawbaugh, the inventor of the "talking machine." 
which girdled almost every house and shop in the historic village of 
Eberly's Mills, four miles southwest of Harnsburg. Pa., was at least one 
of the earhest, if not indeed the pioneer in the discovery of the telephone. 
While his first machines in their primitive conception were doulttless 
crude, still in them were arranged the same principles as are now em- 
ployed in general use. The shop in which Mr. Drawbaugh conducted 
his experiments is only a stone's throw from the mill illustrated here- 
with, and the mdl itself in those days was the place at which the uuento: 
was wont to meet his friends, the relations between the millers and Mr. 
Drawbaugh bemg very close at that lime. If my recollection serves me 
right, Mr. Drawbaugh was a millwright before he commenced the actual 
demonstration ol his "talking machine," and in association with an elder 
brother, followed that calling for stmie time. 

At that early day Mr. Drawbaugh's shops and the mill were tlironged 
almost daily with visitors; expressions of admiration, amusement and 
astonishment were the leading sentiments of those who witnessed the 
curious devehipments of the machine. I was then a near neighbor and 
personal friend of Mr. Drawbaugh; then, as now, he was a modest, plain 
man, with unusual powers of conception and application. He is the in- 
ventor of many useful things which are in general use today, but to my 
mind the telephone entitles him to the gratitude of all people, every- 
where, who are brought near to each other through the easy medium of 
the "heilo" box. and I think that some of us will live long enough to see 
the name of Drawbaugh occupying a place in the galaxy of our great 
iiu entors. 

This maga;^inc has for sale most of the portrait pictures used as 
frontispieces, printed on heavy paper at 10 cents a copy, and half-tone 
cuts of many of the illustrations that have and are constantly appearing 
at very reasonable rates. 



BY ):EV. ph. VOLI,MEr;, PH. D., D. !>., OF PHIL.VDEl.PHIA. 

/"TTA III' AiiieriL-au natiun may lie iitly ocHiipareu to a stalely oak tree. 

I , There are many channels ihrougli which the sap of liberty found its 

way into the mighty trunk, giviii^r l,rauty an.l \itulity to branch and 

leaf, to foliage and fruit. IJut there are five jirincipal roots which are the 

main sources of American civilization and of the institutions which con- 
serve to promote this civilization. Ihese are the English, the German, the 

Dutch, the French-Huguenot and the Scotch-Irish roots. The question was 
asked to discuss is as to the amount and quality or the sap which the Ger- 
man ro<-it has contributed and is contributing to this mighty oak. 

In the first place the Germans arc a most important numerical factor in 
our national life. German inirnigratiou began when on the 6Ji of October, 
16S3, Daniel Pastorius and his company landed at Philadelphia and subse- 
quently founded Germantown. There are now in America over 10,000,000 
of people either born abroad or descended from German ancestors. In some 
States, as Wisconsin, the Germans are in a majority. New York City is the 
third largest German city in the world. I'ennsylvania has always been a 
banner State of German immigration. It has been asserted and never suc- 
cessfully disproved that three-fifths of the present inhabitants of Pennsyl- 
vania have German blood running in their veins. Their present names are 
not a certain criterion of national descent, because thousands of Germans, 
some from worthy and others from unworthy motives have anglicized their 
names. Scratch a :Mr. Carpenter, or a Mr. King, or a Mr. Cook, or a Mr. 
Taylor, or a Mr. DUuk. or a :\rr. Stone, and you will find in many cases a 
Zimmerman, a Koenig, a Ko<-li, a Schneider, a Schwarz, and a Stein. A 
Oerman Pennsylvania farmer by the name of Klein has recently held a 
family reunion. His four sons were present and their names had been 
■changed respectively into Kline, Small, Little and Short. There are todav 
seven hundred thousand people in Pennsylvania speaking that homely and 
mellow IVnnsylvania-German .lialoct, and as the Philadelphia Ledger said 
recently, "It were a pity if this dialect would soon die out." But there 
IS at present little danger of this, for I know of expfrience that even 
negroes. Scotchmen, and people of other nationalities liave been assimi- 
lated and become German.Pcnnsylvanians in speech and customs. Evtn be- 
fore the Kevulution the Germans were so strong in rennsylvania, that the 
question came up in the legislature whether the German or the English sh.nild 
hQ the oflicial language. A tie vote resulted and the president, a German, 
•gave the casling vote in of English, a wise dtcision, I think, all things 

The Germans have been, in the second {dace, aa important educatbmal 
factor in literature, science and art. I need not speak of the German's love 
of education in all its bran.dies. This is conceded. Luther and Zwingii 
were the founders of the mo.lern public schcol. [Melandithon is known as the 
jefornicr of the Universities, the ^loravian bishop Coruenius. who once re- 


ctived an urgent call to tlie i.rcsi.lcncy of Harvar.l College, was the path- 
finder of modern educational methods, an.l Froel.el was the foun.ler of the 
"Kindergarten." This inl.orn love for i-opuiar and higher education the 
first Gorman s.'ttlers transplanted to America. Franklin in 1774, reported 
that they o^viud six ]>rinting j^resses and were in the habit of importing 
large quantities of books. The first Bible printed on this continent was 
printed by tlie G.rmans and the first protest against slavery was made by 
German Quakers. It is therefore, a gross sla.uUr to represent the Germans, 
especially the Pennsylvania-Germans, as an uncouth, ignorant and illiterate 
class of men. 

« "Truth crushed to earth will rise again 

The eternal years of God are her's. " 

Professor Hinsdale says in his reetnt article on "Foreign influence upon 
American Education," that in 1776 Franklin visited Goeltingen to get Ger- 
man ideas to guide him in founding the University of Pennsylvania" and it 
is well known that those of our Anurican universities which deserve that 
name, are modeled after German and not after English patterns. Profes- 
sor Hinsdale proceeds as follows: 

"William Penn, it may be set down as certain, got his ideas of the com- 
mon .school from Germany. 'J'he German colonists he brought here repre- 
sented a far higher level of education than his English colonists. They were 
more advanced in the arts, they were better versed^ in letters and they 'repre- 
sented a higlier educational standard than then existed in England, whose 
universities and schools were then at their lowest ebb, and even from these 
Dissenters were excluded." 

It is hardly necessary to prove the great contributions Germans have made 
to the mechanical sciences, to music and to commerce. I have recently seen 
it stated and proved by figures that half of the success of the Pen-American 
Exposition at Buffalo is to be credited to foreign born o: native born 

In the third place the Germans have alwavs been an important political 
factor— not in the sense of ofltice.sceking— they never got their fair share 
in this, but in the sense of intense American i)atriotism. While the self-re- 
specting German never loses his love for his mother, the old Fatherland, he 
embraces with all the powers of his soul his young self -chosen bride -Amer- 
ica, with as great a fervor as a lover embraces the mistress of his afi'ection. 
In time of j-eace, the Germans always stood for honesty, political decency 
and reform. In time of war he was foremost to defend the "Star Spangled 
Banner." Two years before the Declaration of Independence was sig'iied 
the German colonists declared for absolute separation from England. When 
the rumblings of the Revolution became louder, the King of England wanted 
to know two things, first, how the Germans stood on the question of Inde- 
pendence, and secondly, whether many of them had been soldiers before thev 
emigrated. The report made his countenance fall, for it stated that the 
Germans were almost unanimously in favor of independence and that they 
even had committees of correspond, n,-e at work t.. runsuli.hite the (nTinans 

182 TlIK . KX.\.syjJ-AMA-GJ:i:MA\. 

in otlior colonies. Ami, then, grateful America will never forget Von Steu- 
ben, who in the darkest hour of the Revolutionary war arrived from Ger- 
many and <lrilteil Wasliiiigton 's defeated soldiers for six months according 
to the improved UermaTi methods and eiialih d them to again win victories. 
During ;he (.'ivil V,"ar. 20U,UU0 Germans fought on the side of the Union and 
very few on the side of the Confederacy. When Abraham Lincoln, at a 
crisis, called for mere soldiers, the Irish of New York instigated the in- 
famous "Draft Riot.'' an Anglo-American governor addressed these rioters 
from the steps of the C'iiy Hall as "My Friends." while the German so- 
cieties issued new calls to their countrymtn to drive back the enemy. An 
unimpeachable autlinrity has stated: "As Ijetween the native born of the 
North and the native born of the South, inilependently auil alone, the Civil ' 
War would almost certainly have terminated differently, if the help of the 
foreign born in the North had not been arrayed against the Confederacy." 
It is a matter of record that the Germans of St. Louis k« pt ^vlissouri in the 
Union. During the late Spauisli-American War an American of French de- 
scent, Dewfy, destroyed the tleet at ^Manila ; an American of German descent, 
Schley, defeased the nuich more iorniidable tieit at San iago; anotlier Ameri- 
can of German descent, Scliafter, won the land battle before Santiago, and 
an American of Dutch descent, Roosevelt, was the leader in .hat latter battle. 
But the American of English dt scent. Sampson, was ten miles away at the 
most critical hour of the entire war, and Anglo-Saxon-like was quite ready to 
claim the credit for the victory. Does not this record show this composite 
character of our nation? 

1 will only toudi, four'.hly, on the Germans as a religious factor. The 
Gospel is the same for all nations but each nation manifests its power in a 
different way. The (.iermans of the different denominations, including even 
the ISIethodists and Baptists, stand for dtep reverence in public worship, for 
an orderly service with liberty to adapt it to circumstances, for the idea of 
the church year, for the educational meJiod in propagating the faith as over 
against the one-side<l revival me. hod. The other day the president of the 
"Reformed Historical Exhibit," pointing to a large collection of cate- 
chisms, said. "This collection will by itself teach our Fresbyterian friends 
a lesson." The Germans lay great stress on what Dr. Cuthbert Hall recently 
called the "Hallowing of Education." They do not only acknowledge that 
there is a difference between instruction and education, but they put the 
strongest emphasis upon it. Mere instruction is not education. Eilucation 
is the bringing out of all the faculties of the child, the development of the 
entire nature, the training of the intellect and the heart and the will — in a 
word, the whole man. To give all attention to the intelligence of the child 
and to neglect its religious training is not education. You know well that 
the great crimes against society are not committed by illiterate men, but 
by nun who in their youth were instructe^l iuit not edncatol; by men who 
grow up from youth to manhood without religious training. Isolated cases 
are found of violence, robbery and other crimes perpetrated by the ignorant. 
But the crimes that go to the heart of society and shake it to its very foun- 
dations; the frauiis un public funds; the robbt ry of savings liaiiks and in- 


siiranec oftu-es, by which eoimth^ss nuinbeis are nKi'.le to mourn; the unset- 
tling of public credit; tbo gambling in stocks; the squamlpring and the pil- 
fering of the treasury of the nation; the unlimited po\ver of corporations, 
by which the artisan and Ihe laborer may be robbc'l of the fruits of their 
honest toil — these and many more smdi evils are not tlie work of ignorant 
and illiterate m-'n. A\'lien we see ricli men growing richer, and poor men 
growing poorer; ulien discontent is increasing and socialistic ]irinciples are 
spreading; when jiuIjHc honesty and public moralit} are at such a low ebb; 
when religious indifference and infidelity are spreading everywhere it is not 
ditiicult for any thoughtful man to trace tlie cause, and it will be found in 
the separation of religion from what is called education. 

Other Christians subscribe also to this idea in general, but there is no na- 
tion under heaven and no nationality represented in America, which lays 
so much stress on this truth as tlie Germans. Aside trom the educational 
system in Germany iself, witness for instance the thousands of parochial 
schools, supported, not only for teaching the German language as some mis- 
takingly suppose (for many are entirely English in language), but in order 
to give etl'ect to their cherished theory of education. It may not be wise to 
introduce religion into our public schools, but the last word in this great 
discussion has not yet been spoken. Our great national danger is that while 
we are making Christians out of Asiatic heathen, nnllions of American Chris- 
tians rapidly become heathen, for lack of adequate training. Mr. Xevin 
truthfully said, "Our public school system ignores positive Christianity al- 
together as if it were possible to prepare the youth adequately for the duties, 
and temptations of this life by directing their heart and mind exclusively 
to the things of this world." 

Lastly, the Germans have been and are still an important social factor, 
having contributed many beautiful features to the character of this mighty 
nation. Their " Gemiithlichkeit, " their high esteem of home life, their aver- 
sion to boarding house life, their large fanulies, their hos}>itality, especially 
among Pennsylvania-Germans, their fondness of music have become prover- 
bial. The "New woman" finds no favor with them. Club life is not ap- 

Of course you understand my motive in thus pointing out the good quali- 
ties of the Germans. It is not to disparage the sap which other roots con- 
tributed to this mighty oak tree, but simply to vindicate the Germans from 
the aspersions and the ignorance of large numliers of American citizens. 

From the foregoing discussion three lessons follow, the first of which is 
that ours is not an Anglo-Saxon nation, but a composite nation. The <le- 
scendants of the two low German trilies, the Angles and the Saxons, that 
emigrated to England (in A. D. 449) are almost extinct even in England. 
England properly comprises a mixture of Norman, Anglo-Saxon, Danish, and 
Dutch extraction, while Scotland, Wales and Ireland are largely Celtic. The 
leading merchants of England are Scotch and Irish, her leading financiers are 
Jews, the reigning family is German and her army is recruited principally 
from the Scotcli and Irish. To apply tlie (dip phrase " Anglo-Saxon," coined 


hy Lord Maoauley, to the American nation sliows biyn(ry or ignorance, or 
both. You cannot truthfully call a civilization by a name that has only few 
representatives among it, and which in its essence jtoints to other sources. 
For this reason even the real scholars in England call their own nation a 
Teutonic nation. America may be compared to a great cooking pot in which 
a nutritious stew is being prepared. The outcome of it will not be an Eng- 
lish sten although .Tolin Bull contributed a respectable piec of beef to it. 
It will not be an Irisli stew. It will be a mixed stew in which the prevail- 
ing ehments are tlie English, (he Gornuin and others. The result 
will be a genuine Anuriean stow, with a taste and flavor entirely 
of its own; a new creation, unlike all other nations. The American 
people will become in due time the highest product of Christian civilization, 
with all their political, social and ecclesiastical drawbacks, but a harmonious 
blending of the best features found in all of them. 

Hard as some try, you cannot torture this nation into an Anglo-Saxon 
nation because its language happens to be English. And even if you could 
make out your case, it woulel be no credit to America. If we believe Walter 
Scott's novels, the Saxons at the time of the Norman rule, cut a sorry figure 
and are not at best an ancestry to boast of about. Now, while it is ridicu- 
culous to speak of the English as an Anglo-Saxon race, it is foolish to apply 
that name to the American people, with the Dutch settlement in New York 
and New Jersey, the C-ermans in Pennsylvania, the Spanish and French in the 
South and Scandinavians in the Northwest, while all the nations of the world 
are scattered throughout the whole country. The Detroit "Free Press," in 
an elaborate article, said recently: "We are not an j\nglo-Saxon race, ex- 
cept in the imagination of half-educated superficial editors and London 
jingo papers. The genuine English blood in the veins of America has so 
much decreased that one might call our nation with as much historical truth 
on his side, a Greek nation as an Anglo-Saxon nation." An increasing num- 
ber of Americans are led to see that much of the Anglo-Saxon talk, enuinat-' 
ing chiefly from London, is nothing more than a concealed clever attempt 
to tell us Ihat after all America iir nothing more than an English dependency, 
in its origin, its leading constituents, and its type of civilization. All of 
which we stoutly deny. This sort of reasoning is an example of the truth 
of Mr. Fronde's dictum, that you can make anything you please with the 
fact of history, just as you can write any word with the letters of the 
alphabet provided you only pick those you want and leave the rest. 

My second advice is, make your influence felt by honoring the rock from 
which you were hewn. To the Germans of America may be applied Schil- 
ler's words of " Wallenstein" : 

"Von der Parteien Gunst und Ilass verwirrt, 
Schwebt sein <.'haracterbild in der Geschichte. " 

But this misrepresentation will cease if publications like the Pkxxsyl- 
V.VNlA-GEK.NtAX, organizal ons like the rennsylvania-Gcrman Historical So- 
ciety, and uuthdrs like Iv idfluian. D.'eireiidcrtl'er. uur own T)r. Schae'tTer. the 
St ite Saperintendent of Public Schoeds, Dr. Good, Dr. Dubbs and others, 



can help U A .el.ool history, for i„s;aace, uhich nu.kes everything of Ply- 
mouth Lock aua the ' ' .Maytlowu- ' ' and nothing at all, or very little of 
svZ Tl "' ;'" ''^'-'-'^•''" - ""perfect, and tho'oennan' in P;nn- 

treatmen of the settlement of America and Pennsylvania in our lower and 
h gher schools. We all honor Penn, Washington, Lincoln and Garfield bu 

^r^^d^""' '"'^^"'^^'' '""^^' '^"" ^^-'^-^ ^'^1'^'^- -d Ad: 

cuUh^le'r'? ''" ''^'"' f"^^^^"^^'^ ^'^^ ^-i^t-^ -^ your German ancestors; 
eultnate the German language. The knowledge of two languages does no An.encan patriotisn. Presidents Cleveland ana Harrison .ve e no 
1 ss patr.ot.c because they had a Gern>an Fraulein as governe s or the 

Much the I ttle ones sang ,he beautiful German Christmas carols \t a 
nne^when Anglo and Irish Americans spent thousands of dollars t'acqle 

when r'"' T T '""" ^'^ ^"^-"^^^^^ ^^^"'^^ ""^ ^^-- it awav. E en 
when all our churches should become English, which is, of course' ve^ a 
ong ways o«, the educated offspring of German ancest y should '.divate 
he language of science and philosophy. But above all hold f st to th 
German love of educational religion. A lady once said to a clergy al ''1 

nlm ZtZZ T:' "^^ ''' '''-' "^^ ''-''' -'- religious ■ 
" Yon li r ' ''"'' "' discretion." The wise friend repbed- 

2 ' T "T ' ""''' '''^'''' '''' ^^'^'°'"^^ «^ y-- ^-I'ild for .ood bit the 
enen.y of souls .s ever nundful of his opportunities, and your boy wiU hiv 
an early course of training in evU. " When son>e o^e said to C^leri'l" th 

..." i'^.Xr:;-;-;,;;:;:;-'::',-' "'■ ■■"■• -" - ■»■»■ 

1 s^"-'"- "rtparaDle loss to our country of whnsp crrf^nf 

"Es kann die Spur von nieinen Erdentageu 
Nicht in Aconen untergeh'n." 





Tfitsr half bfeii -irnf in hi/ K. M. Es/itliiinn, r,/ Wnxh- 
infitnu. It C. T/iti/ are/ound in Jiaiarin anil other 
parts of Germany. 

A sufferer's. 
" Yetzt liab k-\\ cmllich ausgelitieu ; 
Hab niit meiner Krankheit viel gestritten 
Bis eine trauervolle >>'aeht 
Mir endlich bat den Tod gebraoht. 
Es ist docli cinnial fest gestellt 
Ein jeder musz aiis die^-er Welt, 
Ist er anil odcr reicli 
Im Grabc sind ^vir alle gloich. ' ' 

' ' Ich lieg im Grab und bin zugedeckt 
Kein ^leiisoh ist, der mich auferweekt 
Als der liebe Gott am jiingsten Tag, 
Der ■neeket mioli aus nieiiiem Sehlaf. " 

A mother's. 
"^Jein Teuerstes auf Erden 
Muss hier zuni Staube ■uerdeii. 
Die flutter, welohe mich gebahr, 
Die Mutter, die mir Alles war. 
Das liebe Pfand. das sie mir gab, 
Ach, all mein Gliick deekt dieses Grab." 

Der Kleider vici hat er geniai-ht 
Doch kein unsU rbliches vollbracht. 
Dazu gehuit ein gri'iszrer Mcister 
Der kleiden kann nur pure Geister 
Mit ev.ig schunem Eestgewand 
Im anderu bessern Vaterland. 
Pen Unter-nhied er ^viiszt zn sagen 
Weiiu wir .lin kr,nnteii dannn frageii. 

TOMliSTOM-: IS SCRIPT loss. 18/ 


"Soin starker Ann hat aus-uesdilageu 

Sein scliWcrtT llanmu'f ruht fiir yetzt, 

Xielit darf er Hitze tp.elir crtiageii 

Er vinl niit Soliwrisz iiielit niehr benctzt ; 

Kr hiilt mm iiiimer Fdertago 

Im grnsson Hans des Himmt'l's Herrn; 

Er keiint iiicht niehr ilev Weiktags Plage, 

Es louchtet ibni ein shoiirer ytern." 


"Liesz er der Laiine sdiieszen die Ziigel 
Da trank er wobl an zwaiizig Kriigel; 
Doch that er einiaahl dreiszig triukeu, 
Da imisztc tot vdiii S.uhl tr sinken.'' 

"Ilier ruht Franz Josef Matt. 
Der sich zu Tod getrunkeu bat; 
Ilerr. gib ihm die e'A ige Kuh 

t'nd ein CUiisle Scbnajis dazu."' 

"Das ist cine harte Reisz 

Wenn man den Weg nicht Weisz. 

So frage dii drey Heilige Leuth 

Zeigen dir den Weg zur Seligkeit." 
" Noch sttht auf Erden die Hinunelsleiter 
Wo ]\[enchea eutsehlununern zufrieden und belter; 
Kein Haus ist zu nieder, ktine Kanuner zu klein, 

Es tliegtn die Engel zuni Fenster hinein. " 

"leh lebte viele Yahre lang, 
Da nabm denn alles seinem Gang. 
BaM gut, bald st-hlinini, doch uienials gleicb. 
Vol! Aenderung und wet-bsi Ireich 
Sind unsere Lebensjare. ' ' 

"Ini Grahe nuiss ioh verwesen : 
Was du bist, bin ieh geweseii. 
Was icb bin ^Yirst du bald werden; 
Lcbe fromm auf dieser Erden 

So wirst du einst selig werden." 

"Sinkt iminerhiu nieiu Leib in 's Crab 

Gott wird niioh neu belt ben; 
Der Gott, der niir das Lebeu gab, 

Wird niir 's einst wieder geben. 
Ich fiirchte die Verwtsung nirht. 
Denn Gott ist nieine Zu\ ersiilit. ' ' 



From "Here Lies." 

The followiiij:^ is taken from a liead-board at a jjrave in the Sparta Dig- 
gings, California; and, taking tlie orthography into consideration, it is an 
unconscious blending of the serio-comic with the would-be sublime: 

In memory ov 

John Smith, whe met 

• wierlent death neer tliis sjiot 

IS hundred and 40 too. He was shot 

by his own pistill; 

It was not one of the kind, 

but a old fashioned 

brass barrel, and of sui-h is the 

Kingdom of heaven. 

Hero lies, alas! poor Koger Norton, 
"Whose sudden death was oddly brought on! 

Trying one day his corns to mow off, ; 

The razor slij>ped and cut his toe off! ; 

The toe, or rather what it grew to, i 

An inflammation quickly flew to; . j 

The part then took to moriifying, '< 

"Which was the cause of Kotrer 's dvintr. i 



In this churchyard lies Eppie Coutts, ' \ 

Either here or hereabouts; ^ 

But where it is none can ttll ; 

Till Eppie rise and tell hersel'. ^' 


ox AN EDITOR. \ 

"Here lies an Editor! I 

Snooks, if you w ill ; - ■ ^ 

In mercy. Kind Providence, ' \ 

Let him lie still! I 

Ho lied for his* living: so ■ \ 

He lived while he lied: \ 

When he could not lie longer ■ | 

He lied down and died." \ 


Here lies my wife in earthly mould, I 

Who, when she liv 'd did na\ight but scold; 1 

Peace, wake her not. f.)r now she's siill. ; 

She had, but now I have mv wi'l. ', 


bet: EWIGK JAKGEK. " . . ^gg 

"DER EWIGE JAEGER" (The Eternal Hunter) 

A Pennsylvania German Legend of Lancaster County 
I'.AhS nj;o, ^vJ,e^ ;ill this land was cvorol nitl, .1pn..> , i . 

n„<l fi,.T ^,1 , ^'ita wuii, ol,,oniv toi-psts, 

- 7\ r,""" r"''^' '" •"'^"" ^'•'^•■'''""- '>"•• ^'™'<,rs 

at least ot those who can boast so ,,roiM ui l,„nnr .v..,- . i • .^ 

melanc-holv " heim-'veh " for th . "v . i i V, ' '^^'" l<-'»Sing ^ith 

or nuae l.-an. hungry l„ of inoni^rd hi,.o,l -.n,! .lm,^ff i 
whined and .outorted thoif .naetated holies vd i, i , ^ " '"'"'"'' 
snatch an, nun-.l wht.-h n.„h. escape the.- ' ^.l::!::-? Zj^l^'^ ^' 
ihdst say; Jacob, twelve miles to tin- hour'" in,nn,-..i '. ■ ' 

p„^„. „e.w..,.„, .,,„..i.g „„ ..„„„, „„;:„, ;,:;:;" ;:::;,:';;::; 

caie anj som^ s;ray drops f,m„ his l,.,,r,|..d n,, ' ^ 

••i?.!m';!'"ir''' °"', '"'■"''■ ""■ '""""■'" """-'• ■•»-! ...ore if neoj l..." 

"Aye, aye, so would l!"_'-and I"-".,n,l T +,..-» ^ . - 

pan J^r nd^S^ ; " "'^"T """"' ^^"'^ ^•■•"' "^ f*-^--' -l>i'e his com- 
h!n hv "'''"■"'"' "'■ -^i^^n'proval iu nunor velps, caused per- 

ing he . Id ll ■ ''V"; ■'■ ' '^ ^"" -^'"^^"■'1-" - five days, or fail-. 


•ordered his hunter to be bnnud.t round .•, - ' ^ " ''"'"■' '"'' 

hl^ J,..., 11- 7 ^-^uapc, DIN t\tN iMiely t scaped popiiin^ from 

I'. -.11.. I. I..II ,„.,,o,... ■,„.„ ,-t„h.,- like. ,.,.,s,;„K.,». „|,iio Lis l,„.o l,„,^o„ 

190 77/ /i rt:\.\syij ama-<;ki;mjs. 

kiice-luirkh s rcnilrri^d a i-liccit'ul allrgrt'tto. Anil so lio wihvly ehose to re- 
main silent. ytnii;^'liiii^ t'reo from restrairiinf^ friends, Brewster staggered 
to liorse aii<l vanislieil from tlieir si^lit like a eomet, the entire pack trailin*^' 
after in full cry. 

Sobereil ]>y this une.\|ierte(l terniinatinn, his c'i)in]ianioiis stood pctrlfu'il, 
gaziug down the valley through whitii he had just <lisapiieared. Already the 
gathering of twilight sliroiided the \ailey in gloom. As they stood thus 
momentarily traiisfixeil tlie faint distant baying of hounds and ihe melan- 
choly tooting of a hunter's horn \\as ^vafted through the vesper stillness of 
that peaceful vale to Iheir straining t>ars like messengers of hope and peace. 
But to thtir troulded and anxious hearts seeme<l like messengers of ghostly 
omen, as the last lingering sunbeam faded from the forest-clad summit of 
"Mill Bach Kopje,'' they turned wi.h strange misgivings and forebodings 
into the cozy ''traveler's room'' of the little German inn. 

Three days Jacol) Brewster continued to the northeast utiinterrup.ed by 
man or beast, Init then his good fortune forsook him. Kitln r Ins trail was 
run acToss by a band of hostile Indians or tlie l)aying of his li(iun<ls aitracred 
their unwelcome attention, but that he was being pursued was certain. The 
hounds began to show symptoms of uneasiness, yelping anxiously and keep- 
ing close about their master. 8oon he de.ected tlie reason for their 
anxietv. Barely had he time to seize his musket and prepare for coming 
danger, Vjefore the ilread war-whoop jderced the forest, a few sharp shots 
rang out, and Jacob Brtwster bit tlie dust, his horse falling upon him. both 
mortally ^vol^lded, his hounds fought savagely in protection of their mas- 
ter till the last brave liound sank bleeding from a score of wounds a victim 
to fidelity. 

To this day — so runs the legend as told me by my grandmother, — Jacob 
Brewster hunts unceasingly. And if you were born on Christmas night yon 
can still occasionally see his spirit riding gallantly among his ghostly pack. 
Often during the long summer twilights the baying of hounds and a mellow 
hunting horn would qitiver through the inigh.y silence with a far-otf plaintive 
wierdness, sometimes overhea<l or hovtring toward the northeast. And the 
good housewives of the rude, good-natured farmers would shake their heads 
knowingly and ejaculate ' ' Der ewige Jaeger," iji such awesome, blood- 
curdling tones as to cause poor chihlren to \\ell nigh shrivel up with fear 
and terror. And through the long winter evenings Grandma would set the 
light to the window, and sitting knitting warm wocden mittens for our 
chubby fists, tell us the legend of "the e'.ernal hunter.'' 

Lulletl to drowsy semiconsciousni ss by die genial warmth and the droning 
of the tea kettle, our dreams, if such they were, strangely blended realities 
and the strange legend. Suddenly strange forms tlitted and shifteil indis- 
tinctly upon the ice of the Hammer ('reek, gra<hially they assumed distinct 
form, and before us sat a tall, erect man upon a high-shouldered hunter, his 
body ■was mut!led to the huge sparkling knee-buckles of his Knickerbockers 
by a dark hunting cloak, his hat was tall and peaked, and his long gray beard 
flowed down o\er his cidonial riitf. In liis left haml he waved his silver bugle 
till it llashe<l like a ilazzling meteor tiirtnigh the frostv moonlit air, and tlie 



^oun,ls nu.^a ,la,k ,nasse. sUhouett...! against the uhite expanse of iee aa,l 
feiiuu, tnit they east no shaihsw. 

The tea k.tU.. ,lrone,l on unl,ee.le,|. the rn..kin<, .hair .-reake,! no 
for us, but .nstea,! .uhdue.,, ghostly wh.sp.nn.s, nn.tll..,! ,.v in.vasi .J , " 
conse^ousness, ..a.-h-,! ..„■ listh.s ears, a .iou,! su,,,t ov..r',he fa.-e o: th. 
m on a.ul .Ht.. us shadowy boson, .he • > Htenu.l liunte." an.l all h.s spee- 
ral p...k fa.le.l away, vanishe.l fro,,, ou, :nental v.s.oa and we slept the 
sleep Of the .nno.-en-. undisturhe-l l,y the visions of the Eternal Hun.^. 

\V. Wls.sler Hackmax 
^ ^ A 



By Mrs. Katharine L. Dorsey, 14 15 Central Ave., Indianapolis, Ind 
NTHOXY LEintAX served as a prnare in Capt.un Peter 
Deehert s company, of heading. This company was a part of the 
^aw of Crl\ "'"^^'^:""^' ^^"«''^'"- <-0'mnanded by Colonel Rober. Ma- 
gau of Carhsle; participated in the movement, of General Washington's 
army nr and around Xeu York; under General Israel Putnam ass iste .n 
U^ construction ot: Port Washington, which was mf.sted and .:^1^ 

^'rz^rr^^: ";th.^"rr -' ''"' - ^---^^ - 
in .ate .rchiv. It ts :;ip;:;:^;i i^tx.; :n: - b;;;-n-;: 

prlt^"' " ""'"^'" ^^"^""''^ '^- '^-^y ^^^'^ '^^ --t gnuefully a^:- 

i'hilip, son of Anthonv in,1 r i 

of o„e Daniel Wu„,,er,°4 ' ^~" ""' """"'"' '^■="'"'"°"' ''""«"-■ 

Brothers. ' ' '" ' ^'""'' September 26, I7J3, in tl,c slnp 

a daugiiter ;; a ),::;n d .'h rTn "';'^^'f ""^ "'^"'^"^ ^'"^'^ I^""-,ldauyhlei of Daniel and Eva Barbara Wunderlich.' 




Sketch of Dr. Henry ^^^'' ^^'''- '^^^'"^ StunjP, A.M, of York, has publish 

Melchior Muhlenberg. 

etl a most excellent biographical brochure on the life 

of the patriarch of the Lutheran Church in America. 
Brief though the treatise be, it is a question T\hethir a more clear, correct 
and comprehensive sketch has yet bccu i.roduced of this illustrious Lutheran 
pioneer. Its introduction has some reference to York county, where this 
essay was first read, before a Lutheran Conference. It is well worth read- 
ing by any one. 

History of ^^^' '^^^^^ •^- ^""ser has revised and improved his pam- 

Lehigh County ''''"'''^ history of Lehigh County, Pa., already noticed in 
these columns. It is for sale by the author, 1.3G S. Law 
street, Allentowu, Pa., at 50 cents a copy, or 60 cents postage prepaid. 

Gemaelde aus dem ,V'n ^"T"' '''^" '' '''"' '^"' ^''' ^- -^• 

Pennsylvanischen Volksleben. ^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ f' '/^^'^ Alte vom Berg," gave 

to his collection of historical, descriptive, 
poetical, humorous and folklore sketches in Pennsylvania-German (German 
alphabet), published by Schaeffer iL- Kora.U in Philadelphia as long ago as 
1SG9. It has had a wide sale, but the ufw interest awakened in this class of 
literature by this magazine and the publieations and doings of the Pennsvl- 
vania-German Society will give books like this a new demand. Small quarto, 
pp. 143, 50 cents. 

Practical Medical and Surgical ^^'''' '' '^^ ^^'^' °^ ^' ^'''^"•^-^" "^'^'^^"-^^ S""'^'- 

Family Guide in Emergencies. '"'''^''' """^ ^^""''"^ ^^ *'"'* ^^''^"^^ ^y ^^ o^^'" 

tune family physician. Dr. W. P. Kister. 

He was then (twenty-five years ago), a country practitioner residing at 
Schnecksville. Pa. Ilis practice was the ordinary rural kind in bulk and 
success. Ho has since found his way to AUentown, and attuned himself to 
the boom of that remarkably growing city. His jiractice is immense, re- 
quiring nine horses and footing up a total earning of $25,000 annually for 
self and son, Eugene, an eye, ear, nose and throat specialist, and a graduate 
of one of the best medical schools of the land. The book will doubtless do 
much good and by those who use it intelligently, will soon pay its cost in 
saving more expensive forms of medical advice and help. We congratulate 
our old friend upon the achievement of such signal success. 

Maternity. ^'- ^''^' ^"'""^ ^- '^- ^^^'''^'- ^f-^'- '^'"f''- -J'^ oents net. Vir 
Publishing Co., I'hiladelphia. Pa. The author, herself a wife 
and mother and {.rnc; icing pliysician of large. experience, has furnished in 
this little volume a most valuable guide and handbook to the large class of 
women who nc.>d that varied and helpful information which allays anxietv 
when approaching maternity and which delivers fruu peril in that critical 
period. This book, in plainness and jniri'y of diction is properly associated 
with the now famous F irity lionks in ili,> S.-If and S.'x S<.ries." written by 
Sylvaniis Stall. D.H., ;iih1 published nv tli.^ 

'■' same (.■unqiany. 

^ Superior School, Idtally Located 



Some AdvantaQes: Elevated Site, 
Beautiful Knvironnaeat, Excellent 
Sanitation, Commodious Buildings, 
Steam Heating, Electric Lighting, 
Comfortable Dormitories, Expensive 
I^ibraries, Experienced leachers, 
Thorough luitruction, Moderate Cost, 
Telegraph and Telephone Connec- 
tions, Steam and Trolly Railroad 
Service. Prepares young men and 
women for teaching, business and 

Free Tuition to students over 17 
years of age who declare their inten- 
tion to teach, two years in Pennsylva- 
nia Public Schools. 

For full dgscripiite caialog and other 
literature , write to the Principal, 



PennsylPt^nla Railroad. 


Time Tab'.e in efftcl iiay 27, 1301. 

A M 

2 35110 

2 4o;ii:i 

2 -IgliO 

2 4>;io 

2 5S|J0 

6 0-: ... 
i 2.-il 

; H \ 

Ou 3 

7 15 -1 
U 3u 6 

■» 19|!2 

o i-i; 1 

3 -K.rj 
5 4rl 3 

8 .iol ■} 
S OS a 
P M 1 P 

A M Leave Arrive 
6 00... Lebanon ... 
(^ 10i...Comv.iill... 
B 20 ..Mt. Gretna.. 
6 25. ..Colt-brook... 

6 30 Lawn 

t> 3.5 Eeliaire.... 

ti '!■") ...Con'Jwae'o..i 
3 10...Coljmbia... 

7 ^-j.-HarrLsbdr-.;.. 
U Oi)\V]lliiitti?iort 
BuOalo. N.Y. 

10 31, York 

12 10. ..Baltimore.. 

1 15 Wft^lUDSton . 
."> ■^O...Pittsb;irg.... 

S 3!' Carlisle.. .. 

9 ScsCharnbersb'g 
7 3o ..Lancaster.. 
3: Phi;.ai!e;i!::a. 

11 11 Trenton.. V.J 
11 S3. .New York. 
AM Arrive Leave 

AM e u 

8 0-5 12 55 
7 54 12 44 

7 4512 ar, 

7 39 12 29 
7 R.>12 2.5 
7 3012 20' 
7 22 12 12 

10 20 

7 00 U 45 
2 25 S 30 
S 30 ' 

1 4!il0 2S 
11 orj, .S .50 

10 40 7 50 
iO 00 3 f«> 

5 50 10 40 

11 05 9 45 

6 30 10 35 
4 2-5 S 4..- 

2 27 7 « 

12 15 


P M P M 

4 3.3 S 3B 
1 22 S 2.;. 
4 13 8 le 
4 07 ^ Iv 

4 03 .S W, 
3 5S8 01 
3 50,7 53 

5 -57 

3 2.5,7 W' 
12 4o4 00 
;:) 0<j 

1 405 51 
12 003 31 

10 .W2 01 

5 001 

2 d:-.« 0-5 

1 u5 5 00 

2 25 7 15 
12 25 5 !0 

11 11 4 25 
9 .■) J,3 ^i 
AH i PM 

Tickets for all western points. Baggage checkec! 


Trip mileage tickets soM at all stations to persons 
holdiug PfTiTisylvjinia R. R. mlieajie books. 

lor farther ii.forniaticn sti> cLrj uaie tubles at all 
officea of tbio and the Peunsyl-x ar '.a Pwallroad Co. 
A. D. Smjth. Gen. siipt. 

Srii.> J '.'dt^J ^ ^ v .i' ^ r A^ 

\:^Ji .c; fc>: 

Wrifa writiug no advertiiers p'ease mention The P' 


. . Prof. Cliarles Rudy, D.D. 


Famous Pennsylvania-Germans . . . 195 

Poetic Gems 208 

An der Fair. Die Neie Sort Dschent 'Ueit. 
"Wie Mer Glee Ware. 
Drauss un Deheem. 

Historic PacRi mages 

A Town and County of the Olden 
Time — Histo^il^ York, Penn'a. 
Last Will of CHaisTOPHER Stum? . . . 


Pennsylva:sia-Germa.n Heroes Buried in 
New York Trinity Churchyard . . . 

Book Notices 

Literary Notes 

















From a photo taken in Paris, France. 


Pennsylvania- German 

REV. P. C. CKOI.L, A.M. aij.l Pul.Unh-r 


Ttrmf: fl.n'i ju r tjt 

Vol. IV 


No. 1 

(Kqi-,---.! :it tlie l".,-t-otti,f; at I.. 


^AllIS magazine is clad in beautifully colored robes. Its 
ci-iveia come in [vlaiu tints when we get them. We like 
to sprinkle them with primer's ink — sometimes in two 
colors. We devote them r.ot to hi>t(>ry or pi:;etr}' — Imt to busi- 
ness. We place them at the disposal of our friends, wlio have 
legitimate goods for sale, or plv an h!'»ni>rable business. We 
have Ijut three pages to otter an J can [tromise r.o mure at i)rescnt. 
This magazine is not running an acKertisii-.g me(lium, with a little 
reading matter thrust in — yo per cent, of aihertising and lo per 
cent, of reading matter. It is like the postman — it has messages 
to carry, but while making its route (city and rural delivery) it 
can carr}' a few bundles just as well — fur a small reveinie. -Hence 
three pages of cover are devoted to advertising. 

Does advertising pay? That depends. Does advertising in 
Thk FENXsvL\AXiA-GiiR.\tAX pay? We carried one ad. on 
commission fur some time. Don't know how the advertiser fared. 
We have never received anything. It did not pay us. I know. 
hi>wever. it has paid others. If you have g^Mjd ware, and the 
kind our readers want and need, you will fuul it tc> pa^". (Jne 
advertiser offered a fine quality of l)uilding stone. In two weeks 
after, he wrote me, he had secureil a ctistomer fur stone to build 
a double house. The purchaser said he saw the ad. in The 
Pexxnsvlvaxia-Gkk.m.xx. An engraving firm placed an ad., and 
besides doing considerable work for u>. we kinnv an order of over 
Sjo.oo was placed b_\' one friend, who askedi us in place it; and 

.194 THE FJ:\ .\ SVLl' AM AGi:i!M AX. 

another one we assured work done here was all O. K. 1 he 
Grand \ie\v Sanitoriuin, of \\'erner>ville, i'a., has just engaged 
full-page space for the fourth year. This Great Health Resort 
has been well tilled with guests for all these years, often over- 
crowded in summer seasons. It formerly did n<>t turn .guests 
away, as it had to do latterly. We hope the magazine has not 
produced wholesale sickness — nervous prostrations and the like, 
to account for this rush to this time-honored health institution. 
It has, however, helped to make known its great merits. And 
once known and tasted, the institution did the rest. Its magnifi- 
cent location, its superb management, its perfect equipment, the 
great, unspeakable natural beauty of its nearer surroundings, and 
its more extensive scenery are such, in winter as well as in summer, 
that a man does not need to be sick to wish to go thither. All 
who have once been there will often be sick to get back. The 
editor gets this spell several times a }ear. We love to make its 
merits known, because they are such that sick and well will always 
remember us gratefully for the favor of a personal introduction. 

Does it pay to advertise? You can guess. It paid some. Ad- 
vertising is like fishing. You know there are tlsh and that one 
must bait his htxjk and cast his line and wait for a nibble. Xoth- 
ing ventured, nothing caught. I'ennsylvania (lermandom is a 
promising stream for the right kind of l>ait. Will you sit down 
on its banks and trv \our luck? 

aND so we'll have another Pennsylvania-German Governor 
of the Keystone State. Why not, when four-fifths of 
her people have this blood in their veins, either pure or 
with some foreign admixture? We also will have legislators, 
judges and county otiticers of this stock galore. The Pexxsyl- 
v.\Nr.v-Gi-:R.\[AX congratulates all its readers, who have been hon- 
orably elevated by the late election to places of trust, honor and 
public service, as the choice of their fellow citizens. Success, a 
clean record and long life! 

Tin-: red-colored insert calls }'Our attention to a special matter. 
It will help }(iu and us to have you give this attention promptly. 



IN 1S93 a cablegram from Paris annuunccd to the world the 
death in that city, on June 1st, of a man, whose remarkable 
career and brilliant success in the held of education in\ests 
the story of his life with intense interest. Althoug-h having been 
a resident abroad for more than thirty years, the fact that he was 
a born American, who never renounced his citizenship, should add 
for the American reader a new charm to the recital of his life's 
struggles and successes. And while the results of his marvelous 
achievements are known to the world at large, and his intluence 
and the benehts of his labors have become international, }et that 
class of worthy and honorable Americans, known as the Penn- 
sylvania-(,lermans — among whom he had his humble origin— may 
pride themselves especially upon the distinguished pronnnence 
that has come to one of their number and shall boastfully claim 
him as one of their own. We refer to the late celebrated Prof. 
Charles Rudy, Ph.D., Founder and President of the ■"Interna- 
tional Institute" of Paris, a school whose reputation has filled all 
of Europe, and whose students have been scattered to, if not 
attracted from, all the ends of the earth. His career is a won- 
derful exemplification of the success that is apt to crown pluck 
and perseverance in an}- calling, and the signal honor that has, in 
his case, rewarded a life of very humble l)eginnings. makes his 
biography more interesting than a story — a verification that "truth 
is stranger than fiction." 

The writer well remembers as a boy this future illustrious 
foreign professor, then a youth in this country, who as a common 
school teacher frequently visited our parental abode, a bosom 
companion of an older l)rothcr. Our own youth was spent amid 
the scenes and associations in which Mr. Rudy spent his earlier 
years, among whose relatives — some still living* — we were for 

"His <iii I V living; hrottifr. Isrufl llinlv, is at j)ri--i nt pri'prii-tor of uno i.f the luilt-ls at :5la!in^- 
toii, Pa. 



M'ars most intiniatcl}' cnnnc-clcd in duinc; sch(inl and church work, 
it affords us pleasure, therefore, to hrietly sketch the Hfe of one 
to wh.oni has come such great honor and success. 

About seventy-five years ago Durs Jvud}', a native of Switzer- 
lan(k immigrated to this country and settled in the northern por- 
tion of Lehii^li ctnmtw Pa. There, ahuut a dozen miles north of 

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Showing members of Rudy family, during one of the Professor'3 visits to America. 

the present city of Allentown, near the foot-hills of the lUue Moun- 
tains, at a rural cross-roads, he huilt a small store and hotel aiul 
began doing business. Iia\-ing previoush- married a plain, Ticr- 
nian farmer's daughter of this communit}-. he here reared a family 
of children of whom the subject of this sketch was the youngest 
born. The elder Rutly s(K)n succce.led in building up a successful 
business, his uprightness winning for him confidence, and his 
shrewd business Ciualitics gaining for him influence and a small 
competency. Although the [ilace has se\eral times changed hands 
since. }'et the original owner's name is still frequcntl}- associated 
with it, as one is wc^nt in this vicinity to hear it s[)oken of as 
■•Rudv's Ol 1 S'.and." 

PROFKSSOJ; ciiAi:f.i:.s UVDY. U>7 

Here L'harles. burn in 1837, cj^rew up to young manliood. Here 
he first fouiul auj^'^ht to uecupy his ever aetive brain. bVom henee 
he was earried as a babe in his parents' arms to the nearest chiircli 
— the union chureh of Xeffsville — to reeeive the rite of Chris- 
tian baptism, administered by the late Rev. Joseph S. Dubljs, the 
German Reformed pastor. In this church the father had bten 
organist and chorister for years, and here young- Chai'les was in 
due time ciinfirmed as a member of the Hock. In a beautiful ad- 
joining graveyard now sleep both his honored parents, and thither. 
side by side, the great Reaper is gathering year by year the re- 
maining members of tliis family circle. 

Charles, having been a bright and unusually wide-awake boy, 
early found his environments too narrow. Having exhausted the 
meagre school advantages of his vicinity, his father gratified liis 
longing for boarding-school life by sending him to an academy 
up the Hudson. Here lie ]nirsued the study of the common Eng- 
lish branches and Latin, when early in his course he was sum- 
moned back by the serious illness of his father, wdiose subse- 
quent death rudel}- upset his plans. Although his education was 
but begun, and he a luere stripling yet, at the earnest solicitation 
of his friends, he undertook to teach a subscription schojl, the 
btiilding for which had just Ijeen comi)leted, erected from free- 
will contributions solicited by his relatives and j^atrons. This 
school he called the ""Schnecksville Acadenu'," a rather big name 
with which to designate a room thirty by forty feet in dimensions, 
or characterize a band of abotit three dozen village school chil- 
dren. But this name was even to play a bigger part }et in t!ie 
future role of this plucky young teacher. 

Under his enthusiastic guidance this new "Academy" at once 
began to flourish. Xew life pervaded the scholars. Young Rudy 
was ventures(.^me. Constant departures from the old routine i>f 
teaching were made. His pupils caught the inspiration and 
studied with fresh and purer incentives. The room fdled up 
with scholars, and when the first term closed it was punctuated 
with a successful exhibition of the work that had been done. < )n 
this occasion the room was crowded with visitors and patrons, 
the day was spent in the recital of declamations, the singing of 
songs, and a thorough examination in all the branches of stud}'. 
The past(>r was present, upon special reipiest, to make an address. 


1 he \illage doctor niaJc conipliincntary rennirks, and the teaclier 
himself made a speech to the parents and friends of the schooL 
It was the first jnibhc school exhibition in all those parts, and it 
may well be imagined that it gave the school and its young teacher 
a fair name. Tlie same was repeated for several terms, and 
young Ru ly soon became the peer of any teacher in tiic county. 

Ijut the success of his first endeavor onl}- made the young 
aspirant long for a wider field. Within the narrow confines of 
his school-room lie dreamed of far-off lands. Lured by his own 
fancy and beckonetl by the urgent invitation of a young friend, 
whose acquaintance he had formed in the Hudson academy, he 
consents, and these two companions, scarcely out of their teens, 
sailed for foreign ports, bent on seeing the world. The plan was 
to see the countries of Europe, much after the fashion of I'a}-ard 
Taylor, b}- traveling afoot. Having so passed through England 
and Scotland, they went to Spain. Hut here that niN'Sterious 
Hand, which often dashes down our fondest hopes and guides 
our feet into ways we knew not and dreamt not of, was laid upon 
the young wanderers. The friend's health began to fail. He 
sank rapidly. They hastened together to the isle of Madeira, 
where he soon died, leaving Rudy friendless and almost penniless 
in a land of strangers, for he had almost simultaneously with his 
friend's death been rol)bed of what little cash he had. It was a 
crucial test of his courage and came nigh crushing him. But 
summoning all his bravery, the young adventurer philosophically 
met the problem confronted him. He soon found a solution. 
His jilans must be changed so as to make his hitherto aimless 
travels serve a fixed purpose. He must do something that will 
bring him an income. The l)e3t place for this, he concludes, is 
some large city. So he started out for Erance and its beautiful 
capital. In due time he reached Paris, without knowing a soul 
in all that vast city, nor the language of its people. \\'hat little 
Latin he knew hel[)ed him some, but his distress for a little while 
was almost overwhelming. Einally he found employment in a 
restaurant, where he was ciuick in catching the language and 
manners of the people. One day it was his fortune to come in 
contact with an elderly gentleman of some culture, to whom he 
made known his distress in the best Latin and Erench he then 
knew, whose bene\ok'nt lieart responded by giving Rud}' a letter 

riWFKSSOi: fllAULKS KIDY. 199 

of iiUruductioii to a }ouiig lady teacher of Gernnn cniijloyed in a 
rich and influential family of his acquaintance. From this cir- 
cumstance dates the turning-puint in Rudy's life. The cultured 
German teacher secured him a few puinls in Iinglish, while her 
society enabled him to carr\- on conversation in his vernacular as 
well as to hear the purest h^rench. Besides he had found some- 
thing to do that was cmigenial to his tastes. His drooping spirits, 
therefore, soon revived. His former enthusiasm came back to 
him. He strove to equip himself for the best work, and thus 
began to push hiiuself onward. Accordingly he applied himself 
assiduously to master the I'^rench tongue. Through Fraulein 
Notzen, the German teacher, and his own ctTorts, the circle of his 
acquaintance gra<lually widened and the numljer of his pupils con- 
stantly increased. 

A* pet idea that had l()ng l)een vagtiely l\ing in his brain now 
began to form itself into something of a dehnite shaiie. The 
plan was to associate with himself a few other teachers of different 
nationality and form an alliance of professors to furnish linguistic 
instruction. But many months of hardship, stud}' an 1 sjlf-denial 
must yet be gone through before his fondest ambition could be 
realized. By and by. however, he began to see his way clear to 
venture upon his cherished plan. He had now taken a course of 
study in the College de France, had become acquainted with 
many students of note, and been thrust in contact with many 
learned men. The celebrated St. Julien had interested him in 
the stud}' of Chinese. Other languages had received his closest 
attention. His own teaching of Fnglish and German had brought 
liim some revenue, and h? felt the plan had sutficientl}' matured 
and the time had come to make the cffiirt of bringing into reality 
a long-cherished dream, .\ccordinglv early in the sixties, several 
professors of language having been found willing to participate 
in the enterprise, three little rooms were rented in Rue St. Honore 
and the school was named the ''Association Internationale de Pro- 
fesseurs." It is not surprising to find Fraulein Xotzen one of the 
instructors, engaged to teach Gernian. Their former accpiaint- 
ance had meanwhile ripened into friendship, and this in turn 
developed into a happy romance and marriage. 

Sudden success, however, was not destined to crown this novel 
educational enterprise. The rooms of their school fronted iq)on 

200 TlIK rJ'XXSyLl'AMA-aKJ^MAX. 

a clingy court, at which entrance hung a green sign, giving the 
prc>per directicin. Such Ijcginnings soon wearied and discouraged 
most of Rudy's associates an.d he was ohhged to buy out their 

Undaunted by tiiese reverses, and witli I'Vaulcin Xotzen re- 
maining firm, he now assumes the sole control of the school, and 
from it dates the success of his scheme. He chooses a new corps 
of instructors, retaining only his professor of German, and stub- 
bornly bends every energy to win favor and success. He adver- 
tises freely. He even plays adroitlv upc>n his- former connection 
with the Schnecksville Academy in this country — a humorous and 
rather naive specimen of blowing one's own horn, and which may 
illustrate the man's shrewdness rather than his honor. Knowing 
the importance attached to the word "academy'' in France, he 
hits upon a rather l)umpti('iis metlK>d of pul)lishing his own attain- 
ments and place. Along every boulevard and in multitudes of 
the prominent business places of the city he had placed his green 
posters, calling attention to his instituticni in the following man- 
ner : 

"Association Internationale de Professeurs; 

Directeur-I-'oundateur : Charles Rudy. 

Anciennement de r.\cademv de Schnecksville." 

It must be said in justice of the man. however, that he was not 
happy in after years whenever allusion was made to this shrewd 
trick, and he preferred not to have it mentioned. Yet it served 
its end and was withal a happy inspiration, characteristic of tlie 
man's pluck and resources. It attracted attention and brought 
the institution pupils, thus helping it to grow apace. 

Having sufficiently prospered in his efforts, and having learned 
thoroughly to love and trust his faithful teacher of German, the 
two in 1867 left for the lady's home in Xurcmberg. Ciermany, 
where, surrounded by her relatives and old-time associates, they 
were married. On returning, after their summer's travels, they 
pursued their now united life-work with still greater assiduity 
and earnestness, and found yet greater prosperity to come to 

A cruel interruyition, however, came with the Franco-German 


War of 1870. French defeat and the rei-.i of the Commune in 
Pans necessitated their lligiit to London, where thev remained 
iintd a serencr sky again smiled upon France. But on their 
return only desolation met their wondering eves. Their home 
and school had heen laid waste. Life was to be begun anew 
\et we find Mr. Rudy and his equally pluckv uife sufficient for 
the test. 


t^ ^< 


\ i 

^y«(.«*-V«^ ' 4''^i!" 

While a student at Paris. 

With Iieroic courage they begin to battle for their former 
prestige. Before long they have regained their old place New 
hfecomes to their school. The quarters in Ru^ St. Ilonore are 
again filled with pupils, drawn from the best families of Paris and 
beyond. Tlie phenomenal growth of the work called for more 
professors and for branch schools throughout the citv. In course 
ot time five such -succursales" or branches were established in 

202 THE rF.yysYLVAMA-ai'.nMAX. 

I'aris, an;] by and by a few more in neighboring cities and towns. 
Mr. Rudy gives himself henceforth exchisively to management, 
leaving tlie teaching entirely to others. Yet he personally super- 
intends every (le[)artment an.d frequently visits every branch 
school. 1 he teachers employed were tlie very masters in their 
varied departments. He often found valuable assistants in the 
attaches to the ditTerent foreign legations resident in the city. 
Ihe courses of study included a wide range, embracing all the 
arts and sciences, with especial emphasis given to the modern lan- 
guages. One year a course of lectures on international literature 
was arranged and conducted under his auspices, which included 
not less than twenty ditterent languages, the lecturers being mas- 
ters of their subjects, and speaking in their national language 
while they themselves appeared in native costume. The venture 
was both ])iipular and pecuniarilv j)rotual)le. 

With the extensi<in of the scope of the institution, new and 
better quarters had to be found for the main school. Although 
this was atleniled with difhculty and much expense, yet Mr. Rudy '; 

succeeded in transplanting it to Rue Royale Xo. 7, which my ..; 

informant — a friend and long associate of the Professor — declares • 

to have been a "lucky" It was here that the institution I 

grew to its largest proportions, numbering its students for many I 

years at two thousand and over, and its professors at a hundred ' t 

and fiftv. i 

Thus rose into prominence a man of humble birth and of few I 

youthful advantages. Thus grew an institution from smallest % 

... ? 

begmnmgs into the favorable notice of the world of letters and | 

art, enjoying the patronage of counts and princes, of priests and I 

prelates. Among the famous men that supported it are men- I 

tioned the Prince of Wales (now King Edward VII of Great t 

Britain), and Pere Hyacinthe. while scholars in all parts of the | 

world remember the "Rudy Institute" with pride as their nour- | 

ishing mother. All Paris gave personal honor to its distinguished | 

head.'^ | 

Prof. Rudy, though possibly not a highly educated man him- s 

self, knew how to direct the education i4 others. He possessed 1 

natural endowment and was a man of rare tact and executive • | 

ability. He was largelv a self-made scholar while his distin- f 


• See .VpiKiidix. I 

Fi;0FJ'-SS01! CUAULES UUDY. 203 

guisliino- traits seem to liave been a shrewd iiisiglit into men, and 
a rare tact of seeing and grasping ()[)i)(irtunity. Furce of circimi- 
stance which bronglit liim in contact with men of every station 
and degree of culture, gave him poHsh. The same cause, sec- 
onded hy stud}' and travel, made him tlie hnguist, who had mas- 
tered many of our nn^dern tongues and dialects. He could 
fluentl}' speak not less than a dozen languages. Ik-sides some 
translations into Chinese and Sanscrit, he was author of a Chinese 
Grammar in the Mandarin dialect. }lis travels led him as far 
€ast as Thibet, where he was enal)led to extricate himself from 
personal danger by his ability to read the sacred books in the 
original, after ^vh.ich the natives looked upon him as a superior 
being. He wrote occasional articles for our American magazines. 
He was a bVllow of the b'reiich Academy, or Iiistitiit Xatioiial as 
it is generally known, while Franklin and ^Marshall College, of 
Lancaster, Pa., conferred upon him, in 1S79, the honorary degree 
of Doctor of Idiilosophy. 

Although Mr. Rudy had so thoroughly identitied himself with 
Paris that few persons on casual ac([uaintance would have seen in 
him any traces of the American, yet he always took especial pride 
in his American citizenship. "American visitors, and especially 
Pennsylvanians, were always greeted by him with a hearty wel- 
come,'' writes the Rev. Prof. J. H. Duldjs, D.D., of Lancaster, Pa., 
son of his old pastor, wdio visited him about fifteen years ago. 


"It was (luring this Oriental jciinu'v that he first seems ;o have become 
aware of his wonderful talent for learniiio- languages. He studied them 
granmiatioally liut his vocal organs wove so wonderfully constituted that 
there was hardly a sound that he could not jironounce. lie acquired dialects 
as well as languages, and took great pleasure in conversing with country 
people. His acquisition of such languages as ^ilanchu, Cingalese, and Chinese 
Mandarin astonished the foremost scholais of Germany. 

"In Paris he had to tiiriit a liard ])attU', luit will anil perseverance gained 
him the victory. His instil utinn was an iniiDvatiou, and there was a strong 
prejudice against foreigners, liut h'^ accomplished his ])urpose and at the 
time of my visit flsTSI there ^\ere I-jG pru:'essnrs and 2,0.'0 pupils. 

"That Prof. L'udy was a man of extraordiiuiry talent no one will now 
presume to deny. In addition to this lu:' jiossessod a wonderful power of 
organization, which enabled him to retain liis hold on the miiuitest details 
of his undertakings. He had also made himself familiar witli American 
methods of adA"ertising ;iim1 did uvt lu'glcct to employ tliom. In his later 
years he was regarded ;!< a great niusiral rritic thougli he could hardly sing 
a note. Prosjveetive prinui ihuinas .sang to him and he magisterially decided 


on their i)rospivt of suocet;s. His skill in lliis rosi)i'ct I conceive to have 
been chiclly duo to his remarkable familiarity with the capacities of the 
human voice. " ^ 

Prof. Oliver Ilolhen, another Peniisylvanian, who was for eight 
years associated with him as teacher, and to whom we are largely 
indebte.l for the facts in Mr. Rudy's Parisian life, says that he 
was an American to his heart's core. "On fete-days the star- 
spangled banner ever waved by the side of the French flag from 
his window." 

As he remained true to his American citizenship, so he was 
ever loyal to his church. The religious training which he re- 
ceived in the old home under the shadow of the Blue Mountains 
and in a plain rural church of Pennsylvania, had sunk so deep - 
into his heart that it could never be effaced. Among the most 
cherished relics of his childhood's home — the dearest memento 
of his pious mother- — was a little German prayer-book. This 
Habcniiaiicltcii. laid into his hand by his mother in childhood, be- 
came his religious ixnic inccnm to the grave. Having become a 
member of one of the French Reformed churches, he and his wife 
were regular attendants at worship, fretpiently attending the 
American chapel. The memory of his parents was most fondly 
cherished, of whose counsel, given in his boxhood. he ofteit loved 
to speak. He is said to have made frequent and tender reference 
to his earlv associates, and often while alluding to his first pupils 
in America, the mention of their names caused his lips to quiver 
and his eyes to fill up with tears. 

In personal appearance he was prei)Ossessing. The writer dis- 
tinctl}- remembers his ruddy cheeks, his genial eye, his wealth of 
black hair — in later }ears bleached into the whiteness of snow— 
and the quick, nervous movements of his Ijody, of but medium 
height and slender in form. Later years added nutch to his 
.weight, and he died quite corpulent. His picture reveals a full- 
bearded, high-l)rowed. schcMarly face, l)etraying a genial and 
companionable mien — a cotmtenance that is indicative of the strong 
and open character that was his. 

His last illness was brief, dying from some pulmonary affec- 
tion. According to a previous wish and decree, he was buried in 
Switzerland, in the same village, whence his father had emigrated, 
and in the same churchyard where sleep the Rudy ancestors. He 
died childless. btU, according to the most reliable accotmts, left 


liis wife with a lianclsoinc fi)rtunc and the control oi a most 
tlourishiiig institution — the nKiturcd child of his own brain. To 
his American relatives and friends, and to all ill-favored yoiUli, 
who may chance to know or read the story of his life, comes as 
with an inspirati(jn, the ley;acy of his distinguished career, and 
the brilliant example of his unfailing- courage, his indoruitaljle 
energy and his marvelous success. 
Lebanon, Pa. 



[From "L'Uiiiver.s', " of Hee. 4, 3870, of I'aris. KiiiiUy traiis- 
L-.tod by the late Prof. W. J. Burusiae, of Lebanon, Pa.] 

We olTer to cur readers a group of .selected jirofessors [The pieture 
jiortraits of eleven Oriental Professors, Dr. Kudy in the niiiist. — Editor.] in 
the Oriental division of the In'ernatioiial ,\ssociatiou of I'rofossnrs of Paris. 
The advancement that the study of liv!n<;- languaoes lias made in France, 
nnd notably in I'aris sinre the war of ]s70, and tlie ilistin^uislied services 
rendered in that respect by the Assoeiation^ and the eminent philologist, 
Mr. Cliarles Eudy, who is its founder, lead us to belie\e that the accounts 
which f.illow in regard to the career of tiiat scholar will be read with 

Charles Rudy was born in bSo8, at Washington, Lehigh county, (Pennsyl- 
vania). He did brilliant work in his studies in Xew York, and returned at 
the age of nineteen to his native village. A few months later, imtwi hstand- 
ing his youth, he was (■.■ille<l to sujierinteiid the Srhnecksville Academy. 

But this career at a fi.ved ]dace of residence ilid not satisfy his desire for 
the study of languages. An invincible longing urged him to travel in order 
to satisfy his passion fur his favorite study — the knowledge of the various 
races of humanity, and v;;ri(:ns languages. Renouncing the lirdliant future 
promised to him in his own countiy, and despite the urgent wishes of his 
friends, who would have preferr^-d to retain the young scholar in their 
place, he tendert-d h's resignation at the end of a year, crossed the sea, and 
resided successi\ely in Kngland, in r)enmark, S^weden, li'ussia. Turkey, Spain, 
Germany, and o- In r countries. His \M)nderful ai)titude for languages en- 
abled him in a short time to become familiar with the idioms of those coun- 
tries, and in the nudst of his studies, he found time to lighten the labor 
(co-labor with) of American newspapers by fre<pient correspondence. 

In 1S60 he came to Paris. There he sot>n noticeil the inefRcieucy of our 
university course of instruction at that ]ieriod, in respect to the study of 
languages, and ho conceived the proje,' of creating an es'tablishment for 
the study of languages, nmre in accordance wi h his own views. The enter- 
prise was, to say the least, venturesome, if we consider the indifference sliown 
by the Freneh for foreign lanou:i^r,.s fifteen years ago. 

Devoted to pracncal \w^ hods, and i-oii\ itic.'.l that our course of instruction 
in languages showed a great lack in this n-spect (a recent circular of Mr. 

"<^6 Tin-: Pf:xx.sYu-jxij.Gi:i:MAx. 

Waltan.has shown this too plainly, an,l oii-l,t to ;,ttra.-. tho attention of 
teachers to a matter so serious). Mr.- Hu,lv fmn.,!.,! ;lu' International Vs- 
soe.ation of Proro.sors, the exvlnsive ul.Jcvt of ulu.-!, (institutinn ) is tu fa- 
cilitate the praeti.-al study nf Kv.n.u lanyuaK-s. The new institution soon 
develo|.ea under the able superin-endence of that ener«etie philoloi^ist. la 
order to aeoemniodato the overwhelming patronage, ^Ir. Kudv est'fil.lished 
successively four branch schools in the most populous quarters of Paris. The 
profef-f ors in charge of these divisions represent more than twentv ditferent 
nali.nalities, and have the purest accent of the languages they teach. 
_ More than 2,000 pupils have pursued the courses of study of the Assoeia- 
tnn in the last scholastic year and strangers ^vho reside "in Paris for the 
study of languages, find in the establi.^,hment of this. Association facilities 
which no other city in the ^vorld can oft'er, and these advantages often tend 
to prolong the stay of strangers in the capital. 

The knowledge of European language was not sutticieut to Siitisfy such a 
spirit of investigation as that of Mr. Eudy. Attracted to the studv of 
Asiatic languages, he added successively Sanscrit (Pali), Thibetan, Mongo- 
lian, Mantchoorian and Chinese to our school of Oriental languages His 
aptitude for languages attracted the attention of our most celebrated Orien- 
talists, Gimblot, Pauthier, Foucaux, and especially of Stanislas Julien who 
until the time of his death, showed the strongest interest in the youncr phil- ' 

ologist The letters of this regretted sinologue (Chinese-ologi'st) t^o Mr ^ 

Rudy form a valued collection which show the exalted esteem which this il- ^ 

lustnous professor of the French college bore in the relations of private life '^ 

The Asiatic mythology-, ethnology and comparative religions, studied bv ^ 

Mr. Rudy, led hun to devote himself exclusively to the study of Buddhisnr ^' 

tor a number of years. " ' 

This last study made in conjunction with Mr. Grimblot. afterwards inter- ! 

rupted by the death of the latter, was returned by Mr. Rudy with Stanislus I 

Juhen. It was at this time that he began his labors in the Chinese lan^nta^^e | 

the researches into the texts and manuscripts on the subject of Buddhisn{ . 

having made it necessary to be familiar with that language. | 

In ISOG, imbued with euthusi ism for his studies of the pa^an reli-ious f 

he betook himself to Central Asia in order to make himself familiar" with f 

their practices, in the midst of their adepts. He brought back from that I 

journey a large number of books and precious n,anus,ripts in the Thibetan -' 

Mongolian. Calmuck and Chinese languages and a number of sacred books l 

ot Buddhism, of which ho translated several volumes. I 

His journey was marked by some curious incidents. In translating to the ■■ 

barbarous tribes of Central Asia their sacred books which most of the natives ! 

were unable to read, he was regarded almost as a demi-god. Ovations of all ? 

sorts, dances and processions were held in his honor. Comi>elled to with- \ 

draw on account of the pestilence, he re'.urned bv way of the .lancrerous ^ 

deserts of Astrochan, Blount Ararat, Caucusus and Anatolia, and on his re- ' \ 

turn to Paris he pursued his labors with r.-newed activity and ener^ry It j 
13 from this period that ,c may date the courses of Orienul languacres now 


Z^,^'- "" ""''^"^?"' ^'" ^''^' l"-^'^''^^«- ^' ^^'-^'' ^-•■" t!.e group 
published in our .lournal. 

About the perioa he cntributea as a charter n.en.bor, to the estab- 
lishment of the society of languages in Paris 

T-.vo years after his wanderings in Asia, Mr. Rudy resumed his travels 
and went to study in the Xeu AVorh.1 the Eocky Mountains and the 
^rri ones occupied ),y n,e indians. the now sects, especially the I,atter Dav 
Sain s (Mormon.), on the .hores of Salt Lake, Utah. [The writer i. evi"- 
denl^.under a misapprehension here. The Mormons are the on!v new .ect 
that have sought the west for t],eir home. Most of the other new sects re- 
mained where the the doctrines originated.] Mr. Rudy has latelv pubH.hed 
a nw- method for the study of Chinese. He has preserved in this g r -i 
work the practical method which he has n,ade the basis of his .vstem ofi 
s ruction. One is astonished in analyzing this w.rk. to see a C^at ^ 
d fticnlt reduced to such simplicity. This method will no doubt be^made to 
occupy an important place among the works of our chief sinologues 

]:j:iT'Ir::!':':''/1 ^-.^^"-^-^'^ enterprises Mr: Rudy has 

earned th right to our gratitude. The services rendered bv the association 
^hich he has lounde.l. and which he directs, following the ;vsten Th "h he 
discovered are too well known to need our approbation ' 

been'nn ' >, '"'''^''' "' '"•' ^^^"' '^ '^'' i"'^^-^'-^' ^'-^v of languages has 

been able wit ,n tour years to extend so rapidly among us we are in ^ ^rea 

nieasi^e indebted to his institutions and to the n^thods wl •.: HZl 


-S! -S # 
Through the kindness of Dr. George Hetrich, an antiquarian of Bird^boro 
the Editor was recently treated to a sight and exanuition of a r r e o J 
German document. This is nothing short of a printed "Protest a.ainlt the 
Appointment of Benjamin Pranklin as the age.^ of this Province '-rGr 
Britain when, in 1,W, our Provincial Assemblv appointe<l him as the r 
presentative to the English Parliament, to present i^person th '^r evant 

e empti!:T:iA """^ °' ^'^ discrimination in ta^Uion sho.'i b.! 
exemption of the j.roprietanes, manor lands and possessions This protest 
was made by such distinguished citizens and members of the Pi ovine 'its 
sombly as John Du-kinson, David McConaughv, Mont^onrv Isfac 
Saunders, George l^iyl.r, .Villiam Allen, Thomis C^b"" 
Amos Strettell and Henry Keppele, and tl,e objections to FrankUi; are S 
in seven separate counts, and is dated October 'o 17(54 

Imismuch as the same paper contains the lengthv defense bv Frankl.n 
refuting the objections raised, it is very probable 'that the la ter put le' 
same into circulation in this German form to set himself strailh in h 
ejes. A proot this, ot the influence that our German population ^-idded in 
things provincial at that early date of our Commonwea th 's h t" T e 
closing paragraph alludes to his-perhaps final-departure f lo -belov 

land and he asserts his devotion to it bv the wish of \i , 7 T 

Latin-^..o po,..._ .ishing all pn-sp^ii^: hli ^i ^if zf;;: w^;: 

nia^aiumous tor.iven.. f„r his enemie. D.ted Philadelpht;; ^x::e;Z 


BY 1:EV. Die. J. MAX HAIIK. 

From Vul. X, I'locoeiUngs Pennsylvaiuu-Lieniiau Society. (In 
style of siiolling and illustrated by Editor.) 

Was dcr Jake over heit net so grossfiihle dut, 
In sein'r besht, neuc Sonndag's Suit! 
'Sis well er die Kate uf die Fair uenune will, 
Ini r.eue "Wiigelie un 'tin groiie l^'itll. 

])ie Kate is noi-li iirger gebutzt as wie er. 
Ich wees net wie 's gar niiiglicli wiir 
Mee Feddre un J'duninie uf ihr Hut zu du; 
Oder 'n scliiinmes ^laik-lie zu finna dazu I 


C> 'wiss sehnr n;er net oft 'n selunert-gurkieher Paar 

As wie des an deni ]\torge war, 

Wie sie in der Fair-gruml nei g'fahre sin — 

"S war n'niierstag Murge, so wie irh miL-h b'sinn. 

Was ware a\er sehon 'n Lot Meuselie dort; 

Un 'n Zucht un Gegrisoh alsfort! 

'S war 'n Huckster iin Gamier un allerhand Shows; 

Mer litt deiike keune der Deivel wiir loss! 

Die Oehse lien g<.blarrt un die Ifalme gekriiht ; 

^ler hut scliier net g'wist wo mer schteht. 

Un noh kuinnit die P.and noeh un spielt uf 'm Sehtand! 

'S war ewig''r I.iinii, awer doeh war's ah grand. 

Zu erscht hut's die Kate shier-gar bang genmeht; 
Der Jake awer hut juscht gelaeht. 

"Nemm du jusi-ht nioi Hand,'' sagt der .Fake; " un noli 
Geht's ab zu sehne was zu sehne is doh." 

'N SackvoU Grundniiss wern g'kauft f er 'n Stiinl- 
Sie sin wulil ken fiinf Cent werd — 
An der Fair awer guckt nier net uf die Expense! 
Un der Jake fiihl heit ah so rei<']i as 'n Prince. 

roirnc ai:Ms. 


Sie steht 'n well an ilcr S,-liliflil-iniilil 

Von die I'.iiwe iin ili'- ,\rii.l s'n \iil 

^Vas (Iruf falirc; di(> Kate awfr will 's net ilu; 

Sie siigt 's inaclit sie (liiniilirli, un kosdit inu-li dazii. 

■::fii-^3^;*^KSJSB^jw*;>S!S?«' <rv<« S"W^*rf3i'SiK->«»?>'i»l%"»*'.j>' 





'% '"^^ 





Dacli iwwer e'weil giiekt <ler Jake sie so weit — ■ 
Enich ]\I; (lei werd versehwetzt niit der Zcit — 
Das sie 'n gut Dutzeiid Mol niit em rum g'fahre is; 
Er but sie fesoht g'lialtc — wegem Darmol war's gewiss. 

Noch deni sin sie gange niitnatintr die Ki.h ' 
Zu begiu'ke, iin 's annere Vieh. 

Von Si-hot' mi vnu Sci. 's nix aln vdirh y.n seh ' 

Die Gcil sin iirht ''ut, \in die Miakcl s'n srli 


Die Kate }.!fil,t 's liiii^st lieiin llaniinrlt:' stfh', 

Sie kaiin ^ar net frrt davoii geli '. 

8io streiclii'lt 's uii si-lt\\ct/,t zu 'in ; iidli schiinit s'e sich halb 

Wio (ler .lake zii 'hvvv siij^t, er w<it cr wiir 'n l-valli! 

lliii suit pt'lltM- shcckiire ITeiij^st os mewht; 

Er siiyt cr \v;ir cfiis Vdii di' gvr.vht 

In der Welt; iiu 's \var a!i en ni;iclitigt>s I)ier, 

Zu CTi'i-'^s un zu stliweer t'tT \ iel usr. mi'en ich sirn:'r. 

l?ei (ler Zeit nan imiss es lial Midda;^ sei ; 

So gehue sie in c' Stand mi 

W'ci mei' OystiT-stew krickt. niit ( 'rack<.'rs un Kraut 

Fer 'n Yerdel; iiu 's sedmuikt 'iie beede juseht 'bout. 

Neidist liei, fer'ni 'e Zelt, juini>t 'n JIans^\ersiit rum, 
I'll 's sjiielt e' juiig \\'eil)snu'nsi;li die Drum. 
Sie lien gri'sse'r ut' "s Zelt-ducii yejiaiut 
Von wilde Kreatur, un was nier <lrin selmt. 

"J)<irt gehne inir nei," siigt drr Jake; un sie sin; 
Awer frog 'hii luol \vas si(^ di^rt drin 
lien g'setiiiel Es iruielit en bis lieit uoeh als bus! 
" Fa\ \erdult 15 'sedieisserei 's was ich so eljes lies'! 

'S ^\ar interresant ah die Kares zu seh'; 
Was kciine ilie Trotter net geh ! 
Ebwolrl as der .lake n.ehnt es wiir \iel im Dreek^ 
Un ah net e' \^ennig im Driver sei Neek. 

Sie stehuc so hing dort am Kace-grund draus, 
Es wert no zu spoot fer in 's Ilaus 
Nei zu geh, wo die Store-saclie sin, un 's G 'uali, 
I'll Geb.-ik, un die •Telly, un allerhand meh. 

As der Jake siigt am beshte wiir 's doeh net so gut — 
'S het iinyliow ihn lu't so g'suit — 

As es Brodt un der Butter as die Kate selver maeht, 
Un von wellen er 'xpeet noeh zu esse fer Xaeht! 

"A\^er 's G 'xpecte is net iniiner 's Ilawe! " siigt sie; 
Und er iiicent as er hiit sie noeh lue 
So g'gli>-he 's wie nan, wie sic 'a a 'geguekt hut 
As deht sir ilni froge ob er sie hawe wiU! 

rOKTIC CKMS. , 211 

Es Tiiac-ht ilin sich (lummlc zu slitartp fcr ITiiiii, 
So 's er g 'srhw imlt \iiii der ('I'nwil t'weck kiiiii. 
Es roiiit all lu't laii;^ s^iii sic 'in \\';iL;fK-lie dre', 
'Vii safe uf em Wej:; uin-h der Bushkill ho. 

Sci Arm liiK tr sciiieln w nan <; "scliHiipt ii:ii sie rum, 
I'll die Kate is of course net so iluiiim 
Net zu \\ isse 's er 's duht N\eil der Owct is kiihl 
I'll es gelit eem jo ah en Art saferes ('. 'fiihl! 

I'f e' mel no lint er sie g '1 -.'.sst as es krai-Iit, 

Vn g'sagt— un hut laut dazu u'hudit, 

" Es HaA\ekuiuint oft olnie 's (I'xpeeta fer MiidI "' 

"I)es haw iidi seln n laiig awer ^' ".xjiec-kt I '" siiyt die Kate. 

Fer on lang >>triry kerz Tnaeiie: Vor der luii'liste Fair 
War die Kate die .Mrs. Jake Lehr! 
Fn del Jake next sie oft, nn siigt 's diit ihni hx-t 
As er mt an die Fair ineh kann geli niit die Miid. 




O heert. ihr liev. e Leit, was sin des O list, geml people I I'm in sore dis- 

Zeite; tress, 

Dass luiser eons nocdi dcss eriewe To think that 1 must- li\e and sec 

muss! ail this! 

'X jeder liaureliuh muss Kiirridseh Each farmer's boy now must a coach 

reide, [xissoss, 

Fn F»aure-Miid. die siddejipe rum in And farmer's girls in sdk and satin 

Seide dress, 

I'n Niemaiid nemmt an all dem And no one finds this foolish pride 

Siditolz ^'erdruss. amiss. 

'X eegne Ir'.oahit- hi.t 'n jeder Ban- Just look at those young farmers. 

rebuh, luiw they're digiit! 

"X" scdipreim- tJaul un (i 's.diarr mit How stitf they hold their heu'ls, 

SiUierl('sli!(\t:e drutf. how proud their gait I 

Fn pleiiti Zi.-hrgold ah im Sack — do lli^iw i.lo they rush u[^ to the fash- 
is kee' liuh. ion's height! 

Am Samsididag gehii Dshent 'I- You can't tell tlnnn from city-folks 

leit 'm Srhteilt "1 zu by sight ; 

I'n schtelle dort am i.leirstdite These have no airs which tliey 

^Vertshaus uf. don't imitate. 

^Vi^ is des junge Baurevolk doth uf- Each fanner's boy a buggy owns. 

gedi'css , a new, 

\Vie heewa sie cUe Kepj) so scliteif Fine silvered harness, with a horse 

nn licch ! as well. 

Wie dhnn sie in die schtolze F,'is<:h 'us There's jdenty ' ' s(iending ' ' in his 

renne, pocket, too. 

'Sl'r kann sie nimme vun de Sc-htadt- On Saturday you see them driving 

leit kiiine. thrijugli 

Sie ma. he all ilir Hoclimuths-wege The tow'i ami stopjiing at the best 

iiocuh. hotel. 


Dev Vattcr .'i.'tikt : Was liab ich "Eli!" thinks l'a|ia, "my boys are 

S'.'liir.r.rte S.'liuo; smart, iiidcc-il I ' ' 

Die >[iittLT sa.i;t: .Mri Mii.l die " Lo(jk, '' says .Mamma, " my girls 

kumii:e rausi are comiii"; out! " 

Sii .St-hteil kusc-ht C'eKl. Ja well, hit Sufjli style costs tiidUi^^h — "Ila, bor- 

kann jo lehne. r(.\v uliat you need! " 

Sell gliet 'n Weil, liass iif, <lii That ^vorks quite well awhile; but 

versoht's Ijall sehiie, ah, take heed I 

Dor Yatter "^jelit d 'r Bunyort We soon shall hear Papa's "gone 

Fens ball iiaus. " up the siiout." 

In olden times it was a sin and 

A'or -Mters ^vas ts als en Sind un 

Sehand, m ■ i • i i t i i > 

^r , , c- 1 11 1 » 11 io sink in debt beyond one s 

jNIeh bchulde n:aehe as m r zahle , •' 

, . means to pay. 

,0- i. ' 1 ' . I i. ■ 1 i 'Tis not so now. You iust give notice 

his net nieh so; ni r gebt luseht . , ,, •' ■.. ^ 

^- ,. 1 , T %^i-, •' through the editors 

JNotis dorch die hditors, rp, . i • it -n 

->,,,, . -^ 1, . 1 Ihat, business closed, vou will ciiin- 

iM r hot gecios t, un < let cunipounde ' i -tx • "n i 

^ ., ,. /-■ Ti pound with all vour cred- 

mit die Creditors, •, 

Tt- 1 » ■ i 1 • r-> 1 itors. 

\\er so lietnegt, dor is en Dslien- -.x , ,.,, ,, ,. ,, 

,„ ^ lou re still a gentleman l('r all 

t 'Imann 

this play. 

Wie Icbt m 'r nan.' Ich sehn du But how do you live then? Just as 

wcescht nrch nix! before. 

^I 'r lebt jusch wie d'rvur; des The law will fix all that. You just 

fixt die Lah! transfer 

M 'r eegent nix — die Fraa hot's all Your jiroperty all to your lady's 

in Ilanil — hands ; 

M 'r is ihr Edsehent, niiinedscht Geld You act as agent, manage funds and 

un Land lands, 

Un geht nau in die Kosclit bei And in return you live and b^ ard 

seiner Fraa ! with her. 


Der Mensch guckt oftir.uls gem zu- Die Antwanl war uns oft net klore, 

rick, Hen oft g'mante es wiir net vrore, 

Un wuanerd aw iiber sein Gliick ^^'ie sie 's uns ge\va hen. 

,^ 1 , i. 1 i. 'Slev hen, of course, knaps no ge- 

J)e.s ihn begegent hot. ' j i & 


Mer war so Kinuiscli und so dumm, -.r -,... , , ^ 

' Un unser ivop dazu genuckt, 

Hut net geuist ferwas, warum Uq ernstlich g'sawt: Ahnien! 
iMer sich beheefe sut. 

Wan niir nixnu zig ware dann 

An wunnerfits huts uns net g'fehlf, W'ar 's g'sagt: " Es kumt en Bi3ser 

iVJer hen knaps alles noh g'zehlt, Mann, 

Hen allcs garn g'wist. "^'^ "'^'"^ Euch all mit f erd. " 

,, , ,, Sell hut uns schri\}klich bang 

Mer hen aw alles aus gef rogt ; , i ^ 

* ° ' g'niacht, 

Die Eltra gans uhnatig g'blogt, Xo hen mir nimme laud g'lacht, 

Un hen gar nix g'mist. Un nimme meii g'zerdt. 



Uii freinir.e I.eit lieu zu uus g "sagt — 
"Wan da net gesclit un ilnscht sel 
Sebiieid i( h dei Ohie iib;" 
Do is mer ab in aller Kil. 
So sehuell ab gselquungo wio 'n 
Uu in (wv ifand die Kap I 

Ks Mar uus Kiunei" oft ferlate, 

Hen net gewist uie's uus noeh gate, 

Bis niir emole grose sin. 
Die Biickel lieu sie uus geuipt, 
Un oftuiols liinue drut' gekiekt, 

Wau niir net grad ob sin. 

Vn in der Si.-liule war 's grawd des 

J»lir hen 's grirkt dert gvawd uie 
Un hen aw no gebrillt ! 
Der Meschter war net hoeh gelarndt, 
"Wan er fascht war, hut's ihn fer- 
Xo hut er uus gedrilldt. 

"Winters sin mir als nous ufs lee, 
Mit Schnee war oft der Bodde weis 

Die Fiiss uud Finger kalt. 
Mer ware oftniols draus zu lang. 
Far Schliige war's uus no als bang; 

Am Kop huts oft geknoldt. 

Un wan en Bawie kunimc is — 
"War es en Buh oder en Sis — 

Hen mir gewunncrd, glei — 
'V\''er hut uns des lieb Kind gebroelit, 
Un was hut es der Pap gekoseht? 

'N jeders siicht: "Sis mei! " 

"Fimi Dockter hen mirs Bawie 

Die Grandniam hut ihn mit ge- 
So hen sie uns gesagt. 
"Dor Dockter is en gooter Man! 
Er bringt uus alles was er kauu; 
Er werd net ford gejagt! " 

" Wie wees der Dockter \\ o sie sin ?" 
" i]r fangt sie '.ief ini Wasser ilrin, 

Un ncmt sie no mit f erd. " 
"Oh mei! Die arnie kleeue Dreb; 
Die Seliwimnie bei de' Mulie-ki'ip. 

Hot er uns ah grickt dert .' ' ' 

Der wunnerfilz, der dreibt em hie 
Ins wasser, bis nuf an die Knie, 

l)ann 'iverij all rum gegut'kt. 
Sie ^vare alnud tief im ] )reek ; 
Duch hut nier g'sagt: "J eh ga net 
week ; ' ' 

Un hut sich net fermuckt. 

Docli kuuit kens raus, 's hot nix 

Das mer sei Zeit ferlrlne hut 

Mit gucke unnig der Brick. 
Sie ware all iui Dreck fersclupt, 
Ken Eens hut druuuer raus geguckt, 

^ler hut ken auiol "s Click. 

Aoh war der Beltzniekel aw noch! 
Am Chris'ttag kumt er aus seim Loch 

Un hut 'n G'siclit, kole-schwartz. 
No sin mer dopper unnioh 's Bett 
Uu hen gewinscht er find uns net, 

Un hart klopt unser Hertz. 

Now sin die Christtag uns en Frade^ 
Es hut sich alles rum gedrade; 

Mer hen ken iingschte meh! 
Des Christ-Kind is gar weit bekannt, 
Sei Name lebt iin Heide-land, 

Sis alles gute und slio. 

Mer br;iuehe 's aw net all f erschteh, 
Uu alles wisse jung un klee, 

Was Kinner gar nix bott. 
Un wan mer niol gawackse sin 
Un hen Ferschtand un guter Sinn, 

Pints uns aw gar nix g'sehadt. 

AVie shij hats doch der Herr gemacht, 
Ken Mensch hot alles so bedaeht; 

Un alles so am Platz! 
Sei Allmaeht is unendlich gross, 
Weishoit gebt er uns aller moos, 

Den Ilimmel, unser Schatz. 



Un so clools imiiicr jiuch fonl ^tli; 
Picl alte Sadie bleiwe sohteli, 

Fiel iiciio ^'chts (lazii! 
En ,lP(ks sut iln was es kann 
Unlcwe w ic 'n Gottcs-iiiann, 

Sel brinoj oni sfiito Ruh ! 

Den alles kunit eniol ziini end. 

Die Freiind un Feinde werie gMrtnt. 

En jedcr find soi Hans'. 
Un w'ie nicr's do maeht kunits vm zii, 
Wann nier imde schlofl'e in der Riili- 

No find mer alles aiis! 




Ilort, ihr Eeute, and lasset eucli 

Das Jalir, ilas Alte, hat ausge- 
SL-Idagen ! 
Die Gloeken liiiiten von nahe und 

Gli'u'k und Segen, ihr werthen 
Hcrrn I 
Yon ganzen Ilerzen, in Gottes Na- 
me n, 
Heil und Freud eucdi, ihr lieben 
Danien ! 
Frieden ini Reieli. Ruhe im 

Mvrthen und Rosen den selu'inen 
Gesundheit dein Alter! Ruhe dem 

Frohe Herzen und frolie Zeit! 

Sonne am lliinniell Segen auf 

Erden ! 
"Was noch nicht gut war, mog bes- 
ser werden ! 
Was euch begUiekt nir)g' bleiben 

wie's war! 
Gott wait' es, ihr Leute! Prosit 



}Tear, ye peojde, and let me be tell- 
Old Year is dea<l, its bells have ot-as- 
ed knelling! 
The New Year belis ring now, far 

and near; 
Tt means good luck and lilessings, 
dear sir! 
With all our heart and in God's 

It nutans great joy to you, good 
And peaL-e in the realm and in the 

tow u. 
And orange-wreath, a maiden's 
crown ! 
And health to old age, and relief to 

all pain, 
Joyful hearts with a merry strain! 
Sun in the heavens and bless'ugs 

on earth! 
What was not right, should sink 
in dearth! 
What gave you joy, may stay right 

here ! 
God grant it, ye people, happy Now 
— From The Wilkes-Barre Record. 



Oft wann mer weit is vun deheem 
Kumme Gedanke iwwer e'em 
Wie mer 's deheem so gut hot g'hat, 
Un wie die Mammie oft e'em gsaat: 
"Wart — drauss is net deheem!" 

Mir Buwe hen als jusvht gelacht 
Un unser Ksehpuchte fort gemacht; 
Yun heem geh hen mer net geahnt; 
Now bin ich 'g awwer gut bekannt 
Dass drauss is net deheem. 



leh bin geiraveled east un west. 
Bin ziinlich iwwerall gewest, 
Hab Iliiuser g'funne schee, beipiem, 
Kee Harze awwer wie deheem — 
Drauss is net wie deheem. 

Bleib, bleib deheem, O Kind! Es 

Fer's Yeggeli is doch's allerbeseht; 
Drauss in de raue, weite Welt 
Sin Sehtarm un Blitz un grosse 

Ach, drauss is net deheem! 

Historical Pilgrimages into 



Historic York, Pennsylvania 

liV DR. I. n. BETZ. 

1 — S VERY now and then letters come to the postoffioe of York. Pa., ml- 

I dressed "liittle York, York County, I\'nnsylvania. " The do^^iona- 

' tion "Little York'' has never lircii used by its residents. Klsewlien-. 

somehow or other, the term was frequently used and is still more 'T Irss 


A visit to this bustling, active city, which is now the third nianutai-turing 
town in thf State in variety of its manufactured products, will speedily 
serve to dispel all illusions and allusions bearing u[)on the aforesai'l p'jint. 

How this particular designation arose is not so clear. Probably the older 
and larger New York may have suggested that a still later and embryo 
York should have its pretentions relinked by a humorous appellation. I'n- 
doubtedly the original intent was that the town should be called York just 
as its older sister town across the river had been christened in honor of 
Lancaster, England. 

Y'ork was laid out in 174L It is the oldest town in the State wtst of tlie 
Susquehanna river. Shippensburg comes next, being founded in 1749. al- 
though a nuLdeus of houses existed a good while before. Still it \\as not 
formallv laid out as a town until some years later. However thr f^n-ni(-r 
newly laid out tovrn became known as Yorktown. Just as some ainlntions 
newly laid out western towns have "City" appended after their names, so 
our more ancient town may have taken this addition. At any rate it was 
thus known and popularly termed until it was incorporated as a borough in 
1787, which event at the time was celebrated in great style. Tiie • • town ' ' 
■was then drojiped. Another "Yorktown" in Virginia had just beronie a 
landmark in history, and it was bur totting tiiat our new borough should re- 
turn to its earlier designation. There was a ceiitenidal celeliratidti ol this 
event in lss7 in which year the borough also bcrame a "city." 

York county was set apart from Lancaster in 1749. The sesquicouteunial 
of this event was fittingly celebrated in 1899. From 1741 till 1749 the 
growth of ihe town was very slow, but sixty-three houses having been erected. 

After the formation of the county in 1749, which also made Y' rk the 
county seat, the growth was more rapiil, so that in 17.34 there wrr.' iIlO 
houses, of which three were bric-k, two were stone and the remainder were 
mostly log, with some frame structures. 


■"• "''S . -i 


*% ■ 

■ ~ ,• £ -■■■)v~ — . 

yt ■^■''' 


- 'v,- -^ 







^ . fc-3 «»SSi^^j^<.^A 

< . 

<; CO 







►2 f^ 

5§ 1 

E-i :: 


« =■ 

tJ 5 

iiisronic yoi:k. 


In ]7.")4-G tho first Coui-t ir<ius(' was ercetcil in tlic niiddle of Center 
Square, wliicli iu li-ss than a (juarter of a century was destined to 1)ecoine 
bistorie. ]f I/ili'Mty was i-radlt-d in I'aneuil Ifali and dei.dared in Independ- 
ence Hall not a wldt less was it maintained in ;ln' (Jld, ('(Uirt Hnuso in York, 
Pennsylvania. It was in tliis Ijuildini; tliat the Ctuitinrntal (.'(in^n'ss took 
up its delil)erations afti-r adjourning \\ith a single duy 's, session in the Old 
Court House In Ceu'or f^ijUaro. Lancaster. Jiere from Septeinln r ;imh, J 777, 


— '^*"' 




iiXhMCMi^^r<t^^i.^:'_i''.- -■;..■,--.. ■ -Ai-. 

,.- %-ilMiSi^^m 


When at Yorktown, at 40 years of age. 

Tbis portrait is fnnii IValo's paintiiiL', owtiod by Col. John Laurens, s.m of Ilcnry 
Laurens, with whcmi Paiiii.' wfiit to Fruini' in ITSi) to iipirotiatc a lotui. Thrir suoct'ss 
was such, it is s.ii.l, it took sixti^on o\-to:ims to transport the silvor from Koston. This 
paintinir was exhitiitcd at IValo's Museum in I'hiladelphiu. ISo:!. In isr.4 was soUl and 
came into the po><,.<-,i,,n of T. B. Mac-Iionough. the ai'tor, whose brother later solil It to 
Joe Jefferson, who il.sin il to eive it to the I'aine Miinorial Society of lioston. %^ hen it 
was burner! in a eourlairration of his liouse at Buzzard's Ray. He wrote later: The 
cruel fire wanted tl.e splendid Infidel, so I presume the saints are satistied." 

till June 27th. 3 77S. a ptricd of nine months, the darkest and most trying 
time of the Kevolution, the Congress remained. In this historic building 
'were passed and adopted the "Arti(des of Confederation."' Here John 
Hancock resignrd as President of tlie Congress an<l Henry Laurens, of 
South Carolina, was chosen as his successor. 

Henry Laurens was destined to have an interesting career. He was cap- 
tured on the sea while en his way to Holland in 1779 and was confined in 
the Tower of London for fifteen nnnitlis. He died in South Candina in 1792, 
and aceoriling: to his ^A ill w;is cri-inated. Tiiis ^vas tlu_^ first ercniatinn in 


America. His son, Coldiiol ^v.\\\\ Laurc-iis, \\1m> siK-nt at least six nioiitlis at 
York diiriii^r the stay df tlio CniiKrirss. took part in nearly every battle of the 
Kevolution an.l was kill.Ml at tlie skirmish of ('ainjiahee in South Carolina, 
whieh was the last fii^htinn; of tlie war. Thus ended a promising life at the 
early age of "Jt). 

At Chew's mansion in the liattle of Cerinantow n, in ]777, with Count or 
Chevalier du Ph^ssis :\Iaudit he forced one of the windows of the house but 
not being sujiportcl by mm widi eondiustiWh^s. they retired leisurely from 
the lawn, notwithstanding a lie;ivy fire from the upper and lower win. lows 
of the building. 

To York during the Congress cau'.e such worthies as Lafayette, Hare.n 

li ^ rf ~ 





4 ^ 

» 1 >* _ _ 

j^5rt| fc-Bi-vi^ 

-^>- ..^^ 

Here Tom Paine l..,li.-r(l in ITTT, .oul k.-pt liN ciicst ..f pap.Ts, ami wrote Parts V arid 
VI of his ••Crisis." Hrro iin't (■..ii-i-cssiciial Coininittt'ts, aii.l at thia place were kept 
the horses of many t'oiipressiiicii. 

Steuben, Count Ptdaski, Alexander Hanuiton, General Gates, Thomas Paine 
and many others. 

Paine was a man about for:y years of age, ami liad in April of 1777 been 
appointed Secretary to the Committee of Foreign Affairs. He also had 
charge of a chest of imiuu-tant papers liehmgiiig to the Congress which John 
Adams declared were of more value than tlie Congress itself. They were 
taken by Paine in a round about way from Philadelphia to York to a stone 
house on the banks of the Codorus, which house is still standing and is in 
an excellent state of preservation. 

Paine had electrified the country the pre\ ious year, in 177t). by writing 
"Common Sense," a pamphlet which had an enormous circulation and pre- 
pared the way for the Declaration of Independence, At York he finished 
No. 5 of the Crisi-', ^^ lii-li was Ik gun n: the liou-^e of William Henry, at 

fllSTOUir YOUK. 

Center Square. Lancnsler. This n.nrl er w.s ,.r:„t,.| at Ycrk \,. (! 
Cns.s Mas ho^un hor. l,„t finislu-,! af Lan.a.t.r, an.l printed at Phila,l after the A,neri,au Kev, luti. n, wen to Kn^laiul an.l urote ; 
to I,„rke, entitl..,! •'Ti,e K'.hts of Man/' ul,;,-!, was prosoeute.l 
governn,e„t. H., h.wever, .s.a,.e,l tu Fnuu-e an.l .as eleeto.l a n...,- 
the Ireneh C, nvnti, n. II.. was later in.,,ris,.,...l an.l narrowlv ..s.-a, Ulule u. Fran.e he wn, e "The A,,, of Keason/" whi. 
duoed a storm of nj.p, siti.m an,| alienate.l „:anv of his fd.n.l 
returned to An.eri.-a in iHii-, an.l .lie.l in Xew York Citv in LsnO 







:ATSl^i ^s^"* 



Th.. l,„us,. ln,s a«ni„« n„.l s,a, 2.1 ,I..,r al..,v,. ^y,u^v ,.„ Mnvkot St.. Y.Mk, Ta. 

years afterward hi., hones were ren.ove-l .-lan-lestinely by the celebrated 
A^il iam_ Cobbett. an.l taken to Englan.l ui,h the purpose of giving ',hem a 
public funeral. ^ 

It was iu this t.,w„ also, uhile the Congress remained that General Gates 
on h,s return as the capturer of Burgoyne an.l his ar.nv was re.-eive.l hv the 
Congress and appoin e.l as head of "The Roar.l of w"ar." Jfe rente,! and 
occupied a house on West Market street whi.-h is still standing. This hJuse 
was also used as the office of the IJoar.l of War. 

Here was iVnned the fan„:us intrigu. kn.nvn in historv as the "(onwav 
Cabal, whieh nveive.l its nan.e through an Irish sol.lier of fortune-Gen- 
eral Conuay. ln.loubte.lly its chi.f aim was th remove Wa.shington from " 

h d>saft..:tu,n will p ..bably be known but that it ha.l a considerable IS more ,ha. pr.,l,able. It .as in tids house that Lafavette wa. 


TJIi: PhXSS YL I ■ JA7.! (,7-.7.M/.| .V 

proseut at a banquet a.ul unex,„rteaiy by l,is attit.ule «ave a .leatl. blow to 
tiie hopes and expoetations of the n.nsi>iiators. 

Gates -was very popular and. as the oonquoror uf Buv^avno, l,a,l (lYzzlod 
the nunds of a great niunber. His k^al prestige and inOuenee renutined 
tor a long time afterwards. 

lu the ehurel. yard to the roar of St. John's Episcopal church Gates an.l 
A\ilk,nson met to fight a duel which was averted at the last moment 

Near the oh se of the Congress Pldbp I.ivingston, a n.ember of Ccuo.ress 
and s,gner of th. Podaration of Independonce, died and was buried in the 


The original chunli h;i,; etvctcd ITii'i f.n sun.. <ir.> f.- , ? , ',',•„ 

Union. In rear var,l of this .4 „rVl ',.,?" r o , ,' l \v m ■ ■■'" '"■''""'" "''""'"^ ^'^^^'" 

in its steeple swings tcia; "he hi^oHc c:::g.:.s::;:nai ci,>u\' uiu:;!' i^u! '" "''' ' ""'■ 

German Reformed ehurch yar,I Ifis retnains were removed nearlv a cen.urv 
afterwards to Prospect Hill Cemetery. A tasteful monument .'vas erected 
to his memory there by his grandson, Stephen Van Kenssellaer 

The Old Court House was demolished in 1840. but nut witliout strono pro- 
test. ^\ould that the pleadings of a iforris and an tr„ln,es had been rrdded 
and spared it till the natioi> "s .-entennial. and its future would have been' 
secure. The bricks of whicli it had been constrticted were for the en- 
closure ot the second Court House whicli was built -several hundred feet to 
the east of the square on East Market street, in ls:;S-40. This second buihl- 

n^oJ'^olC' ^''"' ""'' ''•'*•' ''"'"'' ^'"' ^^'^■^^'^ ^^■'^•^' ^" -^ ^'^"-^^ '^''^"'•t House 
(1S99-19U0) commeusurate with the increased deuiands of the county 

Before the Revolution there was a broad arrow used as a vane on t'he spire 

of the old Court House. This was replaced by tt gilded dragoon in full 

panoply in comj-Hment tu the dashing legious of cavalry -,hat\vere oartlv 

recruited here by Cuhu P.tlaski and Arnuind. The fulhnvino vear Puh.skt 

]iisTO!:ic yai;K. 


fell at the sic^i' (if S;i\ .■luuali. On tlio tk'ninlit idn df the old CVnirt House 
in 1S40, this emblem fell uiiiiijiivrd to the ground and now graces the tower 
of the Laurel Engini' House on iiuke and King streets, and is revered as one 
of the most jnicclcss relics of tlie Tvevulution. It was then and is m.\v popu- 
larly spoken of as "the little man." 

Another endilum, tln^ figure of .Justice^iu the Court room was saved and at 
times graces histia-iral meetings. Tlie royal C'nat of Arms of Great I^ritain 

' ' fn 't ''^^ '^'^^ 

• t 

K.-: : 

S-' h *■ 

4 '• 

In Prcspcct Hill Cemetery, York, Pa, 

was destroyed. To the ucith of the square on the Spabr corner on North 
George street stood the house of Archibald jNTcLean, which was used as the 
Government Treasury. Its coffers at times were scantily filled. [Michael 
Hillegas had been chosen Treasurer in 177.3 and retained the otTice continu- 
ously until 1789. 

A bell had been jirocured for the use of St. John's Episcopal church in 
1774. The church not yet having a belfry for its accommodation it is re- 
lated that it remained on The pavi'mciit uf ,Tnv(^],h I'pdi-grall:' for a time. 
After the signing uf tlu^ Pfi-laralion of Tiidep.'iidrucf if was placed on the 

a -: 


















L •• -' 

^vf!*-'..-:.^; 1 

>^:,, W 




• ■'? 

IIISTOinC YOh'K. 2-2:i 

Court llmisc by .Ta^lL■^,■ Snntli, AnhibriM ]\IeT.f;ni jiml otlieis to smind the 
poaiis of Indcpondeneo. It was tliis bell that later failed the Congress to 
its deliberations. For )iearly se\"eiity years it toUfij ell the Court hours and 
also announeed tlie {lopular yathorings ot' the day. It also announced the 
hours for worship of St. Julm's Episeoiial eliurdi. Next to the cdd Liberty 
Bell in Independence Hall, it is Ihe inost historic bell in the country. 


TO TIIP: MKMe;l;Y OF TilK IU'X01;A1;1.E 



.UiF.D CV.\ YK\l;S. 









After the destrm-tien of the old (?ourt House in 1S40, it was idainied liy 
St. Jidm 's church and after a tiim:- removed to a belfry that was constructed 
for its use. After a short time i: was cracked and sent to IJaltiiaore to be 
recast. It is (daini»d that its full melodious tone after this became thin 
and changed. Lately, duriuiL,^ ]'.H)L wlien tolled in tncinovy of our martyred 
I'rr<id<4it Mclvinley. it -was i-racki'il from top to bo; turn. 

It Ji'ay be noted in this coniH'i-ricn tliat tie' late President 's aiu-estry were 
nati\t- of this county. They li\cd in Chancef<.ird tew nsiiiji, about twenty 
miles southeast of York. The yreat-great-great-yrand father canie there in 
174.''. Some of the McKinley buildings are still standing. His great-grand- 
father, I)a\id Me-Kinley, was born in in tliis county ae.d was a sohlier 
of llif Revolution, and reinoveil to Ohio and died there in IS-iO. The late 
I'resiileat was presented ^vith the original muster roll of the company of 
which his ancestor was a neuiber, bv Miss t'arr'.e Hay, through Mr. E. W. 

Tho grrwt-grandfailier of Mis< Hay v\:is l/eu enant-Cidonel Jelin Hay, 
who was the roid^'it ollicer of tiie county and preser\i'd among his papers 
the rosters of many York county conipaiues which are in her poss( ssion. 


^-'j HI-: ri:\xsyLiAM.i-<:i:i:MA.\ 

Scvoral iinics I'residpiit .MfKinlcv liml j;;ivli;illy fixid dates {<> visit York 
aiiil the lionies of liis aiuM'st'irs A\lii(h tlif I'xiiicnfit s ut' the time pruveuteil 
liim I'ruin fulfillinj^. 

Ill Center Squjire were eii'i-tcd the jniiitiiiy- pirsscs ln'ou;;hl from I'hila- 
del[ihia for Goveninn iit and l'utd!i- rriutinu ;iiid to rnnvey intelligence of 
the wuik of Congress. Xn iiajitr had vit lucn piinfiMl in the ■,o\vn and none 
was ]>rinted till ]7s7 when a local pajiei- was est:ilili^licd. On these presses 


was printed the Continental nuuiey of the period. Tliey were again removed 
to I'hiladclphia on tlie departure of the Congress. 

Of the inunortal fifiysix signers of the r>eidaration of Independence 
James Smith was from Ytirk. He was liorn in Ireland in 171:'!. He died 
iu York in 1S0(3 at the ailvaneed age of aiiiidy-three years. 

His remains were interred in the First Presliyterian (diureh Imrying ground 
iu York, where a fine monument graces the spot. His house was situated on 
South George street aliove Mason alley, llis law otTice was a two-story 
frame building at the sduthwest angle of the sipiare faring north. I>ike 
Archii.>ald McLean, he generously plaeeil his iifiii-e ;it the disposol of the 
Congi-ess. In the lnwi.r .sinry was ipiartired the l!eai-.l ef War of -.vhich 
John Adams w;is the head, lieing later sucoei^led liy (iate-'. The u[iper story 

in;STOL-IC iuj:k. 


■was used by the Coiiuiiittoo uf Foreign AlT;\us, of v.-hich Paine was secre- 
tary. This builtliiig remained for many years afterwards and was used as 
a tailor shoj) in which it is said that Singer, the inventor of the sewing 
machine, once worked as a jonrneyman taiior. 

James Smith, however, had a later oftice adjoining his home, which was 
destroyed by fire in 1805 and which destroyed many valuable papers of 
family and revolutionary interest. James Smith had a family several mem- 

"^ " •£ 


"^■: ■ 

^;sv . 

^ ^ P 








JAMES SMITH, 1713-180G. 
Signer of Declaration of Independence, 
Long thp only luwyer In Yurk. Af'tively (>fip.)s<(l to tiic oppression of the «rewB. 

A member of CNMigri 

ss (luriiig Us srssioris in York. Buried in First Presbyterlaa borylnj:- 

bers of which siirvived him. These historic buildings and this halloncd 
ground are now invested with new surroundings. The old buildings haT* 
passed away and but few of that period now remain. The York of toda» 
with its suburbs is an elegant town of well on tu 50,000 inhabitants, and \* 
the battle of life the great mul.itude scarce give a thought to "the time* 
that tried men 's souls. ' ' 

However one custom remains whose origin can bo traced to the Tery dawa 
ef Independence. Nowhere else i.'? the din of bomb, rocket and fire work 
more scrupulously emphasized th.nn in this old town. It is a legacy that 
kas been handed down in unlimken seijuence and its origin is uneoasK.ioosV 
OTCrloi.>keil by tlx; gri'at multitude ot actdrs. 

Tiie original streets of Vork were named George, King, Queen, Pri»««9K, 


f THE FKN X S VIA' A X I A-G I-: nil AN 

JMiiliiiU'lpbia. Water ami Tli^'li uv Market — euldiiial iiaiiies wliieh they retain 
to this 'lay. George aiul .Market crusseil at right angles', the former nui- 
niiig ii'irrh ami south, the latter east ami west. These streets were laid out 
eighty f . ft in width and at their intersection four jJo'.s, each sixty-five feet 
square were to be added from the adjoining luts. This area made a large 
s<]uare nf '21*> feet on eai-h side' end]raring alicut an ai/ie. This was named 
Center Square, and later contained the Court Ihuise anil still later, in 1793, 
another Imilding to the east of the C'(Uirt House kuo-\\n as the State House. 
This liuilding was for the use ef the county ollicers. Still later market sheds 
extended xn the west of the Cnnrt House. These market stieds existed long 




.'"tn.iii .S. AV. aii;:lp '<i Ci'iitro SiiiiMve fiicin.: Uiirtii. fsed liy r,'.;irU of \V;u- rtuJ C"ni. 

oil l-'iuci^'n Affaii'! 
as a tail'T. 

xvhi-u C'lii^Tiss UK't in Yuik. ll'.Te .•^U]^;e^, the iiiveiU'T, later worked 

after the former buildings were removo'l. ami it is only Mithiu the last fifteen 
years that they were removed surreptitiously by night. Of this old ^Market 
House, 11. L. Fisher, the PennsAlvania-Oernian poet of York, sings as follows- 

" Es waer ken leichte Sach zu mir 

Wan 's Marik-Haus miisst dort week. 
jNIei Herz hiingt dra, as wie 'n Klett 
Es macht mirh krank, ieh muss ins BettI 

Ich schlupii mirh in 'n Eck I 
O nune sell ^larik-Haus nimmermehr 
Eweck fon sellcm Center-Schf(uare! 

" Sel Schqnare war g 'macht for 'n Marik-Haus nei; 

Der William Penn lu^T 's g'sad. 
Er hot die Insching g'frogd dafor — 
Sie hen 's gegrant forevermore, 

I'n 's n iiss ah nan dnrt sei. 
Was waer 's danii fur 'ii MavJk-Haus Schqnare 
Wan 's net fur sel alt ]Marik-llaus waer?" 

lUSTOlUC YOUK. 2li7 

('tiiter Square is a spot of historic ineniorifs and piciltably no place ol" 
ciptal extent in the country cxceeils it in interest, ft is ti> he ret^rctted tliat 
the materials of is inside history are so scanty, and tliat so many that were 
recorded have throuoji the nmtatinns of time liecn destroyed whether liy 
request or by accident. 

\\'hen the Congress came to Voik A\ith its retinue of followers j^'reat de- 
mands were made upon the resources of the place for (juartering and enter- 
tainment. Almost every jirivate house, if at all suitable, jiresscd into 
the service. The taverns, of which it is reconled that tlicre was a single one 
during the first year of the founding of the town, had incnase<l to as many 
as eighteen as early as 1765. The great number arose from the fact that 
York was situated on the great thoroughfares east and west and north and 
south. Still these taverns were unable to meet the increased demand that 
had so suddenly sjoung up. 

John Adams, Samm'l Adams, Klljridgo ('>erry. I'cnjamin Harris, n, fatlifV 
and great-grandfatiu?r of our later Presidents, Richard Henry Lee, Francis" 
Lightfoot liOe, Henry Laurens and Ivlward Kutledge woio qii;:rtered at the 
largest mansion in the town, ■\\hich had liet-n rented by Cmcral Daniel Kolier- 
dean, who was himself a member of the Congress. This house stood partly 
Avhere the palatial Colonial Hotel now stands on the corner of South George 
street and the square. In his letters to his wife Abigail, John Adams com- 
plained of his hampered and straitened C|uarters, although he admitted that 
he \vas more favorably situateil than many others. He also complained of 
the fare and co(^kery. although ' '' Pennsyh-ania-Dutchdom ' ' has ever lieeu 
considered invulneralile in that ilirection. He commended ;he church-going 
proclivities of the people and alluded to the tenacity with whitdi they clung 
to their language. He lamented their a}iathy and inditTerence to public 
affairs, although York and the county ha<l been foremost in the support of 
men and measures for the Revolution. However in ISOO while President, and 
stop]iing in York, he must have materially changed his opinion judging from 
his address to the inhabitants. 

So much was Washington impressed with the loyalty and public s[iirit of 
the inhabitants of York <_'ount_v, that he is claimed to have recommended 
that the seat of Government be located at Wrightsville on the banks of the 
Susquehanna. This proposition, it is claimed, was lost by a single vote and 
the banks of the Potomac were chosen instead. However, the same claims 
liave been made for Columbia on the opposite liank of the river. 

It is worthy of remark that Wrightsville was the farthest point north and 
east reached by the Confederate forces in ISt!.'!. On this occasion (ieneral 
Early made the Yoik ('ourt House his headquarters, and laid a triljute upon 
the inhabitants. It was believed that the lianks of the Susipiehanna were 
safer as a location for the Capital than other points that had been suggested. 
It was of course unforeseen that an enemy would approach in a reverse di- 
rection almost a century later than when the sites were discussed. 

When the Congress ; d,i(nirned at Lancaster after a single day's session it 
was resolved! '-that th- lixer >hnuld llow between tlieui ;ind the enemy." 
About twcnty-li\e meiabers of the (Auigress came in a body to York. On 


the Siuulay previously tliev atte!i<lo(l the Moravian cluirch in Bethlehem, in 
a body, and next day [inneedcd to Lancaster. Lafayette, \vho had been 
woundeil at lirandywine. ^vas taken to I>ethlelioni for treatment in the car- 
riage of Henry Laurens. 

At the first session of tlie Congress in York there were present the fol- 
lowing niendjers: From New Hampshire, I'olsom; from Massachusetts, Sam- 
uel Adam.s, John Adams, Lovell and Gerry; from Khode Island, Marchant; 
from Coniurticut, I>a\v and \Villiams; from Ne^v York, Duer and Duane; 
from Pennsylvania, Roberdean ; from Maryland, Chau and Carroll; from 
Virginia, Richard Henry Lee, Francis Lightfoot Lee, E. Jones and Benja- 
m'ji Harrison; from Xorlh Carolina, Penn and Harnett; from South Caro- 
lina, Henry T.,aurens, Middleton and Heywood, Jr.; from Georgia, Brown- 
son and Walton. Xew Jersey and Delaware had no representatives present 
at this time. Governeur Morris, from New York; dames Smith, from York, 
Pa.; Robert ^'klorris, from Philadelphia, and others soon joined the number. 

The number of niendjers that was })resent during the stay of the Congress 
varied. Sometimes not more than t'wenty members were present. Forty were 
present when the Artiiles of Confederation were passed. Enthusiasm was 
for a time especially at a low ebb over the country. Disaffections as re- 
gards the conduct of the war had arisen. Going to and from the Congress 
was difficult and laborious in the condition of the country and on account 
of the usual me'.hods of travel. The place was isolated and inaccessible. 
Moreover, that was the rigorous winter that produced the sufferings of 
Valley Forge. 

The old Washington House which preceded the house of the same name, 
which occupied the site where the Small building now stands, quartered a 
number of the members of the Congress. Rev. George Duffield with Rev. 
Mr. (afterwards Bishop) White were chosen chaplains of the Congress. Rev. 
White was entertained by Rev. Kurtz, pastor of Christ Lutheran Church, 
who later entertained other officials. 

Charles Thompson had been chosen secretary by the first Continental Con- 
gress which met in Carpenter's Hall, Philadelphia, September 5, 1774. This 
position he retained in every siicceeding Congress till 17S9, when the Federal 
Constitution was adopted. His last service was to notify General Washington 
of his election to the I'residency, when he declined from any further public 
service. The members of the Continental Congress were chosen by the 
States yearly, and thus the personnel was continually changing. Some of the 
members were re-elected by the colonies. It is interesting to compare the 
names of the Congress that convened at York wi;h the previous Congress 
which met at Philadelphia. 

Prof. George R. Prowell, to whose knowledge and studies we are so greatly 
indebted for the advancement of our local history, has collected the portraits 
of all but four of the forty-one delegates that were here during the sessions 
of the Congress. He has also procured all but six of the engravings or 
etched portraits of the forty-eight nuMubers who signed the Articles of Con- 
federation on meeting at I'liiladeljiliin, July Oth, 177S. 

(To be coutijuied.) 


Pkki.imixakv and Explanatory EE.%rAi;K~^ by the Editor. — 1. Without 
giving this ratlier ourinus yet typical Colonial Pennsylvania-Gerniau Will 
in English, it will help readers to know that "verniaclie" means bequeath; 
"LigeTi'eni und Bewcglieheni Yermogen " is real and personal pro[icrty, 
and "farbigten Bub" is colored boy. 

2. This ^\ill was copied from the original, now in possession of Mr. 
Henry Stum[i, new a resident of Stouehsburg, Berks county Pa., aged S3, 
the great-grandson of the original testator, through Leonhart 's line. 

3. The "hou.'-'c" spoken of in will, where testator lived is still standing, 
and it, v.ith the farm bequeathed to Leonhart, is now the property of Mr. 
Thomas Becker, of Millbach, Lebanon county^ Pa., where estate is located. 

4. Quite a number of present day prominent families of Lebanon and 
Berks counties are connected with original Stump. 

5. The original testator is said to have been a num of remarkable j^hysi- 
cal strength, being over six feet in stature. He accomjiauied Conrad Weiser 
to the Midwinter Indian Conference of the Six Nations in Northern New 

6. The testator was t\vice married and his frequent reference to and 
conditions concerning inheritance of second one, as widow, is noteworthy. 
He had sixteen children in all, several sets bearing same name, and owned 
several colored slaves as per his will. He loft eldest son one shilling as 

7. The second son, Frederick, is doubtless the celebrated founder of 
Fredericksburg, formerly Stumpstown, of Lebanon county, whose question- 
able escapades there made him flee his native heath to appear later in the 
wilds of Tennessee as a notorious pioneer. See former issue of magazine 
containing pilgrimage article "Over an Old State Koad. " 

Copy of the Original 

Im Namen des' Herrn, Amen! 

Heute, den acht und zwanzigsten Tag Februar, im Jahr unsers Herrn, 
ein thauscnd, siel en hundcrt und neun und sechzig, Ich Christopher Stump, 
von Heidelberg Taunsehip, '.m (^'ounty Lancaster, im Staat Pennsylvanien: 
Bauer; der ich zwar gelireddieh krank und schwach l)in ; albein meineu 
vidligen Verstand, Erlnnerungs-Vermrigen, Gediiclitniss und P>eulirthcilungs- 
Kraft nocli ebon so gut wie in nieiiien gfsundeii Tagcu besitze und geniese, 
wofiir ich Gott herzlich danke, dass wir alio storblich sind, dass die Zeit 
unsers Todes ungewiss ist und dass der ^lensch zu jeder Zeit bereit seyn 
solte diese Welt zu \crlassen, mache und erkliire luermit dit^^ Gegenwiirtige 
zu nieincm letztcn Willen und Testament, nllmlich : 

Zum ersten empfelde ich meine unsterbliche Seele der Hand meines Gottes 
zu seiner ewigen Barmherzigkeit, und nieinen Leib der Erde, welche meine 

230 THE rKXySY[J'AMA(ii:HMAX. 

hirrnoch liennlirnto Executoren auf oine Chvistliclio Art uiul so wie es t'iir 
gut befuiulen werdon niiig be<;iabeii liisscn solloii. Es ist inein Wmisrh iind 
Willeii, iind icli bofchlo es- aiich ilass alio iiieiiii' iTcbiii.-isigc Si-luiMrn uml 
Leigen Uiikoston so gesdnviiid als iti'lglirh iui(di nu'imiii Todo l>ezaldt werdeu 

Item. Icdi verinache au nieineu Solin CJeorg Adam Stump die Suniine von 
ein hundert Fund in gangbarem Gelde von PennsylvaiiieUj wekdies er mir 
schuldig i^•t auf ein gewisscs Land — besagtes Laud soil ihm iibcrgebeu weid- 
en in foil, fiir seine Krbsciuift— beides voni Beweglidien und vom Liegenten 
VermOgen, moiiu'S — Fcrner liale ii-h nocli eiu Land in Ijesitz nelcdies ersagter 
Georg Adam Stnmii zu bezahlto hat, welches Land fiiifzig I'fuud ist, versag- 
ter Georg Adam Stumii soil die Summe zu meinen Kxeeutoren fiber bozahlen. 
Und ferner vermauhe ie-h noih an meinen Sohu Georg Adam die Sunune von 
einem Schilling Sterling, und nicht mehr, fiir sein erstgeburts-Kecht mit dem 
obengemelteten Lande von ein hundert Pfund. — Item. Ich vermache an 
meinen Sohn Friedricdi Stump ein gewisses Laud von achzig Pfund, welches 
er an mich zu bczahlen hat. Ich befolimachtige meine Executoren besagtes 
Land an Friedrich Stump in fell zu iiberreicheu fiir seine Erbschaft vom 
Ligenten und vom Beweglichen Verun-geu. und nicht mehr. — Item. Ich ver- 
mache an meinen Sohn Georg Stump, die Suninie von Sicbenzig I'und gang- 
bares Geld von Peunsylvanien und nicht mehr, in foil fiir seine Erljschaft 
beydes vom Ligendcn und von Beweglichen Vernu'igen, daher autorisire ich 
meine Executoren zu erst abrechlen von besagtem Lande solche Summe 
welche er mir scliuMig is^, und iiberbluph ihm Georg bezalilen in ZAvey 
Jahreu nach meinem Tode. — Item. Es ist mein Wunsch und Willen und ich 
befehle es dass meine Executoren, dass sie an die Representauten des verstor- 
benen meinen Sohn Christo[>her Stump bezahleu sollen die Summe von 
Zehen Pfund, Geld wie oben gemeltet, und nicht mehr fiir seine oder ihreu 
Erbschaft, beydes vom Ligemlen und Beweglichem Vermilgen sogliec-h wenn 
es gefordert wird. — Item. Ich vermache an meine Tcciiter Maria die Frau 
von Johannes Schener, die Summe von fiinfzig Pfund. wie schou gemelteu 
in gutem Gelte, fiir ihr thell, beydes von Ligendem und vom Beweglichem 
Vermogen. Ich befolimachtige meine Executoren ihrer. der ^Maria, das ab- 
zuziehen von den fiinfzig Pfund was ihren ]\Luin, Johannes Schener mir 
schuldig ist, und dass iibrige sollen sie ihr bezahleu zwey Jahre nacli meinem 
Tode. — Item. Ich vermache an meine Toditer Susanna, die Frau \(Hi Jidm 
Leineweber ilie Summe von fiinfzig Pt'uud, Geld ^vie schon gemeltet. uad 
nicht mehr, in f* II fiir ihr thcil von meinem IJeweglichem und vuu dem 
Ligenden ■Vernii'gen, und dass soil ilir Erbschft wirdeu, in einem Jaiir nadi 
meinem Tode. — Item. Ich vermache an meine Tochter ^Lirgaret, die Frau 
von Luduick Maris, die Summe von fiinfzig Pfund, Geld wie schon gemeltet, 
und niclit mehr in foil fiir ihr theil, beydes von dem Beweglichem und dem 
Ligentem Yermi>gen, welche Summe ihr bezahlt werdeu soil in einem Jalir 
nach meinem Tode. — Item. Idi vernmche an meine Kepresentau'en von mein- 
er verstorbene Tochter Catharina, letzthin die Frau von Georg Adam Bush. 
die summe von eint^n Schilling Sterling, und nicht nudir. in foil, fiir ihr 
theil, beydes vein Ligentem und vom Beweglichem Vcvnii'igen, welche Simime 


ilir bozalilt wordeu soil zu cinigeii Zeit iiadi iiiciiKin Toile. — Itciii. \<\\ \ er- 
jnache an meiiien Snhn Henry Stiinij), <\iv Suiiuiio \ on cin hnmltii I'fiunl, 
wie sehon gonielfot, wek'ho Suirnic <r mir auf ein gcwissos Land •<c!i!iMitr ist, 
M-ck-hcs l>and iliin, doni l;esa^;ti'in llcnrv Stump in voll iiberreu lit'ju soli 
fvir sein theil, beydc^ vom Liji;entcni nnd xnm P.e\vogli(dieni A'ernir'i;(.ii. I'crnur 
habe ich nocli cin Land in Besitz von fiint'zioj Pfund von dfiu t r~atiteni 
Henry Stump, welclies cr an nieine Exf^iutoren bezahbMi soil. — Itcni. Trh ver- 
mache an nieine To( liter, Maydalmo, di*^ Fran von \Villiani Fivnuv, die 
Summe von fiinfzig Pfuud, Geld wie s<dion gemeltet, und nielit nieiir. fiir 
ihr theil vom Ligenten und vom Beweglicdien Vermrigen. Ich bet'oUmaohtige 
meine Executoren von besagten fiinfzig Pfund abzuziehen solehe Suninie ilie 
sie niir sc-huldig siiid, und das iilirige soil ihr liezahlt ^verden in e;neiii Jahr 
naeh nieineni Tode. — Item. Teh vermarhe an meiue Torhter Susanna Stumi>, die 
Sunime von fiinfzig Pfund, deld wie sehon genultet, und ni<_dit mehv, in voll 
fiir ihr theil, beydes Ligentem und Bewegliehein Verinr>gen, ^veh-ht > ihr be- 
zahlet T^erden soil in eiuem Jahr naeh meinem Tode.- — Es ist niein Wille das 
alles was ich oTien an nieine Kinder Kepresentauten vermacht hal'e, dass sie 
alles richtig empfangen sollen durch nieine Exfcut( ren was iluien zu ge- 
scrieben ist, und Keinen weiteren ansprucli soil mohr von ihnen geniaelit 
werdeu. — Und was die Kinder mhi meiner jetzigen Frau anbetieten. zii 
denen vermaehe ich wie folgt, niimlich : Itoni. I(.h vcnnaciie an nieine Toeh- 
ter Catharina, die Frau von Leonhart Strickler, die Sunime von fiinfzig 
Pfund, (_!eld \\ ie s(dion gemeltet ; diese fiinfzig Pfund ist ersagier Leonhart 
Strickler niir auf ein Land schuldig, welches ihm tibergeben weiden soil, 
fiir ihr theil von meinem Ligenten und Beweglichen Vermogen. — Item. Ich 
vemiache an meiue Tochter Julianna Stump die Summe von fiinfzig Pfund, 
Geld wie Schon gemeltet, in voll fiir ihr theil vou meinem Ligenten Ver- 
miigen welches ihr bezalilt werden soil, ein Jahr naeh meinem Tode. — Item. 
Ich vermaehe meine Tochter Margaret Stump die Summe von fiinfzig Pfund, 
Geld wie schon gemeltet, in voll, fiir ihr Uieil von meinem Ligend<Mii Ver- 
miigen, welches ihr Viezahlt werden soil, sobald als sie ihre geherige Aelte 
erreicht. — Und ich befollnuichtige nieine Fxecutoren zu bezahltu die ver- 
schieden hierin angefiilirten Legacies, ich thu daher sie bevolliniichtigen in 
voll, meine ersagte Execntoren und die nachfolger ihrer, zu verkauftn meiue 
Stone Messuage und Lotte Grund, gelegen in Reading, im County Berks, so 
geschwind als es schicklich s'eyn inag, naeh meinem Tode, fiir den besTen 
Preiss. Daher authorisire iih nieine Executoren, oder die naclif"ilgrr ihrer, 
fiir besagtes Verniiigen eineu Died an den Kaiifinaa zu geben. — Jtom. Ich ver- 
maehe meine ganxe Plantasclie ^\■o^auf itdi jetzt wohne in Heideliicrg Taun- 
schip, euthiilt ungefiihr zwey iiundort und siehr-nzig Aker, an Miciia' zwey 
Sohne, namli(di Ijconhart Stump und < 'liristoplan' Stump, und zu ihicr IIeir3 
und Assigns fiir iinnier. Dies ist zu sagen, der ober.ste theil oder das siedKclie 
theil, der eine theil davon, so wie es jetzt vertheilt is"", das vermaehe ich an 
Leonhart Stump, oder an seine Heirs und Assigns fiir immor, auf ilie Be- 
dingunen dass besagter Let iihart Stumi), rauszugeben hat an meine Execu- 
toren ein hundert Pfund. also soil liOonhart Stuni[i mit Idlfe seines Bruter 
Ghristoj'her Stemp. nndner hiriN-rbleitu-ner W'ltwe Margaret eine hiidanglich 


Wdlimiiig U'lrtc-lial't'ii. so hni;^ als :sie iiieiiie Wittwo bleibt. iind nicht llinc^er. — 
Obiges Stick Land ?oll dnlicr das Eigenthuni v< n I-eonhart Stump soyn^ in 
vol! fiir soin tlieii von mcinoin Ligeiitf-ni Vtinir.f^eii.- Item, fch vcnnaclie 
an mciiicn ersag;ten Sohn C'liristojili^r Stump der untcrsfe tlioii. odcr der 
Durthlicdie 'Jieil, dos obengemclteten Lnndos — die eiiie liiilfte wio es jctzt 
vertheilt ist, das soil er balteu als seln Ei;^enthum, ersagter Christopher 
Stump, oder seine Heirs und Assions, fiU' iir.nier; auf \\el<dies Land er niclits 
rauszugeben hat, nur dass er mit hilt'e seines P>rnders Leoidiart Stump meiner 
bintcrblcibeutn eine hinlilni,diche Wchnunij versrliatTen soil, so lang dass sie 
meine Wittwe bbibt und nieli liinger; welches Stiik Land er haben soil fiir 
sein theil von nieiuem Ligen em Vernnigen. — Item. Ich vermaclie an meinen 
Solm Michael Stumj) zwey hundert und fiinfzig Aker, Patent iertes Land, 
gelegen iiber dem Blauen Berg in Berks County, an ^hiehanoy Creek, -uelches 
ersagter Michael Stump halten soil fiir sein Eigeuthum, oder seine Heirs, 
Assigns fiir inimer, frey ohne etwas rauszugebcii fiir besagtes Stiik 
Land in foil fiir sein theil von meiiicm Ligcutem Vernuigec. — 
Und im fall einor von denen ol>en gemelteteu von meinen Sohne, 
njinilich, LtXinhart, Cliris o]dier und Leoiduirt, sferbeu sollten ehe 
sie ihre Aelte erreichen sollte, olme Erbcn. daun sollen die Xachfolgei 
ihrer, die Heirs und Assigns, sein vorbesagtes Land, und die ersagten Nach- 
folger sollen berechtigt an Leonhart Strickler fiinfzig Aker Land abmessen 
von dem an welchem ich jetzt welme greuzent an Land von Le>.uhart Strick- 
letj George Holstein und Michael Miller, un an ersagten Leouhart Strickler, 
oder an seine Heirs und Assigns eineu guten Diet zu geben, fiir immer. — 
Ich authorisire dalier n;e:ne Executoren, oder ihre Heirs und Assigns, solche 
Dieds, oder Conveyances, das hinl.'inglich seyn wird, naih meiner Meinung 
Willen und letzten Testan^.ents, zu machon und zu geben. Also vermache ich 
noch an meinen Suhn Leonhart Stumpy meiu farbigten Bub namens John, 
und an mein Srhn Cliristopher Stum[> mein farliigteu Bub Adam, welche 
Niiger meine Siihne s<dlen i^aben wenn sie Besitz nehmen von ihrem Lande, 
wenn sie einst ihre gelierige Aelte erriechen. — Ich vermache an meine Wittwe 
Margarette, das viUlige dritte Theil von allem bein Vermiigen, (ausgenommen 
die Sclmartzen") und befehle sogbeeh das meine Wittwe alles unter ihren 
Conimaiulo haben soil, das ist zu sagen, die ganze Bauerey, imd dieselben fort 
treiben mit hiilfe ihren Sr.hne, l)is T^^onhart und Christopher iiire Aelte er- 
reichen, und voin Profitt uml Einkmnrien soil sie ihre Kinder aufziehen, 
Schulden lassen ohne eine Anfor crung dafi'r zu machon. — I'nd nachdeni 
mein Jiingstes Kind auf Aelt ist, dann soil meine I'ersonal Estate vertheilt 
werden zwischen mciniMi scchs jiingsten Kindern, in gleichen theilen, zuerst 
muss aber der "Witfrau ihr trittel weggen(!nimea werden. — Ferner befehle ich 
noch das meine Wittwe Margaretta ihren S'.tz' haben soil auf der Planta- 
schen wo i<h jetzt wohne, und audi in demsclben Hans. Und sobald als 
meiuo Siihne Leonhait und Christoidier Besitz nehmen von der Plaatasche, 
sollen sie meiner Wittwe eine Wohnung vcrscliatTen, so lang das sie meine 
Wittwe bleibet nnd nich liinger. — SoUte sic, meine Wittwe, aber hieralhen, 
dann soil sie das tritte von aeiiiem Personal Vcrmiigen empfangen und nicht 
niehr, und soil sogliedi ihre Wohnung. Hans und P.auerev verlassen. — Und 



ziini Ictzten evwalilc i'.li iiieino Exeeiitorcii, 11,'iiiilicli, Leoiiliart Strickler und 
Geo. Smith in diesem mcinem letzteu Willon und Tostanieiir, und cnviihle 
sogleieh aueh Lconliardt Strickler gurdian i'djor meine Kinder. — Rczcicrt das 
dies inein Ictzter Willen und Testament ist — zuni Zeugniss dessen habo dieses 
Testament eigenhiindig unterscdirieben und derselben Signal beygefiigt, im 
Jahr wio oben gemeltet. 


Signed, sealed, published and declared \ j^- 

by the said testator as his last will and I John < ]Myfr 

testament iu the presence of us the sub- ' v,,„,.i- 

scribers. P. S. — The part on the first ) j^j^ 

side where the testator bequeaths to \ Hfnry x Mvei: 

Susanna, the wife of Lineaweber, being j nnrk 

first en razed. / 


The word genealogy is derived from two CI reek words: one signifying 
birtli, race, descent or family; the other a saying, word or account. 

Hcucej genealogy, in general, is an account of the descent or family of 
a person or persons. The subject is commonly treated under three headings: 
(1) Biblical, (2) Classical, and (3) Modern Genealogy. 

(1) The genealogies of the Bible are in a number of instances merely 
classified registers of the people according to "houses,'' "families." and 
"tribes." Other instances seem to show a classification of nations or races. 
Even the genealogies beginning wih Aliraham and that of tlio house of 
David are differently viewed by historians and critics; some treating the 
names as these of persons, and others regarding many of the names as those 
of tribes or nations. A peculiarity iu biblical genealogies is the symmetry of 
numbers, the names being giv^u in series of seven, ten or three. 

(2) Classical genealogy relaes to the remarkable pedigrees of gods and 
sons of gods iu classical literature, and also to the lines of descent of the 
ancient Greeks and Ronuins. It is enough to state that most of these gene- 
alogical accounts are mythical or altogether umvlialile. :\[any of the Greeks 
traced their ancestry through a great hero to som.' deity. The genealogies 
of the Romans are, however, more trustworthy. 

(3) Modern genealogy is a tabulated anil, as far as possible, complete 
statement or account of a series of generations coming down from the first 
known ancestor. It possibly had its origin iu the aristocracies of modern 
Europe, wheie the principles of "hereditary privilege" made it necessary to 
determine with accuracy who were and who were not entitled by birth to hold 
the higli offices of state or to engage in certain privilegeil pursuits of life. 

Very few genealogic • can go back of Hic year lO-'O A. D. At that time 
began the custom of u^ing surnames or family nanu^s. l^ut it was not until 


tliL- l-llli t'ontiirv tliat llio iisi> of surnaiiics ln'caiuo j^encral. }foiu-o it is not 
surprising to Ic-irn tliat in tlio tracing of ancestry licyond that period, much 
of it is based on conjecture and imagination. 

Therefore in genealogical researcli, two esseir.ials nius't be kejit in mind. 
The first of ttiese is tlie surname or family name. This often \aries in form 
and ortiiography, e^"en in rei-onls of the same jieriod of time, and occasionally 
is com})lete!y changed in succeeding generations. 

Autlientic rec(.)rds or doc-uments are the second essential, and are. no less 
important tlian the first, ^\'llere authentii' d( cuments are wanting, it is 
hardly possible to luiild a complete and acnirate family-tree of the last four 
generations met with in a person 's life time. 

Tradition an<l hearsay are to be tolerated only when ccmfirmed by 
authentic records. 

Records of this kind may be classified as follows: (1) Otiicial dec-nments, 
such as ^\ills, land grants, deeds, assessment anil tax lists, agreements, court 
records and the like. {'!) Church records. su(di as records of births, bap- 
tisms, marriages and deaths; lis's of comnuuiicant memliers, etc. (3) In- 
scriptions as found on tombstones, monuments, etc. (4) Private records, 
such as private family accounts of births^ baptisms and ileatlis; diaries, cor- 
respondence, etc. 

Amcng 'ihe very early ihicuments, classed as authentic, to be found iu 
England, are the Doomsday books, (the " Exrhequer Doomsday" having 
been completed about lOSG), registers, calendars, chroni(des of various mon- 
asteries, title deeds, charter rolls, ti urnaiuent rolls, and eoats of arms. On 
the continent of Europe soir.invhat similar domnients exist, l.:ut, as a rule, 
are not as accessible as those of Englaml. Of coui'se, a number of these are 
of benefit principally to the nobility of Europe and to the descendants of 
titled ancestors; and. in this country, apply cliietly to those early American 
settlers who descended from seme old or distinguished European family. 

It is a remarkable coincidence that when America was being discovered 
and explored, the subject of genealogy began to be thoroughly investigated, 
and the first tolerably accurate genealogical publications appeared. At first 
the works on genealogy relateil to rulers, as kings, princes, etc., and to the 
foremost families of "noble birth." Afterwanls all families of "noble 
blood" as well as those that attaiTied to social or political distinction, MertJ 
treated by genealogists. But it is only witliiii a very recent period that at- 
tempts ha\e been made to trace the ancestry of the common people— the 
farmers, the mt>cluuucs, the jirofessional men. the business men, and the 
laboring niiMi in gmnral, — among whom is to be found the really noble 
blood of our great Keiiublic. 

As an aid to genealogical researidi in our country a number of hislorical 
and genealogical societies iiave been formed. One of these, "The New 
England Historical ami Genealogical Society," has done muidi towards the 
compilation and preservation of the genealogies of the principal families 
of New England. 

"The Pcnnsyl\aiiia-(.!erman Society" is n(d)ly doing and encouraging a 
similar \\ork in t'le case of the rennsvlvania-Germans, the great frontiers- 


men of Pounsylvaiiia civilization, who received the treacliercms blow of tlie 
Indian 's tonialiavvk so tliat the lustoriau can record the fact that the Indians 
never shed a drop of Quaker lileod. For let it lie reniend)ered that these 
thrifty, sturdy Peniisylvania-tiernians. v\ho se'.tled around the Quakers, made 
possible the beautiful fact of the Ijloodless Quaker-Indian verbal agreement. 

County and loc;il historical societies are also rendering great service iu 
this direction. 

A number of books have been published on the subject of American gene- 
alogy. Among them may be mem, ioned Ilolgate's American Genealogy, 
Whitmore's American (a^ncalogy, and Webster's Genealogy; also Dr. Eglo's 
Notes ami Queries, comprising twelve volumes of historical, reminiscent and 
genealogieal information relating chiefly to the southeastern fourth of Penn- 
sylvania, as be.aring uiicn the Sco'.cii-Irish and German settlers and their 
descendants. There are also a few local newspapers devoting a column or 
two to the worthy (dijtvt of gathering and preserving historieal and gene- 
alogical material. It is to be regretted that many more are not engaged iu 
this praiseworthy and noble cause. Every county should have a [laper of 
this kind. 

In regard to the Pennsylvania-Germans, the early records are generally 
very meagre; and that is jiroliably one reason why so lifle has been done 
in the direction of preserving family genealogies. However, it is not too 
late for every one to lend a helping hand and to do as much as time and 
means will {x-rmit. It is really a pleasant du'y we owe to the memory of a 
patient, revered and pious ancestry; and if we care anything for our fore- 
fathers who patiently braved the trials and hardships of the wilderness and 
who fitted up homes in the forests, meadows, hills ami valleys so that their 
descendants can live in peace and security, the gathering and preserving of 
\Vhat records there are, is a matter worthy of our most earnest and fdial con- 
sideration. T^r. A. Grlber. 

Washington, D. C., July, 1902. 


Noble Appeal of J. Barnitz Bacon, Asking for the Repeai of the Ordinance Relative to the 
Extension of a Street Through the Hallowed Spot— Important Facts of History 

Note 1!> of the "Spangler Annals." From the People's Advocate (York) 
PVbruary 21, 1>!.3-L 
"The project of opening a new street through the cemetery attached to 
Trinity Uiurch, New York, and the consequent disturbance 'of the dead, 
has sent a shudder through the entire country. All are interested in pre- 
.serving the graves of kindred and friends inviolate. The following ap- 
peal to the Common Council of New York City was published in the'^New 
York Herald, and was written by .Jacol) P.. P>:"icon, Esq., a son of the late 
Kev. 8anuiel Bacon, of tliis placr, nud a grandson of the late .lacob Barnitz, 
Esq. Ir possesses consideral.le ln,-al interest, and is worthy of perusal; 


* To tlio lluiioialjlf, tlie ('i;niniun CuuiiL-il cf tiio City of New York: 

The unik'isi^ned respeirtt'iilly joins in tlio prayer ot' many of liis follow - 
citizens to your lumorable body, askino; for the repeal ef tlie ordiiianee of 
the late Crnnnon CoiUKil relative to the extension of Aliiany street tlirough 
Trinity Chiirehyanl. 

In support of his' juisition, the undersigned begs leave to present the 
following facts ci nnected ■\\itli our Kevolutionary liistory: 

Among the earliest of the patriotic siurits who marclied from their homes 
to defend tlie City of New York against the armies of Great Britain in 
177G, were the regiments contrJi>uted liy tlie counties of York anil lianeaster. 
in Pennsylvania. They were composed entirely of' young men, tlie majoritv 
of them of German descent, and animated by that hatred of oppression and 
enihusiasm in the cause of freedom, uhich distinguish their race at the 
present day. 

Five regiments marched from the county of York to New Jersey, in Julv. 
1776, and of thc^se two were detached to form part of the " tlying camp" 
— a corps of lO.UOO men, voted by Congress on June o, 1776. These two 
regiments were stationed in the vicinity of the ('ity of New York. A por- 
tion of them were killed or taken prisoners at the battle of Brooklvu Heights, 
and the balance either fell on the field of battle at the taking of Fort 
^Vashington, on the 16th of Xnvember, 1776. or were oajdured on that dis- 
astrous occasnon, and marched down to the city. Here thev. in common 
with thousands of their fellow-j>atriots, sutfered unheard of cruedties in 
the prisons and sugar bouses of Xe\Y York. 

The regiment of Colonel Michael Swoupe, cunsisting of eight companies, 
suffered severely at I'ort Washington. Death on the field or by wounds, or 
from horrors of the prisons, left but few to return to the green hills of 
the Codorus. 

Ensign and Adjutant Barnitz of this regiment, tluii but eighteen years 
old, fell at Fort Washington with a muske^t bullet in each leg. Being carried 
to the city prisons with the survivors of his regiment, he was soon after- 
ward removed to comfortable quarters in the old house fornierlv standing 
at Xo. 9 Bowery, in consecjuence of the severity of his wounds, and at the 
intercession of an old family friend — i\[ajor General William Alexander, 
Lord Stirling, who was then also a prisoner, having been shortly before 
captured on Long Island. Adjutant Barnitz here lay with unhealed wounds 
for fifteen months; bur during that time he was not insensible to the srill 
greater su ft" erings of his companions- in arms and with the help of the 
noble-hearted, otlicer just mentioned, he was enabled to alleviate their cap- 
tivity and to care for their remains when dead, 
_ Being generally of the Lutheran faith, the grav.-yard of that denomina- 
tion, adjoining the Trinity Church (subsequently the site of Grace Church) 
would liave lieen their ai.propriate Inirying phu-e, but the church had been 
destroyed in the cenflagration which occurred shortly after the occupation 
of the city by the British army, ami the burial ground was unprotected. 

A successful effort was therefore made to olitain a place of sejuilture in 
Trinity Churchyard. Adjutant Barnitz was attached to Captain Christian 
Stake's company, of Swoope's ReginuMit, composed of young men of the 
best families of the town of York. To these more particularh% as being his 
more immediate comrades, such care as he could afl'ord was given. 

^Of this company tji,- t\.!l,.uing were brri^d in The northwt'stern portion 
of the grounds, at that time bordering on the water, viz: Sen'-eant Peter 


llaak; Hei-geaiit Juhii Jlieks, Privates ]lu;^li Doliliins, l[onrv lloft', David 
Parker, anJ probably one or two others'. Captain M 'Carter, (of Colonel 
KicharJ M'AUister's Ileyimeiit, I'roiii the samo county), i.liei.1 of woumls 
received at Fort Wasliington, and was ah^o buried at Trinity gra\eyard. 
■ It may be proper to state that these facts are derived partly from the 
History of the County of York, by A. J. Clossbreuner, Esq., (now Sergeant- 
at-Arms of the House of Keprescntalives of the United States) and partly 
from the papers and reminiscences of the old veterans who, in the winter, 
were wont to relate the stores of their battles, and each "to shoulder bis 
staff and show how fields were won. ' ' 

To the soldier, the last resting place of his comrade is conseerated by the 
memory of the trials, the conflicts, the sacrifices, and the sufl'erings which 
they have, shoulder to shoulder, encountered. lie feels that his honor rests 
by that mound of earth, and must guard it from violation while life shall 
last. He bequeaths its care to his countrymen as a place of sacred mem- 
ories, and never for a moment dreams that future years may bring spoilers 
of the tomb, who will forget their duty to the blood which cemented the 
foundations of the republic. 

The Mexican war was jirolillc in instances where those who fell were ex- 
humed by cammittees sent by their surviving comrades, and reireiveil a 
soldier's burial at home. 

Permit me to relate a fact in this connection: 

At the call for volunteers for the ^Mexican War, William Eurich marched 
with his company from the town of York, and joined the Pennsylvania 
regiment. In the battle Avhich occurred before the walls of Puebla, Eurich, 
■with others of his comiiany, having charged close up to the Mexican lines, 
saw his friend and comrade shot dead l>y his side. A superior force com- 
pelled them to retreat, but Eurich paused, and shouldering his friend's body, 
was bearing it off to a place of safe sepulture, when a ball struck him, and 
the brave fellow sank in death by the body of his much loved friend. Eurich 
was a grandson of ^lichael Eurich, one of the captured soldiers of Fort 

Shall the stern heart and rough nature of a soldier beat with so hallowed 

a feeling, and shall the citizen, the merchant, and the legislator-repudiate it? 

Shall it be said that the city of New York desecrates the graves of lier 

defenders, ami, at the biddin;; of the money god, scatter to the winds the 

ashes of the soldiers of liberty? 

These patriot soldiers who now repose in the churchyard of Trinity, died 
far from friends and home. They laid down their lives in their youth. 
They left no sons to speak for them. Their silent dust cannot plead to 
you for rest. 

It therefore becomes my duty and privilege to aihlress you. 
I was born where they were born. Tlieir friends were my friends, and 
my early days were familiar with the green hills which they last looked 
upon when they marched to defend your city. 

My earnest petition to tiie Common Co lueil of the City of New York is, 
that the remains of those martyrs of our independence may be left in peace 
in the graves where their comrades laid them. Respectfully, 

J. Barxitz Bacox. 





The Spengler Families. 


11.50— 1S96. 

This is a vdluniinous work on the annals 
of the fdur Spengler families, whose an- 
cestors, ('asper. Henry, Baltzer an.l 
George, settled in York ouiintv. Pa., re- 
spectively in 1729, 1732, 1732 and 1751. We have seen many familv histories. 
bnt never any one that excels this in completeness of research, scope of in- 
vestigation, clearness of presentation and medianical attrac iveness of publi- 
cation. To an outsider it seems to lack nodiing. Its author has gone awav 
hack to tirst souvet-s and traced the geneahigi^al streandK from its (iernuin 
springs to tiie present sweeping American ricer. recpiiring a i-onderous quarto 
of many pages to give it only a fair outline sounding. When we look at the 
<^normous work it must have involved, we wonder that its author is not an 
incurable insalid or hopelessly insane instead of the burlv, able-bodied 
poised and brilliant lawyer that daily helps to ad.l to tlie Vencwn of ;he' York 
bar. But if the Spengler descen.jants in all parts of America do net n<.w 
patronize his successful efforts and hereafter ercx-t a memorial to his honor 
on one of the most conspicuous spots of "Little York," thev should be 
disinherited of their share of the glory of tlieir fair familv name and ban- 
ished back to Germany. Talk about price! Five dollars "is a pittance for 
such a work! Twenty tinu^s live, every worthy and able-bodie.l son of this 
stock should be willing to pay to preserve such invaluable annals and to have 
been saved the Herculean task of gathering, arranging and composin.^ the 
naterial himself. Better, and more valuable than a grandfather's clock or 
any other heirloom that might have descended from one of these pioneer an- 
cestors, must prove a copy of this book, wherever tlie present and comin^ 
generations n-ay take up their abode. The book contains about 1^5 
Illustrations. an,l is well indexed genealogically and historicallv. Besides 
2.32 large quarto pages devoted to family historv. with complete tables of 
descendants, intermarriages, etc., etc.. almost 4n0 more pages are .levoted 
to historical niemorabilia covering mostly their American historv and con- 
temporaneous local events about York, of the most intense interest and of 
unt.dd value to ;he historian. The first e-lition being exhausted, a new edi- 
tion is now ready and copies may be had for $.1, from the author Edw W 
Spangler, Esq., of A'ork, Pa. 

This is the latest issue of the Lutheran Hand 
Book Scries, published by the Lutheran Pub- 
lication Society of Philadelphia, one of the 
"lost e.xcellent conceptions of this Board of 
Publication. The vohnnes are, printing neat, themes tlie biographical 
cornerstones of the Lutheran Church, and treatn.ent concise vet intensely 
clear and intorcsting. This last number cculd not be ex-^cllod, its aiith.^r- 
ship having b.-n committal into most excellent ha.,,1.. Dr Prick Ins ^i 
Strong, clei.r and graphic style, a vivid nnagi„i,t.on, an enthusiastic love for 
his Church and was in possession of a fount of original information to draw 

Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, 

KEV. Wit. K. FRRK. D.D. 



that make, the .ul,,.,.t hve over again his ..ventful a,„l .,u-eessful life. We 

read u, h.s "..har.e," and .j.,nrnev with l„n, tile .UnL 
sea and , .-,.,. ,„. n,any and l.,n^ tnps through ]>..nn V fo.vs s an,l h.vond in 
the .lantmg and eare uf the Anuriean Lnth-ran Chnr.l,. Wo si-d, for hin, 
^n us earlier dise.n.ragen.ent. l.nt adn.ire his .eal. . ,sd.,n,; p^Uiln^ !;:; 
piety „u,re than ever, as through this • • Wiuduw in Thrnnus" ^ve get a rdearer 
Vis..,n ot h:s noMe s.ul. Every Pennsyhania-Gernnn. interested in the c.d- h,s;ury ot ,.ur State, every student „f our early .-ivil and e,-,desiasti,>al 
cTT T v''"'-':'"^' "'"'>- -^'-"■'•i-- ra,tl,eran, young or ohl, English. 
Cernian. Scandinavian. Danisl,, Swede er Dut.d,. sluudd read this book If 
our young novel r-aders would lay aside nine-ten.hs of the trash now oflered 

guate t aetors they and our country would he the beter for it. Pp "oo- 
40 cents. Lutheran Publication S, ciety. 14.'4 Arch St., Piiiladelphia ' 

"Drauss un Deheeni." ^'"'^ <-ollection of iMienis ia the Pennsyl- 

POEMSix FKX.vsYLVAXiA-nEiarAx, ^^''^i'Y^'^'i'"''""' dialect takes its tille from 
BY CHARLts c. ziKGLKTi. ^'"^ ^''^^ ^"'' included, wiiii-ji we give in 

nnnv re-nl.r^ 1 r i • " ^'"^^i'- Oeins" of tiiis munber. Doubtless 

tionie \un Erush Galley," Center countv, Pa f„r St louis AFn Ti 

ooklet is beautifully printed and bound by a E^ipslg fin,! ^ ^vi^te, ^ 
189^, and contains quite an array of ,neritori„us original etlusi,!ns. ^gc !,^ ■ 
^ th a number ot translaticm. from tl>e choice lyrics of Longfellow and 
B ant. It contains 31 small quarto pages and. while price i: not given 
.lls^f. a^ut 30 cents by the author. Care of Americal. Brake Con:ir; 

Luther, Zinzendorf, Wesley "^'"^ brochure is the outcome of a paper by 

BY ' 'he author, read before the York Ministerial 

KEV. p. AXSTADT. D.D. Association, being an account of the eonver- 

„,.. T> . ^ ^^°" ^^ •"^•^'"1 Weslev througli hearing I uth- 

po ", ;"1 , r"""",' """" "" "" •'"'■"""-■ "' I'-'l-'-a.ion, with 

Schlaraffiode. ^.^'^^ '^ ^ eoUection of tierman p(,c„is of some imagina- 

vox *';'^ =^"'^ I'lunorous writer, whose nom-,1e-[,lume is here 

HiE.VRius AXTHUoros ■^'^'*'"- '"^'^ ^^''"' ""'^^'i" ^''^^ i^arb of :\[eister Urian and 

destinvof H,. n ^^''' "^^^^"^'''^ I'-'T^^e of discovering origin and 

o± Lazybones, uhose wisdom he sutlers himself to hear, but burlesques it 
ami .n irectly, much of the spurious philosophy of the dav. in a verv i ' 
oal and way. This ,ourney is made in nin. "stages .o^^r^ by 
so many cnapters. ^^idch makes a booklet rf -•> , i' '"^^'' ^^ 

-^ ^ 


-^ -^ 

Tlie initial miiiiber of the The New lira for Deconibcrj (the excellent il- 
lustrated monthly published by Henry T. Coates & Co., Philadclpliia) opens 
with a copiously illustrated article on suniniering in winter, that brings our 
own Southland with its' continental and island ports and domestic life so 
vividly before ils readers that one is tempted to run away from his winter 
work in the north and bask in the cheering sunlight and play in the lazy 
sands of these Southern climes. The number is chuck full of iu'.erest and the 
magazine is getting better than ever. 

Miss Maude Roosevelt offers three very valid claims to attention this 
month. Slie is, first of all, a cousin of the I'resident, and has won repute 
as an able actress; secondly, she may sign lierself liy the sounding German 
title — Baroness Mumm von Schwar/.enstein, and lastly, she has written as 
takable a society novel as any of recent years. The novel is called "The 
Price of Fame,'' ;\ud appears' in full in the December — Christmas- — number 
of Lippincott 's Magazine. 

Christmas thoughts dwell on hearty fare, and hence there will be many 
readers of Mrs. E. S. Bladen 's toothsome paper on * ' Dinners of Fifty Years 
Ago" in the December Lippincott. 

The Comtaxion 's Christmas Packet.— Can you think of a gift more 
certain to be accei)table than a year's subscription to The Youth's Com- 
panion? Is there any one, young or old, who, having once had the paper in 
his hands and lookevl through it. did not wish to possess it for his very own? 
It is a gift which, far from losing its freshness as Christmas recedes into the 
past, grows more delightful, more necessary to one's enjoyment week by 
week. If you wish to make a Christmas present of The Youth 's Companion, 
send the publishers the name and address of the person to whom you wish 
to give The Companion, with $1.75, the annual subscription price. They 
V ill send to the address named The Companion 's Christmas Packet, all ready 
for Christmas morning, containing the Christmas number, The Companion 
Calendar for 1903, lithographed in twelve colors and gold, and subscription 
certificate for the fifty-two issues of 1903. Full illustrated announcement of 
the new volume for 1903 will be sent witli sample copies of the paper to any 
address free. The Youth's Companion, 141: Berkeley street, Boston, MasB. 

■■"■-J v.,< 

Eev. Paul Ileukel. 

241, 242 

Famous Pennsylvania-Germans 

Eev. Gerhart Henkel 243 

Leorihardt Eieth 253 

Poetic Gems 258 

Saur Kraut. 



Mer Wolla Fischc Geh. 

Der Alt Fiseherman. 

Es Bodt Alles Xix. 

A Town and County of the Olden Time 
— Historic York, Penn'a, continued. 

Book Notices 287 

LrrsKARY Notes 288 

- . '■••if? '\. 

^ / .« / .' K \ 

••..■/ « ■■■- -■■il V ■ ' >> 

; ;,; t" »- ■ ■-.,■*■ /<' 











n \ 





Pennsylvania -German 


K.litor ari.l Pui-IUhrr 


T'lins; Sl.Oii prr i/rar in adniiirp: }l •:.-, afUr thrir laonlh^ 

Vol. IV 


No. 2 

;Knt^r.l :.t 'M.- I'.i-i-o 

Pa., n^ s.>ci.ii.i-r!;n^ VIA 


^f^^HE prnl.alnlitics are that this article will l)e read hy 
(/ jMi S) those whom it does not directly ci^ncern, while those 
>i>.v''y^>^ whom it does concern may skip its perusal, or rea^ling 
*='^^p^ it, fail to heed it. We trust it may he otherwise. Let 
a minister make a pointed remark in his sermon, look- 
ing towards immediate and personal application hy a certain class 
of his flock, the chances are that the faithful will take it devoutly 
and seriously to heart and liend their hest energies to carry the 
wish, not meant f<jr them, into effect; while the depraved, sleepy 
sinner never stirs in his pew, nor gets warm under his vest. The 
driver of a six-horse team cracks his wdiip to waken up the lazy 
shirk under the saddle, but the leailer wdiich has already worked 
himself into froth}- foam, will grow nervous, jump into his traces 
and pull as if he meant to work out his collar that day. So it is 
when an Editor calls attention in general terms to a few delin- 
quents. Can any one whom this concerns guess why this para- 
graph is written? If not let him hunt up his January number and 
consult the pink insert. 


Since our last issue th.ree events of the Keystone State ha\-e at- 
tracted consideralde attention. One, the inauguration of a new 
Governor: another, the discussion of the coal controversy : and a 
third, the discussit n of the public school advancement, with a 


2-12 THE PEWSYfA- A\IA-GERi(Ay. 

more just rcinuueration of the teacher. This brought three men 
proniinently l>efore the pu!)hc eye, viz: Samuel W. rennypacker, 
George F. I'.aer and Nathan C. Schaet^'er. We are hai)i)y to 
number all three among our full-bbKnled race kin and glad to 
sav all are sul)scril)ers to this magazine. 


If any of my readers will find time to make leisurelv strolls over 
ancient Pennsylvania-German burial grounds and will kindly take 
the trouble to make a brief recdrd of such, of our earl\- stock as 
tbey find sepultured there, and send same in to our sanctum, it 
may help the cause of genealogy in years to come. Let tomb- 
stone inscriptions be altbreviated thus: 

Johannes Schmidt. 

Son of Peter and Mary Schmidt. 

b. Alay 15, 1740. 

d. January 2. 1815. 

Let none be sent born later than 1800. . . 


In the death on January nth of Mr. Henry S. Dotterer, of Phil- 
adelphia, the cause of local history, especially as it pertained to 
our Pennsylvania-German life, has lost one of its most scholarly 
and faithful devotees. His works and publications will not let 
his name perish. Had he lived he would have been Governor 
Pennypacker's private secretary. 

Dauphin County mourns the loss of its presiding judge, Hon. 
J. W. Simonton. Lie was an able and worthy man. The cause 
of local history lost a devout friend. His place as President of 
County Historical Society is filled by ^Ir. J. P. Keller, and as 
Judge by M. W. Jacobs, Esq. 

For many of the fine cuts wdiich illustrate the article on York, 
Pa., we are imlebted to the kindness of E. W. Spangler, Esq., 
author of that most excellent and voluminous work, "The Spang- 
ler Annals." (See Book Notices in January issue.) 





HE Opening years of the eighteenth centur}' were full of 
stirring events, and fraught with momentous consequences 
to the Germanic States contiguous to the Rhine. Alsace 
and Lorraine had just heen seized and incorporated into the 
French Empire by the intolerant and despotic Louis XI\'. 'Ma.n- 
heim, Spcyer and Heidelberg had been sacked and partly burned; 
and the field of Lindau was still red with the blood of Germans, 
shed in the defense of their very existence, and the best terms 
possible secured by the Peace of Ryswyck (1697), were far from 
satisfactory. Quite unworthy of the German character it became 
the -fashion of the smaller German courts to ape after French 
manners with the result that debaucherv followed, the Protest- 
ant faith was subverted, and the civil and religious interests of the 
people were betrayed. This sad condition of the Palatinate which 
precipitated the great German emigration to Pen.ns^lvania 
also the occasion, in an aggravated sense of the coming of Rev. 
Gerhart Henkel to the New \\'orld. 

The importaitce of this pioneer in the history of the Lutheran 
Church in America is just beginning to ])C realized. About one 

/y hundred years ago. -when 

^^^f^y^^:g^^^-1^r^^^2i-t^ Dr. Solomon Henkel. a 
^ ^ \^irginia descendant, and 

his brother Amlirose, the printer, sojourne 1 in Pliilailelphia, they 
became acquainted with a granddaughter of the exile who had in 
her possession the diary and some manuscripts of her grandfather, 
besides some of the family plate. She presented Ambrose with a 
silver plate and spoon. On the latter are stamped the arms of 
the city of Frankfort, and the date kSS;, the date of the pioneer's 

The Henkel bnthers had access to the dia.'-\- of tlieir ancestor 


244 TJIi: J'JLW.^YL \AMA(lJ:iiM A X. 

but did nut then realize its iniimrtance in cluci.latin^- the family 
history, and strange to say failed to preserve the name of the 
granddaughter to posterity which makes tlie rescue of the precious 
records hopeless, l-'rrmi the foregoing source, besides the Halle 
Rejiorts ("Hallische Xachrichten";, and the data preserved in the 
Geiger branch of the family the following facts concerning Ger- 
hart Ilenkcl are gathered. 

The lienkel family belongs to the nobility of Germany, as may 
be seen in any German armorial work. There are two branches: 
the Counts. lienkel von Donnennark, who were elevated to the 
rank of Princes of the lunjiire in 1900 by the Emperor Wilhelm. 
and the Coun.ts, Henkel von Poltzeig. From the latter branch 
the pioneer Rev. Gerhart Henkel came, tie was a descendant of 
Dr. Johann Henkel. I ).])., LL.D., of Lcutschau. that old strong- 
hold of Ltitheranism in Hur:gar_\". At the of the Refor- 
mation the Royal Court of Hungary was not averse to tlie dawn- 
ing light. The Court was in correspondence with the great Re- 
former, Alartin Luther, on the subject of procuring a suitable 
exponent of Evangelical truth. On Luther's recommendation 
Dr. Johann Henkel was appointed Court preacher to Louis H.. 
of that kingdom. About this time began that strange series of 
national disaster liy which the Reformation in Hungary was 
checked and her national independence lost. 

On August 29. 1526. a Turkish army of 200.000 men led by the 
Sultan, invaded Hungary. Against this great array 
King Ludwig advanced with his small army of 26.000 nien. The 
hostiles met on August 29 at the town of ]\L>hacs. In this en- 
gagement the Hungarian ai'my was routed. The king was slain, 
and many of his church dignitaries, and dire disaster ensued. Dr. 
Henkel remained as the Confessor to Queen ]\Lirie, the widow of 
King Ludwig H. for man}- \-ears, and was the author of several 
theological books. The Henkel family of the Poltzig branch 
were very prominent in the early days of the Lutheran Church. 
It is said that one of the name tigures in the promulgation of the 
Augsburg Confession. Thc_\- were aiuong the chief supports 
of the celebrated Aug. Herman Francke (1663-1727), the founder 
of the great orphanage and missionary institute at Flalle. It will 
be recalled that it was un.ler the auspices of this institute that 
Dr. 1[. 'M. ^Fuehlen lerg, the organizer of the Lutheran Church 

REV. GiJh'ifAirr jij:\ki:l. 245 

in America was educated and, sent here. Dr. Gerhart ITenkers 
birthplace is unknown. He received a thorouj^h the()loyical train- 
mg-. and in February, 1692, \vas ordained to the oftice of the 
Lutheran niinistrw 

Sonic }ears prior to his coming- to America he became Court 
preacher to one of the lesser nobilit}- in the vicinity of Frankfort- 
on-the-Main. The immediate occasion of Henkers coming to 
America was as follows : 

The Court to which he was attached was very profligate and 
corrupt, and true to the faith of hi- fathers, and with unflinching 
fidelity to duty Ilenkel denounced the iniquities of the Court in a 
public service, whereupon the prince who was present, raised hi? 
finger in a menacing manner, and by his looks betraved his anger 
at his chai)lain. Henkel knowing that he had forfeited the favor 
of the Prince immediately resigned. The statement- that he was 
chaplain to Duke ^loritz, of Saxony, "who becoming a Catholic, 
exiled him.'* is therefore not contradicted b\- the foregoing state- 
ment. The expulsiLin of Henkel occurred in 1716, at which time 
he was well along in years. In 1717 he came to America with his 
entire family of seven adult children, several of whom were 

The statement of Dr. Ratterman in •T)eutsche Pioneer"' (18S0), ' 
that Henkel came to Mrginia in 1717 and lived there in 1735 is 
quite erroneous. After many great trials and vicissitudes the 
party arrived in Pennsylvania and proceerled to the Falckner 
Swamp in (now ) Montgomery cijunty, where they located on'the 
Frankfort Land Company's Tract. In the spring of 17 iS Hein- 
drick Pannebacker (the ancestor of Governor S. W. Pennv- 
packer). surveyed 250 acres each for Anthuny Henkel, one of the 
sons of the pioneer, and Wak'ntiiie Geiger, a son-in-law. The 
father, Gerhart Henkel, lived a few miles farther west, in Cole- 


When Henkel arrived there were only two or three other Ger- 
man Lutheran ministers in the Province, and with the exception 
of occasional visits from the Swedish pastors of ^lolatton on the 

•Vido: '•I.iithir:'.n C\ cl.'pafjia." p. 210. 


Tin: I'KxxsYLVAM \-ai:h']f.\\. 

Schuylkill, the German inimigrants were until now, almost desti- 
tute of ministerial service. 

With the advent uf the Henkel family a new chapter opens in 
the history of the Lutheran Church in America, as the first church 
of German origin, having a cc)ntinu(^us existence was organized 
by them in the Swamp quite soon after their arrival. 

There is a tradition not authenticated to our satisfaction, that 
the Lutherans ha.l a small house of worship in the 
Swamp as early as 1704. We cannot in this brief article give our 
objections to this claim, hut certain it is that the present Swamp 
church which is recognixed as the oldest Lutheran church of Ger- 
man origin in Amrica dates from the arrival of the Henkel party 
Family tradition has it that Gerhart IL-nkel gathered his familv 
and neighliors into a congregation upon his arrival and that the'v 
erected a small church. 

^^ This tradition is fully home out by the following statement:- 
'1 he Lutheran people near the Swamp in Xcw Hanover town- 
ship, m 1719. having associated themselves into an ecclesiastical 
community, determined to purchase a piece of land udiereon thev 
might erect a place of worship and a grave ^•ard for burvino- their 
dead, and it so happened that John Henrv Sprogell, one of their 
community and persuasion, heing at that time possessed of a lar-e 
quantity ot land in these parts, did ^^•illinglv make a true Gift and 
Donation of Fifty acres of his land, appropriating the same fnr the 
use and behoof of the said Lutheran communitv f..rever. request- 
ing the said Lutlieran communitv to build a church a school 
house, a grave yard and what other suitable conveniences the^- 
thought proper.'"' 

This land was surveyed April I7,i;i9, hy Henry Pannebecker. 
and the societ\- took poscssion. 

The church was soon afterwards begun but not completed until 
a year later. It is a family tradition that when the church was in 
course ot erection the wife of Rev. Gerhart Henkel pledged her 
sdverware for the payment of the mechanics. 

The ministerial .-.perations of Gerhart Henkel emliraced a wide 
field. He is recognized by some authorities as the founder of the 
Lutheran church in Germantown and riiiladelphia, and was prob- 

•Ju.';:r In •Terki.-ni.'ii n.M.'i..ii," V(.l. 1. 


ably the tirst to minister to the settlers in the Oley and Mana- 
tawney \^alle}S, and also in the I'ulpehocken region. 

Tilli VAX D(".Ri:X AFFAIR. 

Gerhart Henkel's reputation has been clouded somewhat by a 
supposed indiscreet ordination of a certain \ an Duren, of Rarltan, 
New Jersey, about 17.25. The essential facts in the case are as 
- follows : 

This man, A'an Duren, who was the cause of luuch trouble in 
ecclesiastical circles, came froFii Ihilland to Xew \'i)vk with rec- 
ommendations with a view to the ministry. The Church author- 
ities of Xew York refused to ordain him 10 the ministerial oftice 
because of some irregularity in his life. lie next applied to the 
Swedish clergy on the Delaware, with the like result. Later lie 
exercised the regular functions of the ministry in Xew York and 
New Tersev, claiming that Rev. Gerhart Henkel had ordained 
him. This provoked a bitter controversy. The Swedish pastors 
of Pennsylvania under date of (.October 31, 1727. protested against 
the ordination, claiming unwtTthiness on the part of \'an Doren, 
and want of authority on the part of Henkel. The situation' is 
relieved somewhat by the statement of the Swedish pastor of 
Molatton on the Schuylkill, who asserts that Henkel had solemnly 
declared to. him that he had never ordained \'an Dr«ren.* 

The gist of the controversv was published in pamphlet form 
by the German printer J. Peter Zenger. of X'ew York, in 1728. 
The published accounts we have of the character' of A'an Doren 
are not favorable, and inasmuch as Henkel disavowed the ordina- 
tion, and the question becomes one of veracity, the reader is left 
to form his own conclusions in the matter. 


Rev. Gevliavt irc'nkol was Imi alout ICr^^. inarric.l in lGs.'>, aiul (.litni 
about 17'.V2 in eons'cqucnce of a fall fiv ni his Imrso at Chestnut Hill, near 
Philadelphia. lie continued to exen-ise his ministerial office as occasion 
afforded to the tin^.e of his death. The last rocovd we have of any of b:3 
official acts was the baptism of Ji lianncs Kairsauer. son of Dietrich, 172S, 
as found in the register of the Trajipe church. In the baptismal records 
of Eev. John Ca-^per Stoever oc-curs the name of Gerhart Henkel and wife 

'Vide: •■nal'.i^cLe Nacliricliti-ir' X. w Kd-, V..1. 1. p 

--*S • Tllh: I'lJWSVfA A\i.[-<;/:r]IA\. 

as sponsors on DtreniUr 10, 1733. It is. huwevor. a fair presumption that 
this was the ehlest sou of tlie pioneer. 

As already state.!, the family of (ierhart Henkel consisted of seven chil- 
dren, four sons and three daughters as- follows: 

I. Gerhart Jr., whose chil.Ireii were: (1) Cvmu;,-; (2) John; (3) Maria 

Elisabetli, ni. John Theobald S.-hultz; (4) Susanna, m. Leisou; (.j) 

Anna :N[aria, m. John George Yunt. 

n. Justus (^'cst). Tiiis son tdok up laud in Pennsylvania, but aban- 
doned it i.rinr to 1740, and renrnved to (nnw) Rowan county, X.irth Caro- 
lina. When the French and Indian War broke out he removed to Virginia 
for safety. His posterity throughout the South and West are "legion." 

His children were: (1) IVIary, ni. Ells-^vorth; (-2) .Jacob, of Hardv 

county, Virginia, of \y\u m presently; (3) Rebecca, w. ,,f Raul Teater; (4*) 

Catharine, m. to • Bitfel; (.3) Margaret, m. G, o. Teater; (G) ^^lagda- 

lene, ni. Skidmore; (7) Abraham; (>) Sunna, m. Peter Tea'ter; 

(9) Justus; (10) Hannah, ni. Johnson; (11) Klisabeth. ni. ^ 

Pulman; (12) Isaac. 

III. George, the third son of the })ioneer, in 1737 enugrated to the 
"Monccacy Settlement," near (now) Fredeviek City. }.[arylaiiil. The chil- 
dren were: (1) George, b. 1734, and who iu 1784 removetl to Allegheny 
county, Maryland, where he established a great posterity; (2) John Baltzer, 
b. 1737; (3) Philip Christoph, b. 1740; (4) Jacob, and (-1) Margaret, 
ni. • Smith. 

IV. Anthony, who seems to have been married prior to cominiT to Penn- 
sylvania. In 171S he purchased 2-30 ai-res of land in the Swamp. Later he 
is believed to have removed to Genn;intown. Children: (1) Anthonv Jr.; 
(2) John Christopher, of Gerniantown; f3) Peter, of Chestnut Flili, who 
died in ISOl leaving a large family; (4) Charles, of Germantown; (.3) 
:Michael; (6) Benjamin; (7) Philip, died in Windsor township, Berks county, 
1793. In his will he says he is "old and feeble in body." He left a large, 
estate and family. (S) Henry of Germantown. 

V. Fredrica ("Freka"), was b. about llJOO, and in 1715 m. Valentine- 
Geiger. and bore him five i-hiidren. She died prior to 1742. and Geiger mar 
ried ^Maria Flisabeth, the daughter of an unknown clergyman, with whom 
he had four childnn. Valencine Geiger was b. IGn.j, and died on his estate 
at Xew Hanover in 17(i2. He was the pillar of t\v- <dd Swamp church. 
Heniy Meh-lioir :»ruhlriiberg. the patriar. li. , liiriated at his funeral and 
prepared a fine sketch of Ids life for tlu ,-hurrh autln.rit'es of Hallo.' 
Valentine ami Freka Hmkel (ieigir had children: [\) Anthony, h. 1717. 
married 174(). diod 17.3;] in New Hanover; (2) Cliristophcr. iii 1733. m. 
Barbara, tho wj.low of his brother .\nthony, aad died in Robeson town- 
ship, Berks county. Pennsyhania, in lS(i3. leaving a large posteritv; (3) 
Valentine Jr., tn. in 1747. Sarah Whlatul. a wi<low; (4) ^^faria Magilalena, 
b. 1720. On Man-h 10. 1747 she m. , Stapleton, s,ui of Robert, the im- 
migrant of Oley. They had two children. Maria Klisabeth, accidentallv 

Vide: ••Hal!i'--clu' Niiclirichten ,' I., p. s:50. 

i'i:v. (ri:un\in iii:m<i:i,. 2-jo 

drowiiol ill ir.'f), aiitl J, hi, ,lr., b. Sept. ::9, 1751, and died May 17, IS-JO. 
He served as First Lieutenant in Captain Cieorge Foclit 's comi.auy of tlie 
First Battalion. Berks county militia. Colonel Daniel Iliuiter commanding, 
and served in the X.\v .Ter.sey ami ntlior campaigns in 1777- '7S. He m. 17sO, 
Rosina .Aliller. dau-hter of the immigrant John William :Miller. of Oley. 
They had one son who married, viz, William Sr. (b. 17S1, d. 1S49), whose 
son William (b. ]sl.>. ,i. Is99). was the father of the writer. (.1) Anna 
Barbara, who m. at Cermantown in 17.",.-., George Kast, a widower. 

^ 1. :N[ary, the second daughter of the pioneer, was married to Elias 

^ II. Anna Catharine, youngest child of the pioneer, was married prior to 
17.37. to IVter A^iple. Prior to 1740 they removed with their brother, George 
Henkel, to the " .Monoeacy Settlement," in Maryland. Peter Apple died in 
1779, and his wife Catharine in 17So. They left an honored posterity. 


A large number of Gerhart Henkel's descendants have achieved distinc- 
tion, among them the iate General C. P. Ilenkel and Dr. C. C. lleukel, Divi- 
sion Surgeon under (ieneral "Stonewall" .lacksoii, C. S. A. Also Prof. 
W. D. Henkel, the noted mathematician. Like their ancestor, a large num- 
ber of descendants have become clergymen, in which profession some have 
achieved national distinction. 

From George Henkel. son of George, of Maryland, comes Eev. George B. 
Hinkel, D.D., (b. ISiis). of Keno, Xevada, and his brother, Rev. Richard 
Hinkel, D.D., (b. IS.jD). liotli of whom are prominent in the :\rethodist 
Episcopal Church. 

The most remarkable branch of the family is that of Jacob, son of Jus- 
tus (11, 2). of Hardy county, Virginia. In 17.j3 he was married to Barbara 
Teeters, of Xorth Carolina l)y whom he had six sons, all of whom were 
ministers, five were Lutlieran and one a iMethodist. They were Paul. D.D.. 
(b. 17.)4, d. 182.'.), of whom presently. iMoses. the Methodist, of whom 
presently. Benjamin, who rests uu.ler the pulpit of St. John's Lutheran 
churcli, Rockingham county, Virginia. Isaac, who also labored in Rocking- 
ham county. John, who rests under the pulpit of Zion Lutheran church, 
in Shenamloah county, Virginia, and Joseph. 

Of the foregoing lirothers. Moses was born about 17G0 and died al)out 
1S30, and was one of the pioneer Methodist preachers of the Scutli. It is 
related that upon one occasicui his brother I'aul came to hear him preach 
at a campmeeting, whereupon iNloses asked his opinion of the sermon, and 
received the laconic reply: 

"Sonetimes too high, sometimes too low! 
Sometimes too fast, soivictimes too slow!" 

Moses, like his father, also had six sons, all of whom were Methodist 
preachers. During the agitation in tlo^ :\[ethodist Episcopal Church which 
led to the organizat; n of tlie ^^fethodist Protestant Church, Moses and his 
sons were prMininent in the movement. Three of the si ns rank amonff the 


THE I'EWSYL r.LV/.l -67;/M/.LV, 

fouii'-lfis 01 the lattov cliuicli. Thov weip Saul, who ditxl in 1S37, ]\Ioses 
M., a iiiau of groat literary ability and Inographer of 11. B. Bascom, hailer 
of the " Ref oriners-', " and Eli, (b. April l."), 17S7, d. August 24, 1S67), who 
was several times President of the Conference. Of him his biograpiier says : 
"He was the John Knox of the :Methodist I'rotestant Church." 

Keturinng iiovr to I'aul it is safe to say that uo other family ha^ done 
more for the founding and development of the Lutheran Chundi in the 
South tha.n this. He began to [)reaoh in 1781, ordained in 1792, at which 
time he located at New Market, Virginia. From thence he removed to 
Staunton, thcm-e in l>iOO to liowan county, Xortli Carolina, returning to 
Xew Market in 1S05. From that date until 1S12 he was au evangelist, 

traveling and f(uinding societies ia Virginia, 
Tennessee, ICentucky, Indiana, Ohio, Xorth 
and South Carolina. In 1812 he removed 
to I'oint Pleasant. Virginia, where he organ- 
ized several cfuiyregations. returning to Xew 
Market in ]sl."). Ills lah<irs were truly 
apcstolic in character. In 180.S he, \\itu a 
few others, organized the Xorth Carolina 
Syncid. In 1S18 he took part in the nrgani- 
zation of the Ohio Synod, and in 1^22 he 
and others who were mostly his sons and 
relatives, organized the Tenness'ce Synod ou 
the distinctive Ijasis of the Unaltered Augs- 
burg Confc'^sion. This organization for 
many years was entirely independent of the 
Ceneral Synod and was known as "The 
Ilcnkelite Synod.'' The great wtrk which 
Paul Ilenkcl and his distinguished sons did 
for the maintenance of the original Lutiieran 
stanilards is now fully recoguizt'd, '-Being 
in this respect, as well as in their unreserved 
acceptance of the Confession far in advance 
of the other Lutheran Synods of Ameriiva."^ 
In view of the arduous itinerant character of his labors it seems almost 
incredible that Paul llenkel should be no loss distinguished as the pioneer 
of Lutheran iiti rature in the Soutli. In isO.l he was instrumental in having 
John Grul.ier print the Unaltercil Augsburg Confession, whit-h was its first 
appearance in the Xew World. 

In 1809 he [mblishod a work on Baptism and the Lord 's Supper in the 
German language, followed by an English edition later. In ISIO appeared 
his largo Lutheran hymn book in Cerman, followed in 1814 by another in 
English. Many of the hymns were his own composition. In 1814 appeared 
his Catechism in German, followed by an English edition. Besiiles the fore- 
going, ho published some othi>r notable works. 

■Founder cf the Henkel Press, 1806 

I.i'.tlKrain in Auii'rii-a. p. 


Of the six sons of Dr. Pnul Hfiikel, five were ilistiiiguislied Lutheian 
ministers auil one a physician, and pulilislnr of Lutlieran boiiks. They wni- 
Solomon, M. P., (1 775-1S47). a noted urijiinal investigator, autlior, and fur 
many years jirojrietor of the famous llenkel I'rinting House. His sonb' 
■were all noted nun, and one, Eusebius, was a Lutheran minister. 

Rev, Philip (]779]>':^l^), one of the founders of the Tennessee Synod; 
Rev. vVmbrose (17'<G-1^70), founder of the Heukel Press at New Market in 
1S0(), author of numerous ju\onilo and other books botli in the Gernuui 
and English languages; joint translator and publisher of the Unaltered 
Augsburg Confession, the Apology, the Smaicald Articles, the Appendix, 
and Articles of Visitation, all of which appeared in a large volume calh-"! 
the Book of Concord, published in ISol. Next he translated Luther's 
Church Postil on the Epistles (1S57-1S5S). These works were translated 
from original I-atin and German copies which they sjiecially imported for 
that purpose. 

Andrew, one of the early and prominent members of the Ohio Synod. 

David (179.J-1S31). Of him it is said that he was one of the most bril- 
liant men the South lias ever produced. He ^^as a great sclndar, and author 
of a number of works, and one of the founders of the Teunessi.t? Synod. 
He had several very brilliant sons, his eldest, Eev. Polycarp C. Henkel, D.D.. 
(1S20-1S89\. one of the founders' and President of Concordia College at 
Conover, North Carolina, and Eev. Socrates Henkel, D.D., (1S23-1901), a 
scholar of rare attainments, author of important works, one of the pro- 
prietors of the Henkel Publishing House, and editor of * ' Our Church 
Paper. ' ' 

Charles Henkel. D.B., (179S-1S41), the fifth ministerial son of Paul, was 
a pioneer in Ohio, and is survived by a son, the now venerable Rev. D. M. 
Henkel, D.[)., of CataAvissa, Pa. 


The Henkel priutery is the oldot eout!nuous printing and publishing- 
house of Geiiiian origin south of the Mason and Dixon Line. It was found- 
ed in 1S06 by Ambrose Henkel, a son of Kev. Paul Henkel, and great-great- 
grandson of Rev. Gerhart Henkel. In lSi»"J, when a lad of sixteen he a[i- 
prenticed himself to .Tohn Gruber, of Hagerstown, ^Id., to learn the trade of 
printing. After a few years of ser\ ire there he worked as a journeyman 
printer in Philadelphia. and P>altiniore, learning the art in all its 
branches including binding and illustrating. 

In ISOG he purchased the bed and irons of a Ramage press, and '(Niti) 
some old type ami cuts made by himself, set up a printing office in his 
father's house in Xew Market, Ya. He at once began a job and book 
publishing business, Avhich has continued in unliroken succession in tin- 
family until the presiTit time, the present proprietors being Amlirose I^. and 
Elon Henkel, grandsons. The issues of the press were both in the Englislt 
and German language. Scores uf tiie latter arc unknown to Northern 
scholars, and avr not ib'scrihed in Prof. F^i-idt-nsticker 's "First Century of 
German Printiui; in America.'' Tiiis printing house was regarded for many 

252 Tin: I'h'WSYLVAMA (;/:rm.[X. 

ypai's 0=! the ronrular pulili^liiiio; lumse fur the Southern Lutherans as may 
be seen on tlie title pa^'es of nuiny issues. 

Beginning with Is.'UJ, the iiroeeeilintrs of tlie ISoutliern Synods were pub- 
lislieil here in the German language. Tliese issues are octavo in size, and 
vary freni f( rty to seventy pages. In 1SU7 Ilenkel began the ]>uldication 
of a German \'\eekiy paper calle<l "Der Yir^inisciie Volksbericliter. ' ' We \vill 
here appeml in the order of their issuance surli works as we liave been able 
to rescue, omitting many small publicatitiiis of recent years. The present 
firm have no records from which the earlier judilications couhl V>e determined 
and the titles we give in Irriefest form, have been gatliered by the writer in 
the course of several years of research. Besides the annual Synodal publi- 
cations and the newspaper mentioned we have found the following: 

1S07. — "Die Fromme Zwilliug" (Erst Yirginische Kinderbuch), " Unter- 
redung iiber die Peier Tage. " 

ISOS. — "Das Ersto ganz neu Virginisclic Kinderbuch," "Geistlicher 
Irren Garten."' 

1S09. — -"Das Yirginische Kinderbuch," "Ein Christliches Geschenk fiir 
Knaben" (Dritte A'irgiuische Kinderbuch), "Treatise on Baptism and the 
Lord's Supper,"' "The Shaking Quakers," " Eine Kurtze Betrachtung der 
Heilige Tauf." 

ISIO.— "Gesang Bach" (by Eev. Paul Ilenkel), " Zeitvertreib, " "Em 
Christags Geschenk fiir Miigdlein" (-ith Ya. Kinder Buch), " Meunonite 
Confession of Faith.'' 

ISll.— "Der Christliche Catechisnius" (Eev. Paul Henkel), "Abend 
Gesprilch, " "Ein Xeu Jahr's Geschenk fiir Kinder" (.3th Yir. Kinder 
Buch), "Das Xeu Allgeniein Hoch Deutsch ABC Buch," "The First Chief 
Head of the Christian Catechism." "A Choice Drop of Honey from the 
Rock of Christ,"' "Familien Register" (a line genealogical chart with mar- 
ginal pictures of Shakesjiearo 's Seven Ages of IMan). 

1S12. — Gesang Buch (second edition), " Zeit\ertreib " (third edition), 
"Ein Gespriich zuischen ein Pilger und Biirger. " 

ISI3. — "Cattvhismus"' (third edition), "Eine Unterredung, " "Reise 
Beschreibung. " "Eine Rede iiber die Rechtfertigung, " "The Christian 
Catechism" (third edition). 

1S14. — "Kl.:ine Catechisnius," "The Drunkard's Emblem" (by Dr. 
BenJ. Rush, of Phila.lel[>hia). 

Islo. — ''Die Todes Glocke, " " Constittitien and Canons for the Govern- 
ment of the PrMtestant Episi'dpnl (.'hurch in A'irginia.'" 

ISIG. — "Per (i'hristlicher Catechismus' ' (second edition), ''Das Grosze 
A B C Buch." "Church Hymn Book'' (by Rev. Paul Ilenkel). 

1S17.— "Das Kleine A B C Buch," "A B C und Bihler Buch." 

ISIO.— "Das Kl.ine A B <' Buch" (second edition). 

IS-JO.— "Das Kleine A B C Buch"' (third edition). 

Is2:^. — "Kimler Zuclit." "The Heavenly Flood of Regeneration, or 
Treatise on H.dy Baptism" (by Dr. David H.^nkel). 

iM':^.. — "Dr. ^klarrin Luther's Predigten." 

LiJoxiiAnnr miyrii. 2.v. 

]S24. — "Eino Aitserwiililtr S;niniilunj^' Uclieter uiid Lifder fiir Kimk'r, ' ' 
"Abcnanuihl Prodigt." 

1S2.1. — "Answer to Joseph :\[i;(ir tlie Methodist." 

1S27. — ""Eitie Saiuiuluiig Auscrlescner GeSL-liioliteii ' ' (edited, illustiattd 
and printed by Silon A. ITenkel, a lidv of I'ourteen, smi of Dr. Sulnmnn 
Ilenkel). "l>utiitr's Seriiiuii on l-'aith and Ilnly Ba[>ti:>ni. ' ' 

1828.— "A Treatise on Prayer" (by J)r. David Henkel). 

1829.— "Gebt'ter und Lieder " (ser<;ud editidii). '•Lutiier's Smaller Cate- 
chism" (Trans, lu Dr. Davi.l Henkel). 

Since 1830 the puldieations l\ave been mostly English, and we will note 
oidy the more important issues since that year. 

In'lSSl appeared I'r. T')avid HenkePs "The Person and Incarnation of 
Christ," and the first f^nglish translation of "The Unaltered Augsburg 
Confession of r'aith." In 18;')S the "New Churcli Hymn Bo(k.'' by Kev. 
Ambrose Henkel. In 18-43 "The Eiturgy or Book of Forms," by the same 
author. In IS-')! api>eared "The Christian Book of Concord," translated 
mostly, and printnl In- the Henkels. Its preparation took seven years. In 
1852 appeared "Euther's Small and Earge Catechism." In PS.")3, "Euther 
on the Sacraments." In ISCO, "Euther's Church Pcstil." In 1872 was 
begun the juiblication of "Our (hurch Paper," and in 1890, "History of 
the Tennessee Synod," by Dr. Socrates Henkel. 

This brief outline will give some idea of the mighty influence of the 
Henkel family and printing house on the religious life of the South, an 
influence which we believe posterity will more fully recognize in coming 



"^^T EXT to the Conrad Weisers, father anil son, jterhaps the most im- ; 

I ^ portant and prominent personage in the celebrated migration ninxe- 

ment of the Germans from the Srluiharie, N. Y., to the Tulpehocken, j 

Pa., Valleys in the twenties of the eighteenth century, was Leouhardt 
Rieth. He formed an integral part of that large exodus of Germans, fav- 
ored by the beneficent Queen Anne of England about 1709, who arrived at 
Xew York in the spring of 171n. an(l tnok up abddes. many only temporarily, 
in the Hudson, and later tiie Alnliawk ;ind Schoharie A'alleys of New York. 

^Vhile here many took out naturallzatidu [)apt_'rs, as did also the subject 
of this sketch, the original of which is still in the hands of Mr. C. I. Elude- ; 

muth, one of his lineal descendants, residing at Stouchsburg, Berks county. 
Pa. A fac-simile reproduction is here given, reduced one half. F 

This document, with its old-time phraseology, its dates and recital of • 

historic data and illustrious signatures is itself a srtudy. It calls to mind 
some of the significant strivings of Great i'.ritain in that colonization ■ 

period and gives us the names of two conspicuous JCnickerbockers of that 


TIIK l'i:\'\X YL \ A \[A-(!i:h'M. 1 V. 

«l:iy. This pafier was piveii in ITlo, the socouil year of King George II. of 

England's reign, and seventeen years before George Wasliington vras born. 

When tiiis [lioneer started out for ti\e wilds of Pennsylvania along the 

Tnljiehocken creek, in 1723. he left his wife temporarily behind him in 

f 4 

City and County of Albany, k. 

I Peter Schuyler, Efq; Judge of the 
Coirt of Common Picas, held for the City anJ 
County of Alhn\^ Do hereby Ct-i titie and make known 
to all to whom thell- prtfcnts fti.tll come, or m^v in 
any wife concern, thr.c on the Djy of the Ih^ he'reor; 
Tn the Court of Record held ut thcCity-I-iill of [he laid 
City before the Court PcTfonaly appeared x^r>.5)fi/ 

and" then and there in Open Court, did t^ke tlie Oaths 
!)V Law appointed to be t.iken,' inllead of the Oaihs of 
AHeguinceand Supremacy, Subfcribe the Tefl, and Make 
Repeat- and S.vear to, and Sahfcrib^ the AbJMr^rica 
Oath, purfaant to the Direaions of an kd. o\ the General 
Afiembly of the Cdony of A^^Ytri, m^de in the Finl 
\earof thePveignof our 5overain Lord Qior^e^ bv the 
Grace ot God, oiGreM tnum. Frame snd IreLrd Otecder 
of CJ-c. Lntituled, An Ac} Jeclarir^ th,t ^H tboft 
of tarrcrp Brrrb, o^ctcfc7e ln!>dinng zrhbin thu Obn,, ord 
dym^ fttzcd of any Urds, Tenements cr Hndham^^t si jhU 
bcJoreViT o,reafttr damed^tJ:en and.fleemdto k>-ff t,.-nK-tu^ 
ralilxd-, andl^r hsturj'.rJn^ a'.l Proteftanrs of Fsnehn V>ir:b 
,:orr Mutng ^nhmthis Cchny. And that his Name fs accor- 
dmgly Eatered on Record in the fa id Court. Ir Ti^i^-^nv 

se'rs'i *: ';;^ '^^;^' 'e-it^^;''' '''*''^ 


Schoharie, where on the TOth of September of that year his son Leonhard 
Jr. uas born. His tombstone records the fact that her name was Analisa 
Catharina and that tliey iiad e'ght cliildren. These were intermarried with 
other nieniliers of this colony, aud the Anspachs, Schaeffers, Kleins. Brim- 

LKOMIARDI liir/ni. -ITto 

norr^, Browns. Lo(,liii: is, SrlioUs, Biukliult.ler.s, Siiyilcrs', KoytTs, ZfUers and of this coiiuiuniity, and of Scjiaefferstown, Iioyersford, I'aliuyra aud 
many other plact^, art- lineal desoeudants, scnio in the seventh, sonic in the 
ninth generation. Here tiiis jdoueer ancestor took \\\i about ],(iOO acres of 
hind at the junction of the ^^rillliach with tlie Tulpehocken Creek, near the 
preb'ent village of Stoiichsliurg. Just above this spot, about twenty yards 
west of this junction, on the north side of Tulpeliocken, he afterwards 
erected a mill, in the cogwheels of which he was caught and mangled to 
death in 1747. The old homestead is a short distance — ab.out one-Ciuarter 
of a mile — below this juiu-tion, and the house forms a port'nn of the resi- 
dence of Mr. Franklin ]H. Keed. a descendant seventh in line, where are 
kept many heirlooms of the family and a vast number and variety of Indian 
relics secured on this identical plantation. 

Many of these settlers — sixty families in all — being Lutherans (all were 
religious), an early ell'ort was made to erect a Lutheran church, which 
project was initiated by the donation of seven or eight acres of land for 
church and burial purjioses by Leonhard Rieth, and accomplished by the 
completion of a log cluueh in the fall of ]7iI7 — the very lirst church edifice 
west of the Schuylkill, in tlie Lebanon Valley.* It is said that the Kev. 
Gcrhart Henkc-l, of Falkner's Swam]), who is sketched in this number, had 
visited this new colony and advised the erection of a church building. The 
175th anniversary of its completion was fittingly celebrated last loth of 
November. It has had a long and checkered history and been serveil by 
seme of the aldest pastors of the Church. To this day the German lan- 
guage is used in many of her stated services. Recently the congregation 
erected its fourth edifice, a fine brown-stone structure, removed from the 
original tract to the eastern end of the village of Stouchsburg. on the ground 
originally owned by our pioneer, after whom the church was named and is 
still known. The spelling of this ancestral name, Eieth, has been variously 
corrupted into Rith, Ritt, Riedt, Read, Eees, Eeiss and Reed. The last 
spelling is the one noAv accepted and used by the direct descendants. 

The Reeds have been of tall and herculean mould, ^fany liave stood over 
six feet in their stockings and a few have thrown the beam of the scales 
above the 300-pound mark. 

The family has been well represented in every war fought by cur nation. 
Aliout half a dozen grandsons was the quota this pioneer bequeathed to his 
adopted country to fight the battles of her freedom and independence, 
while fourteen Reeds from the Tulpehi ckeu had participated in the pre- 
ceding Colonial struggles. 

It is said that death and burial cf this pioneer had something to do with 
the final withdrawal of the Moravian pastors who had encroached, and the 
termination of the long and bitter ecclesiastical hostilities that prevailed 
here, historically known as the " Tnlpehocken Confusion.'' Rieth had been 
a deacon at the time of his tragic deatli, and the familv selected the Rev. 

•I'l.!- fuU.T p.ii'oiiiit nf the lii<ti>ry <if tbi3 o;irly church soe Eilitor's "Ancient and 
Illsturic I.anduiarU- in I, li;iiiou Vullcy.'' 


THK I'EXWSYIA A\[.[-(;i:h'M\\. 

Johu Nieolaus Kurtz, jiastor of tlie Lutheran jjoopl.' lieie to ofTiciate at bis 
obsequies. The foUowiuy inscription is encrraven upon a very quaintly 
carved and ornanuMited tombstono tliat marks his grave in the old L'eed 
church burial groumls: 



Ohan Lof.xhard Kith 




Ax.\xi.sA Catharixa 


65 Oexkelfjx. 

The following register of his family has been constructed. The children: 

I. JoiiAXN XiCiiOLAUS. Had three children, Jacob, and two daughters 

married to Jacob Anspach and Jacob Schaeffer. From them de- 
scended the Brunuers, Kleins, etc. 

II. JoHAXX George. From him some of the Keeds of Stouchsburg de- 

scended. Also the Minnichs of Virginia. 

III. JOHAXN Friedrich. Descendants of whom live at L'oyersford. Fa. 

IV. Leonhart Jr. From him descended the Browns, Scholls, Lecliners, 

Burkholders, Snyders, Rovers, etc., residing in Berks and Leba- 
non counties. 

V. Feter. He occupied the old homestead. 

VI. r^lARiA ^Lvrgaretha married H.nnricli Zellers. [In 1745 a Heinrich 

Zellers and his wife erected what is now known as the Zeller 
Indian fort. "Was she this woman? — Ed.] 
Two children unaccounted for. Did they die young and unmarried? 
There is strong evidence that they were minors at time of father's death, 


The original d(jcument of the foUmviiig legal release is now in possession 
of Mr. C;. (ir(dV. the })rescnt owner of tlie faini on \vhirh mill property 
was located : 

KNOW all mm by Tlicse Fresents that Elisabeth Catrina Eith, widow of 
lieonhard Kitli, late of Tulpeliockin in Lancaster County, deceased, George 
Rith and Catrina Elisabeth his wife, Frfdericii Rith and Engel his wife, 
Leonhard Kith, IN-ter Rith, Henry Zeller and ^faria :N[argared his wife, all 
of Tulpehekin and county aforesaid, for and in consideration of one hun- 
dred and sixty-seven Pounds Lawful money of Pennsylvania to them paid 
by Xickulas Rith of the same place, yrc man, the receipt whereof is hereby 

I.KOMI Mini' jiiirin. ■i'o7 

ackiio\\lt'(luoil. IIATII lidiinjuislied Rrl.nsfil ami f(ire\fr iiuitted claim, 
and by these ireseiit? didli Kclir.qiiisl:, Ki'iea-e and t'nrevc'- quit claiin unto 
the said Xic-kelas Kith, his htdis aiul assigns', A (;KUTA1X Cirist Mid and 
saw mill 07i Tidpeholdu Creek, helonginj^ to oi (ids, rights and i>nss'-<--iou3 
of Lconhard Rith, aforesaid deceased, and now in the crrupation uf the 
said Xiekolas Kith, and on his' grnund Tueil-]T1IKR als<i with all and 
singultir, the Buildings, dam and dams, rights, nu-mlieis and appurrances 
thereunto lu'lenging. TO HOLD to him, the said Xiekolas Kith, his heirs 
and assigns, to Ids and tlu'ir o\vn pro[>er usi' and Ijehoof fore\er, tind tl'e 
said Elisabeth Catrina Trith, Or.irge liith. Fri'derich Kith. be. nlia.rd Kith, 
Peter Kith anil Henry Zeller, their or Either of their heirs the abt.;\ e mcn- 
tidned ^lills, b'ams and appurtanees will warrant and Defend utdo the said 
Xiekelas Kith, his heirs and assigns forever. AND they do liki/wi^e for 
themselves ami the'r heirs, Exceut(U's and Admiidstrators, I'evenant. ['r'^mise 
and grant tn atid with the said Xieki las K'ith, his lu'irs and assigns, by tlmse 
presents, that tl;ey the said Elisifneth Catrina btith, George Kith, Fredi rich 
Kith, Levmhard Kith. Ttter Ivith. Ibiiry Zelh.r. or their Exectttor- .^r Ad- 
ministrators, at the Keasonalih;" Reqi.e-t and cost of said Xiekolas IJitl;. his 
heirs er assigns, make, Exeeute and m ktio\\lr(bac sluIi farthrr ami otiier 
Lawful and Keasunabb.^ aid and arts, Deed > r Deeds w liatsoever for the 
further and better assurance anil eonfirniatiun .f the said ^ilills. ilatn and 
premises hereby grant-.-d or meatiuned as liy the said Xieknlas, hi- lieirs 
and nss'gn*. shall be reasenably Keqinred. TX WITXESS where.'f the 
aferesaid parties to these presents have Interdianeeably set their hands 
and Seals. r)ated the Twel.tli Day of March, Anno Domini 17-1G-7. 

Sealed and delivered in the 

the presence of Henuv Zkllb:!". 

CeXRAD Wti-sf.r:. her 

Ciiri.sTiAN Laukk. Mafia Macgai-ed • Zelle'; 

Feidekich Kith her George Kith 

her Ellsa Cati;ina >. PJnii her 

Excel x Kith mark Cati:ixa Elisa x Krai 

mark mark 

Leoxi!ai;d Kith 
The men signed in German. 



Ibr mueht juseht scliwetze wa^^s ilir wot 

Fun wege Es'serci, 
'Wic Turkeys, Ento, Iliiikol, GiluSj 

Fun puuijikiu un mince Pie. 
'S gebt ke Gcmiis v\ie Sauor Kraut, 

'S dut net, ieli bleib debei ! 

Braggt juscbt mit Oyshters alk-r Art 

In Pan un Slitew un Fry; 
Euer lee Cream, Kuelie, Zueker-saoh, 

I'u ew'ge Selileekcrei. 
■'S gebt bosser's nix -nie Sauer Kraut; 

"S dut net, ieh bleib daboi ! 

llir nu'cht ah kocho wass ihr ben 

Fun euvem siise Brei, 
Corn Starcli un Oat iNIeal, Grape-Xuts, Force, 

Un was sie Alle sei. 
Es hot ke Kraft wie Sauer Kraut, 

'S hot net, icb bleib dabei! 

Un all des Obsht was wacbse kann 

So lebbisb un so fei. 
Bananas grii un Oranges, 

Pine Aeppel ovvedrei, 
'S hot ke Ciesohmack wie Sauer Kraut, 

O no, icb bleib dabei! 

Dor Esau gab sei Erbrecht Meek 

Fer Linso! Denk mol dreil 
A niirrisher Ding mit so 'm a Taste, 

Bos sag icb ohne Scboul 
Fer Sauer Kraut kr.nnt mer sel Avabl du, 

^ler kfrnut, icb Ijleib dabei ! 

Juscbt gob mer blonty Sauer Kraut 
:\Iit Sbpeck fun fotte Suu, 

A gute Sbissel Grumliore 
Ferdriickt nuis's ah noeli bci. 

POKTIV GUMS. ■ •_'.:,;> 

Suiislit uiil ieh nix iif dero 'Welt, 
Sun^^ht nix, ieh l)loib daliei I 

Xcninit all die fancy Saclie wock. 

Sie wiege scbwer wie Blei 
Uf unscro aniie Mage, ^vo ■ 

Mer shtoppe Alles nei. 
Ieh liab genunk niit Saner Kraut, 

Ya sluire, ieh bleib dabei ! 

Un "wann ieh nix n;e esse kanu 

Un Alles is ferbei, 
Es ieh nocli a wenig Saner Kraut 

Un sag der AVelt good-bye. 
Bis zu niei 'm letschte Augelilick 

Bleib ieh niei 'm Frtuiid getren. 
'S gebt ke Ciemiis ^vie Saner Krant, 

'S dnt net, ieh bleib dabei I 
Lititz, I'a. 



O, warseht du nie im Ilesse-Dhal, Un fiel sin an dc Parple g 'sehterwe. 

Ini Dunkle Welt doliaus.' Un annere Kranket, a'h, 

"U'au net. dan kuni zu inir, e 'mohl, Un fiel sin ah juscht so ferdorwe — 

Dan geh ieh niit d 'r nans. Wic 's geht, so ohne Fraa. 

Es isch en uilter, rauher Blatz, Sie hen sie uie die Iluud ferkrawe, 

Uniringt Berg un Bam, ^,.^^^1} "^'"^ =^" dem Berg; 

-SVu Nachts en alte Wilte Katz ^'% ^'"'l?'' '''']'!' sehlinini for rawc, 
Ihr Junge loekert Ileem. ^"°^ ^"^''^^ '^'^'-"'"^ ^^ *^i'^- 

•TI-- fi^ • 1 1 .. 1 • 1 ^' , ^ Sie hen fiel Tlesse raus gekrawe 

\\ie oft ivar ich dort bei der ^aeht, tt„ ,,^„ „; , i i if 

7 • • Tx I L n hen sie anirekcelit. 

In ineiue lunge Daag t-., t-,, ^ , -, T .,, , •• .. 

Mit alt Con.rade. nf dV Jagt- ^^' ^^'^'t^'- •^'"'^^ ''''^'^^' ''^"' ^''- 

assut ; was ieh d r saag. -r»-„ t' i tt i i.^. 

s Die Knoehc Heein gebroeht. 

Die Ilund hen g'jcolt, ilie Katz hot Die Kncehe l:an m'r ITeut noch 

g'heilt. selnie — 

Die Xaeiit-eil hot gebrlllt. Do glabsriit 's net? gtii un guck; 

Un niir hen uns ilaniit ferweilt — Dert in (h^ dunkle Kcke selitene 

Es war ur.s nix zu wilt. Sie, gans grinmiig wie 'n Sclipuk. 

Dort war der Hesse-galia noeh- I*"h war e' mold in. Hesse-Dlial. 

En Sehtang f.m Baam zu Baam : , ;^^'^f- /'^e\ '! ''''■''"'' m'-'?=''\V . 

^Vie halwer dunkel is.d. mer "s doeh ! ^'^' '^^^ " S.htnnm g hurt. • > Oberst 

So hahver wie 'n Draam. 

Beseht halt dieh uf der AVaeht." 

Dort hen sie neun uf e'nu'hl g'hilngt Teh hab fid Hesse Geisdite g'seli, 
For :Mort un Rawerey; All grinunig weis un kalt. 

So laut des Rewolutz T>egend, 'Nrit Kneelie weis un kalt wie SLdme 
Un 's wert a'h v. old so sei. Dort in .leju dunkle Wiilt. 


THE i'i:\.\syLVAyiA-Gi:irMAX. 

Sie hen 'n SL-lnnausoiey dort g'hat 
Foil g'sohtoleiie (iiiiis im Kraut, 

Un Aeiit'l-wei nn alt Muskat, 
Uii 's (_i '^aii;: \\ ar lanu uu laut. 

Hut niiis'se ill die Seldadit. 

'S war uci, dtr wert, 's war iiau zu 
'S liot alk's nix yelnitt, 
Sie hen 2; 'uiarsdiiert nn z'riiek Der llesso Oberst llixhl ^^a^ dood, 
g'niarjifliiert I'n unsfr war die Sohtadt. 

Fon Zelt zu Ilaus zu Iliit, 
"Lang ^1 e b e! '"— hen sie dan En Dausend IIossc ware gfange. 
g'clteert — Ini Winter — fScdi* e un kaU. 

"0! Kuing, Jerg der Dritt. " In Winter Quartier sin sie gauge 

Do haus iui Seliwarze-\\'aid. 
So hen ilie ]!i'<-e t'c rt trenaidit 

iNIit ihreni Saus un Srhniaus, O won du gcesclit in 's Hesse-l>hal, 


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Continuing over l.Ouj b<idirs. 

Bis iMorgets in der friihe Waoht, 
Un dan — ''Per Feind! Heraus!'' 

Do war der braaf Tfelil, Washington, 

iMit seiner braaf Arnieel 
Eh' Daagesdiell, do war er pchon, 

Doreh Fluss un Eis un Sohnee. 

Dan niifh e'niehl — des Ilesse 
G 'sohrei — 

"Der Feind: Ileraus! Ileraus!" 
Do konnue sie zu si-h{iringe, bei, 

Fun Ztlt un Iliiit un Haus. 

Kauni WHY ihr Saus un Sehniaus 

In jener ("'hriseli-daag-Xaeht — 
Der Hess, t'on Kraut un Giius un 


Allee, an Chrischdaag-Xaeht, 
Dan hurselit 'n Sehtinun, " Ai'h 
Oberst Rahl! 
P.eseht halt dieh uf der Wardit! "' 

Dan geh mit luir au Chrisehdaag- 
Do nans in 's Hesse-Dhal. 
Dan hi'u'scht du a 'h i.lie einsam 
"Aoh Oberst, Oberst Eahl! " 

"Ach Oberst Raid! Aeh Oberst Raid! 
Doreh die Falirliissigkcit 

Sin wir do feseht ini Hesse-Dhal, 
Fon Heeni un I'^ieuiul, so ^yeit.'' 
- — From the autliirr's "Kurzweil 
uud Zeitvcrtreili. " 




KV F. i;. BRUXNER, M.D. Alias "Joliii Sliuiiiacher. ' ' 

"VVie niiehst sin schoii die Osrhtrf do.' 

Sie kiimnie alio jobr; 
Sel macbt die Kiniier all so froli; 

Des is gewislioh wohr. 
Es wunneri,! niioh ah net Avans dutli, 
Die Oschter o\i;x sin so gulh. 

Sie tsehunipe um die Tliluser rum. 

Und finne alle neseht; 
Ihr weg is ot'tmols lang uud knnii, 

Doch dunne sie es hesi-ht. 
Sie finne oft die Buwe eisdit, 
Doch griege oft die Mild es niersohr. 

^Ye^ legt die Osehter oyer dan ? 

Der Haas — so sagt nier als. 
Er nenit so liel mit das er kun, 

lin Kesscl an seim Hals. 
Er kooht und fiirbt sie ah dert dvin 
Mit Katuh oder zuIavIc riu. 

"\Vie dauert nier die Haase doch 

Ini kalte vinter schnee; 
Sie sitze ergends im eh loch, 

Oder im hiiufe Sehtee, 
Und schloffe mit de auge uf. 
Bis elibes kunit, no sin sie uf . 

Wan Schiitz ■uinters die Haase 
Sin oft die Kinner biJs; 
Sie daure sie. sin net gepliest 

Mit so Leit uf der tsehiis. 
Die Haase lege jederm en oy, 
Ins neseht gemacht mit Schtro uud 

So bal das es nooh Oschlre geet, 

No is ah Friihjohr do; 
Sel meent das alies nau ufschteet. 

Werd gruh. lilt'il)t nimme groh. 
No wachse ali die Haase 's hiseht. 
Und wer sie schii'st der Mcd o-erescht. 

So bal mir mol geseene hen 

En oy in jederm neseht, 
Hot jeders g'sagt: "Ich wed ioh hob 

p]s griiseht, es scliousclit, es 
No hen mir glei g'pickt. g'pickt. 
Bis jeders on ferbruclmes griekt. 

Fer Johre lang hen Haase juselit 
Fer jei.lers ehns gebrocht ; 

Xau griokt mer tiel, es is eu luscht, 
Sie sin ah all geknrht, 

Deel sin so srhi> und zueker sii<. 

Ah tschacklat Haase mit fier Fiisz. 

Deel leie in de uiischter soIk'. • 

Und sin guth uf g 'fixt : 
Und an 're hocke uf de lUh 

Und hen Ihr Ohre g 'srh[iit/r. 
So guthe Haase waare ralir 
Wie ich so 'u kleener schpriuger war. 

Ken wunner sin die Kiiniei' Ijang 
En Hund fangt mol ihr Haas; 

Ken wunner werd die Zeit so lang. 
Unci wissa net ferwas. 

En tzueker Haas mit tSL-hackliit 

Den liebt en Kind fun Johr zu Johr. 

Wan Xewcl sidmuikt am B^>rg dert. 

Dan wees mer was sel meent; 
Sie koche noh ehr oyer dert, 

Xo denkt mer — ehner keemt, 
Und wan 's ah net gans Oschtre is, 
Macht mer sich redde — ja, gewis. 

Und wer ferergerd en lieb Kiu'l, 
Dem kents emol sohlecht geb ; 

So sagt der H-jiland — sei werd bind. 
Sel kenne mir ferschteh. 

Der Haas lu3t ah an uus g 'denkt, 

Und hot uns ah nut was beschenkt. 

Und wan der Tag fer Oschtre kumt. 
Do werd geriseht und g'schaft; 

Die Haase sin all raus gedrumt, 
Und reddie fer die nacht. 

I>ie oyer hen sie all im sock. 

En ji'der hot en grosor pack. 

Den mit ile Oschtre lerndt mer ah. 

Was jeihT ^^isse soil; 
Mir werre all erriunerd dra. 

Was Christus gedu hot. 
Tod und f'-rgrawe in iler Erd. 
Is er ran-: kunime lioi do (.'liird. 


THE I'EX X.SY L\\\ lA-(; i: RM A \ 

En grcisi r sditoli war uf soini gi'J^b; 

En Eiif);fl lollt ihii week; 
Saldatc, niit C">o\vehr uud Schtaab, 

Hen g'scliluffe ohuo Deck. 
So iinfeilidft, wie 'n OsL-liter Haas, 
Is Er docli raus fer irher Naas. 

Des is dcs zeign's fun der Zeit, 

Has Leben aus dcr Erd 
Mol wider kunit zu all de Leit 

Die sind bei C'liiis^te Herd, 
Her Haas, toll deniuth. lieb und guth, 
Lebl. ah und sehterbt fer mensehc 

Drum sin die Ostditre all en Freed; 

8ie sin so Holfnungs-foll ; 
Die wo fiel hen, do gects ''first- 

Wan nier gebt was nitr s(d. 
Pen wer nix gelH wan er fiel liot, 
Der raubt sicdi selwer und sei Gott. 

Dan lost nns nieusehe Haase sei. 
Am Osehter niorge, friih; 

Und gerne mit em Hertz gans f rei ; 
En jedes wees wo hie. 

De nrme Kinner, arme Eeit 

ISIacdit ell guth Oy die gruschte freid. 


Bi:\VE : 

Der Selmee is* \ergange. 

Die Kiilt is deh'ii, 
Der Bivi is kumme — 

Die Solnvuirm sin slum grii. 
Xau Dahili un ?^Ianima 

O, sagt uus iH't — Xee! 
Mer sohatfe nodi Iieut. 
No wiirs widder Zeit. 
Mol Fisehe zu geh ! 

Die "Weide gewa Peifc, 

Mer hen uns schun g "hnllt ; 

Die Erie hen Schwenzelier, 
Un funklo dehie; 

Nau Dahdi un i\ranmii, et-c. 

Die "Wassere raustdie, 

Un funkle ilvWiv ; 
Die Staare besinge 
Ehr: C'udr-ruddaMie. 

Nau Dahdi un Manuni, etc. 

Die Boxe sin fertig, 
Die Leine gedreht; 
Die Ang'le gelmune, 
Un alles — first-rate! 
Xau Dalidi un ^NFanmia 

O, sagt uns net — Xee! 
Mer si-hatfe noeh heut, 
Xo wiirs gewisz Zeit, 
Mol Eische zu geh! 


Gewisz, ehr niuchts brnweere, 
Verleicht dasz ehr's packt; 

"Was niemanel noch seisucdit, 

Wees niemand \\ie's ah sehmackt! 

Den Owed nuu-ht euch reaiiy — 
Die iMcss'ri^ un die Schniir - 

Grabt I utli fUi-r Wiirni, 
Un st.'llt s:.- iin die Diihr. 

Wer ebbes rtMdits will fange. 

Musz friih sehun uf die Bee; 
Wann niei Ainschel singt. 

Dann sot ehr dapper geh. 

Gelit weit nuf in die B( rge, 
Seheut net en bishe niiili — 

Wu die Springe sin. 

Dort niacht emh zeitlieh hii'. 

Dert an de huidie Hendocks. 

Mit Moos ganz nuf belegt — 
Ditditer griiner Bucks, 

Hot Grass un Stee bedeckt. 

"Was haw ieh dert docli Frelle, 

In Hengel ufgemacht — 
Grosse fette Karls — 

'S hot mer im Herz gelacht! 

Dert schneid euch euer Gerde. 

Vn srddei(dit hie an die Krick — ■ 
Xau het ehr mold die chance, 

Browirt ah eutr Gliick! 

Xau ehr liewe Kinner. 
^[acht euch frisch derhinner — 
G 'schwind d'e arwet week geduh — - 
Legt eucdi mol reclit friili zu Ruli — 
"Wann die erste Amschle singe. 
Will ich euch die Xochricht bringe. 

Alto schiechte Kleeder, 
Wiihlt SLih dann en jeder — • 
Geht dann an der Kichescliank — 
Wasser — duds jo fer der Drank! 
Flees(di un Brod, un Kiis un Butter, 
Alles sell — versorgt die ^^lutter! 

In die frisdie (^ut'Ile. 

Sin die siisste l^'rellc — 

Hoolt mer taii>jc Hen>rel v(dl — 

POEllV <Jh'MS. 2G3 

]\Ioszt sle rails — bis zelie ZoU — KIiiirt stehn uii — gaffe— 

leh will all die Paniia sehiiioere, ' IluiHleher kuniiiieii uii Ijlaffe! 
Ldst niioh just y:at noufs bore! 

r. T , .. ,, ,, ^fpr woHl'ii in de Rcry;c uns ver- 

die sebuiie i relle, .stecke 

Dunkle gebts, im l.elle- ninner de Ho.'ks, kaiui nix uus ver- 

SLhuppe, Horner, so was! ^ee! sclirecke 

Duppa hen .ue, gar zu schi3- y^^^^ 1,^,^^ j.^^ ^.,,j^^ 

Roth Mie Blut, un Schwartz, un -g ^„.,,t ^^j, j,.,^ ^^,„ streit— 

V 1,1 T ,S, "-' , ,, , Wolf, un t'iichs, un l!ihe, 

Ach! leh kanns gar net verzehle! Kami mer leieht abux-hre. dan widder zeitlich, ^Veit vur der Sun, so sin iner an .le 

bis nier so unleidlich — Snrino-e 

Waun ehr in de Berge seid, ^.^, j..^ Oebiiseh, die Yugeleher lustig 

\ un alle Ilauser, nieileueit! sino-e— • 

Gott beschutz eueh uf de Wege, ^j,,,; ^elnverz un grii, 

1 n geb sehver-reeht viel Sege! ji^^^ jj^ j^^i^.j. ^^.^^^^^ 

^■[J^X]r■ O, wie scho zu lausche, 

,,-. , . 11 ■ , ^^'i^ flie Wassre rausche! 
\\ le elir uns sagt, so uolle mi:s :;h 

niac-he, Ob siehs bezaldt, des werd sieh zeit- 

So was geht gut. mer duhn ah flink jb-h weisze, 

niit lache! Sis alles rtxdit— des is: wann sie 

Euft uns just bei Zeit, gut beisze! 

Weil der Weg so weit — Hen mer dann ken Cdiiek, 

]\Iit de anre Saehe, S'n mer ball zuri-L-k; 

^^'bl]e mers selani maehe. Hen mer viel zu lache 

,, , ... ^ , mers liinger niache. 

-Mer genu net hie wu anre Lcut ^ 

shun ^vuhre— Xau Dahdi un iMammi, 

Es niacht sie bos, un neidiseh wie Khr sagt uns net — Xee! 

die Hahre. :\rer schaffe nocii heut, 

Fangt sich eens raus, Xo is 's widder Zeit, 

Kreische sie em ous— INIol Fisclie zu gcji ! e. k. 


Es war 'n alter Fischermau, Xaeh Schtaudta oder Kalbach 's 

leh hab ihu gut gekennt; Damm 

Er hot gewehnt net weit eweck Is er friili Morgets g'schtiirt^ 

Von wu die XordkiU endt. Ob Snii-uff an die Grick zu sei 

F'r Fiseha is fiel werth. 
Wann Fischzeit war hot er (be Gert 

Und oftmolds drei geuumnia; c- t>,-^ ,,■, , ■ 

Er hot gewisst wu grossa Fish ^"' -^ ^'i!?^ gewesst am lulpohack 

Sin ~ um der K o r k r u n. ,, ^^ " '' 'f • -''f /venii ferbauur, 

o'schwunnia. ilen ynsriit gebissa cert na Sehtun— 

^ ' Die i'liitz war er bekaunt. 

Er hot gewisst wu scinvartza Worm 

Zu finna sin f'r ''Bait; " Er hot gewisst wu uei zu schmeisa, 

Und wann die Box foil Wr.rm war, Wie hocli der Kork zu schtella; 

War's grad wie frischa Wehd. Er ^var die diff'reiit Schtuu be- 


Sei Grulihack war als reddy Wu Fisli net beisa wolla. 
g'sehtelt ; 

Dann Ohwets is er naus Wenn eis(dit die Fish gebissa hen 

I'nd unnig Wah um. Drc'k un<l Hot er no nu ' Fisli g 'fanga ; 

Eiescli ^ Dold an 'ra hen als scliier iiix o^rii^kt 

Ziegt fetta Wi'irm raus. Dj, 

mit iliui wara gang.n. 

2G4 . Tin: I'KSySYLVAMV-ilKini Ay. 

Ki' hot ke' fiincin Leiiia ji'liatt, 'Sis awwer now 'ii lelirer Platz 

Unci au ' ke' (U'ira Gevta ; ' An all ilie guta Ecka 

'S hen awwer I. out genieliPt cr hot Wu er gfwrilnit war Yahra laug 

Eibattig "Bait"' uiul Worta. Die Fiseligeit hie zu schteeka. 

Er hot 'n langer Fedtler g'liat; Die blotta lllacka an die Orick 

Und Avie 'n Fi^li war g'fange ~SV\\. Gras sin a 'fangs griili; 

Hot er ihn gut und selio eig'fedtlet Dor Bullfrog kunimt zuin Was«or 
I'nd f 'r dor nru-hscht Fish ganga, raus 

Und sctzt sie-li ncliwa hie; 
'X Hengel Fish niit Hohin zu bringa 

War ihm 'n grossie Freiid: Die Schillgrott schtrorkt sioh in die 

Und wauu er 's • ' I^avenient " rut' is hoh 

kuninui Und wunnert was is letz ; 

War llongcl Ling und brelnl. Die Gort und Lein is nininiie dort— 

Am Endt is ilir Gerotz. 
Doch alseniohl hot 's Zoita g'hot 

Die Fish hen net gebissa ; Der Tod der niit se'.ni Ilaniniorgarn 

Ko is er oft die "Alley" Hehm F'r Menscha inuner fisoht, 

Dass niir sei Giiok net wissa. Sehtellts Gam for'ui alta Fischer- 

Ins Brossnian's Wiss, ans Kenny's Und hot ihn selio ferwisuht. 

A rm , 
Und au' am "I>land" hinna; Er hot gezuMv. elt mr.chtig hardt 

Am Xdrdkill Fiedor, am Foundry Aus selieiu Gam zu kumma ; 

J)amm, - Der Tod hot awwer annersijht 

Und wu die Werwel schpinna ; g 'mehut, 

Und hot ihn mit genun ma 
Ans Kceha und ans Schaeft'er's 

Sehliess, l^Pr gi-it alt Fisdierman is fort; 

Und wu dfr Pj'itfel riihrt; Er hot die letsoht Lein 

"Wu endlich in die Tulpehack g'schmissa; 

Die Xordkill sieh ferliert: 'S lauft Nicmand meh wie er als is 

Die Tulpohaoka Wissa. 

Am ew 'ra und am un 'ra Damm, 

Km Gro^^a Fie<ler drunna ^^° ^'"'"^ i-emembr;mce of .T..iui Coiu-ad. 

Ans Lunradt s Brick — an all die with rod ami lino of Beniviiio, Pa., aini 

Pliltz vicinity. Ho died in Februaiy, 1902, at' 

e good old a^o of "lO year.*.]- 

M. A. C 
Wasbiiicton, D. C. ,Tiino. 1002. 

Hot ihn die Fischzeit g'funna. f'"^ ^'""^ ^'''' ^^='' "^ " ^''^^GRrBER 


Adapted from the Suabian, by Dr. E. Grumliine. 

Im summer is my mad'l roat un Pockt 's eisa mit'ra tzoug, un hem- 
brow, mert's we aer 's will — 
Im winter is se roat un weiss; Won duch my mad'l eisa waer! 
Im summer is ihr haertz so tza' wie 

hickry holtz ^"^^ ^''*-'' "^""^^ bloast der shmidt mi 'm 

Un winter's kalt we schnae un ice. blousbol'k aw, 

Un broomt der bol 'k, do brennt '3 

My nuehber drivva, is a ?htarr'ker aw g'shwindt; 

Schmidt, Awy 'r ich, — was ich my 'm madi 

Daer nemmt 'n hommo gross un sing un s.-iwg, 

shwaer. 'S is alios, alios in dor windt! 

Historical Pilgrimages into 



Historic York, Pa. (continued from last issue) 

BY I)K. I. n. BETZ. 

THE nienilitrs of the Ct^ngress made the journey to York on horseliaek, 
crossing the river at Anderson's Ferry, now ^Marietta. They stopped 
to refresh tiieniselves and their horses nearly midway between the 
Ti\"er and York at a hotel which then stood on Ihe niain liiyhway, but whirh 
in till- march of improvement is so no h'nger. Pictures of this so called 
" reunsylvania Dutch tavern" shuv,' it to be still in an excellent state of 
j)reserv;ttion. It ^\as probmbly the first two-srory stone dwelling- west of the 
river. It was built in 17:!4 ]iy .b lianncs Schultz and seine Frau Katrina 
Schultz, twu after Washingteii w;;s liern and fifteen years before York 
county \Aas rrganized. ami seven years' before York was laid out. It 
built one year after P.altzer Spangler 's first house whose site is now withiu 
the limits of York. 

The first house of Ilidt/.er Spangler 's still remained in 1799 according to 
the earliest ehrcniclei' and sketih artist of the time. Loui ^[iller. This. 
house of Baltztr Spimgler's sueceeiled but a short ilistanee west from the 
■ former l.iy a oommui.lieus brick mansion tlieu useil as a hotel and built in 
1760. This was uue of the most fiuished houses of that day and is still in 
a fair state of preservation and used as a dwelling. The Schultz house is 
now the oldesl: house in \ork county. It stands a silent witness of the 'past, 
and could its walls divulge the secrets and story of their past, it would 
make a volume of rare inte^'est. The Congressmen rode upon saddles which 
proved to be a great curiusity to the surrounding pnpulation which had 
assembled to see the notabilities as they passed thruugh en their \^ay to 

In the vicinity west and southwest of the old stone hotel a large stockade 
containing about twenty acres was built for quartering prisoners. This site 
was chosen about four and a half miles southeast of York to guard the latter 
against contingencies that might arise. The stockade was enclosed by posts 
fifteen feet high closely set together and guarded by sentries. Within 
stone huts were erected by the prisoners who for a time were mostly Hes- 
sians. Evidences of tills stockade were visible during the former part of 
the past century, even to an improvised gallows on wliich several prisoners 
were hung for murdering a resident by the name of Morgan, about two 
miles east of the sto kade and a short distance south of ITellam. "Word was 
sent to the stockade of the trageiiy and the roll of prisoners being called 


Tin: I'lixytiYLVAMA-aEini. i .v. 

the missing oiii.-s wcro easily disC'over(.'d wliich Icil to tlicir speedy arrest and 
{lunislimciit. But today all traces of tlie stockade liave disapjieared and it 
is only through tradition anioug tlie older residents uliose forefathers handed 
them down that facts can bo obtained aside frrm those that have been 
more directly recorded. 

A little above the stockade, on the brow of the liill wliich overlooks the 
beautiful Kreutz Creek A'alley, a large Hessian burying ground is located. 
Small pox and a malignant camp f e\ er produeed no less ;han one thousand 

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Wi:^tL.^y^iS:i:6ww.^ -^fe^*.!.-^ -. 4^:^^3i - .. 


The oUlost h.iuso in Y.ak Cnmitv. 

deaths among the large number of prisoners that were confined here. Rude 
stones marked the sites of the interments whii-h can still be seen in all sorts 
of positions after a lapse of one hundred and twenty-five years. Many 
prisoners were passed on to Frederi.k, Md.. and Winchester, Ya. Some of 
the prisoners left interesting diaries. 'Mv. Henry L. Fisher in his ''Kurtz- 
•weil un Zeitfe-rtreib ' ' in the poem " HesseDahl, " sets forth S(mie of the 
Tvierd traditions tliat cluster arimnd this gruesome spot.' But aside from 
historical associations nothing presents itself to the casual observer inci- 
dental to a localitv (hat (mce teemed with life and enerirv. 

Sej "Poetic Gems. 

nisTonic yonh'. 


Church orgaiiizatiniis todk proctHloiieo of cliuieh l)uil(liiigs at a very earlv 
period in the settleiiient of tlie town aud comity. So far as exi^1in;J; church 
records show ju-rhaps the earliest orgaiiizatidii was foriiied l.y Rev. John 
Caspar Siocver, .SoptemVier. 1733, who termed his congregation "Die Evan- 
gclische laitherische Genieinde an dor Kathores." lie served as pastor for 
ten years. The congregation in 1744 l.uilt a log chur.h on th^ site where 
the third or present Christ Lutiieraii rluirdi now stands on S.mth Cieorge 
street. This was rephiced by a s^one l.nihling in 17(ji'. This hit^r bnihling 


4 ^ ^~U^-~. 

I «»5S 6. „ ■ 


'ry jj-i 

IltTc ri-(--;iil,'Tit \\".i-il;i;i:i,.ii riitM-t.iiiit tl in 1701. 

Stood hero during the Kev(dution a'u.l was replaced in 1<IA bv the present 
structure, which, however,, has been remodeled and a separate chapel built 
which is termed "The Becldve. " 

The German Reformed Imilt their first church on the present site two 
years later, in 17-lG. This was also a log biulding which was followed by a 
stone building in 17(53. Ihis church was consumed bv fire in 1797. Thi' 
church was attended by liaron Steuben during his stav in York during the 
Revolution. Philip Livingston was buried in the cliurch burying ground. 
Tiie clergy of tli- t..wn received invitations to tiie fuunal. Rev.'oeorge Duf- 
field. tiu. chaplain of the C.mgress, delixer.'d an ad.lress at the grave. Congress 



resolved "to attend the funeral at six o'cliick p. m.. A\itli en-pe arniiiid tlie 
arm and to continue in inourniny for tiie Sjiacc of one month." I'rc^ident 
Wasliinoton al<o attended this chun-h on his visit here in 1791 and he 
record>- in his diary that lie undei^iood not a single word of tiie sermon, it 
being in German. 

This buildino- succeeded by the present structure in ISOO. The afore- 
said Lutheran and Reformed churches stand laterally to tlie street which 
gives tliem a quaint and excei)tional appearance. Both congregations still 
have German and English services. 

The Moravi-ns built a large stone building which was used as a church 
and a par.^onage as' e:^rly as 17.'».i. This was on Princess belcw Water s leei. 
It was on a large plot of ground i>art of whicli was used as a luirying 
ground. Later a separate ciuirch building %vas erected, mi the corner of 

M ii> tr i 


Q 4 .^ 


^.1_,, 1ifp .r^--:.>: 


(Fr'jiu a rude imaginary sicotoh of Lt-w is MilliT's.) 

Princess and Water which was followed by a later church on North Duke 
street. The Moravian diaries that were kept by the pastors of the church 
are especially valuable in relation to the details of events that occurred 
here during tlio IN-volution. Tliey have been translated by ^Iv. John W. 
Jordan and ^Iv. K. W. Spangler. That of 1777 is missing and some otlier 
years are inc( niplete. , 

During the e:,ilier part of 17S1 ":\rad" Anthony Wayne had his head- 
quarters heie. The Pensylvania Line was quartered here on the Commons 
DOW Penn Park. Insubordination and mutiny occurred in its ranks. Wayne 
subdued the disaffection promptly and severely liy drum head courtmartial. 
Several of th'^ mutineers (some say four, others seven), were siiot kneeling 
against the fmce of the ^LM•avian grounds. Tiie troops were marched past 
the bodies. These j>rompt and severe measures struck terror into the ranks 
of the soldiery and no further trouble ensued. 

The ^liaries rc-Mird that the inliiix of lu'tcrogcneous elements had a verv l,ad 

lllsToinr YOliK. 


influence upon the morals of tlic connuuuity. Fiequent al;>.vms anJ dis- 
coveries of plots aiming'- the prisoners' for tiie ea]ituro of the Congress anil 
the burning of the town \Yere unearthed. These diaries are interesting 
reading and it is to be hoped that these and other documents may bo pub- 
lished in full. 

St. Jolm's i'rotestant Episcopal i-luurli was Imilt in 1760. It has since 
been a number of times remodeleil but some of its original walls are snll 



r - 




I-" •»• *■ 

T '^' 

i t 


fct," I 



""-] I 


■p ^•«-v^ 1 


included. It is wrrtliy of renmrlv that this was one of the four Episcopal 
churches in the State outside of I'liiladidphia. It has many interesting 
historical associations c-onnected •^vith tlie lie\"(dution. It \vas used as an 
arsenal. One of its' rectors was a royalist. His con\ictions v.ere so offen- 
sive that he was ducked in the L'odorus. This was in 177G and no clergyman 
served the congregation during the devolution. Two noted soldiers of the 
Kevolution wlio \\cre in the warm confidence of General "NN'ashingtcn are 
interred in the Innying ground of tlie church. They were Colonel Hartley 
and Major Jidin (.'lark. 'J'hcir compatriot, (icrrral HiMiry Miller, who was 
long a resident herv', died in and was buried at Carlisle. 


'/'///■; yy; A AN ) i. r i \/ i (n:h' \i. i a . 

Eev. Samuel P.aet ii, an Episonjnil ^•Ipio;ynian, established tlic first Sunday- 
Sthool ill York foiiiity in 1S17. That of ('iiiist Lutlicran eluiridi dates from 
J819. Others fonowed sjjocdily afterwards. 

The Friends were aiiiong the earliest settlers in tlie country. Tiiey erected 
the ^loetiniT Houses of Xew berry and ^\'a^riIlgton already in 174o and 1747. 
Tliat at Xfc'uberry was succeeded liy tliat of Kedlands, near I.ewisberry in 
l.'-ll. These Meeting Houses liave l;urying ground attarhed to then'. The 
houses of Warrington anil b'edlands ha\e been restnred and services are 
held in lliein periodically. Aiiotlier Meeting House is tliat of Fa^vn, built ii; 
the \illage of Fawn Ciro\e in th(^ lower end of the crountv in 1790. A new 

'1 'F-. 
f 7 i*^-. 

V ) 



1 A- 

t \,tt9V^S^^i^^'*S$ f 



tit ^L-acf^ i-i^Jk ,^^ 

- ,J 

Northwest CuriuT Market ami IJeavor Streets. Yurk, I'a. 

house was built some years ago. Tlie meeting is in a jrosperous condition 
services being held regularly. 

The York Meeting House was built in 17()<). It stands on Philadelphia 
stre<'t. It has lieen usually claimed that the lirieks of which it is built were 
impiorted from Knyland. However, ; his is now believed to be a misinterpre- 
tation of the facts. The walls were erected liy a member of the Society, 
AVilliam Willis, whose business was that of a farmer and brieklayer. His 
farm containei] the well-known Willis spring. Prospect Hill Cemetery, 
which was laid out in 1S59, once formed part of his farm. The farm build- 
ings are in a good state of preservation. His initials W. W., 1-7-G-7, ex- 
tend over the south wall of the house. The barn was a commodious struc- 
ture for that early time. 

He also built the walls of the oM Court House in 1754-0 and of the old 



stciie jail on tlic corner of Goor^fO anil King streets, \viiich \vas built in 
17G9, or earlier. A later jail was built in tlie nortlieastern part of the town 
in 1S.35, which will be succeeiled by a new or reinoilele<l ImiMing shortly. 
The Willis farm renuiined in the possession of his sons for a number of 
years. William Willis ilied in ISOl. 

The Friends were among the first Abolitionists. The famous Protest at 
Germantown by the Quakers and Meain nites on April IStli, IGSS, was the 
first made on the Western Continent. I'ndoubtedly this protest grew out of 
the advice and suggestions gi\t'n to William Peiin by i-Jenjamin Fiirly, of 
Rotterdam, a wealthy Knglish mt reliant of t'.iat city, lie was burn in Eng- 
land but became a resilient of Holland and identified himself witii the 



Diflfereut lines of the Underground Eailroad ran through this town and 
county. It is clainuvl that this odd term originated at Columbia. Runaway 
slaves could be hunted and traced as far as that place, but there all traces 
of them were h st. The slave hunters in their perplexity dedaretl " tliere 
must be an underground r;ulroad somewhere.'' The term caught the pub- 
lic fancy and }>assed into the literature of the day. 

Many exciting adventures took place in this connection. On Feliruary 
Gtli. l'^40. a riot oc<urred at the (dd Court House on account of " Berley 's 
Abolition Lectures." About iSiJO a fugitive slave, who junified from the 
garret of a two-story stone house, near Lewisberry (which is still standing). 
was sLcl by his pursuing Southern master. fSixteen shots were taken from 
the wounds*. He recovered and was taken back South. 

The history o*:' the underground railroad from Harper's Ferry to Columbia, 

272 Tin: ri:\\SYL]AMA-(;i:h'MAX. 

cmiM it lie writtoii in all its de'ails, would ],q as intt-icstiug as any voniauce. 
Even yet r-cnsiilfialile material exists. ■ 

The Presbyterians built tlieir first house of WLUship in York in IT'.ni. They 
had been crganized long picvicusly. This church ^vas succeeded by a later 

The Roman Catholirs rtniodeled a stone building iuto a church in 1770. 
This house uas Ijuilt in 17."0. This was snccei.^dod by a brick structure in 
1810, and lately l;y an imiicsing eilitice. 

The ^Slennonitcs. and Tuid;trs cr I'rcthren were In re at an early period 
but their members ha\e never been s(.) munerous as in our neighboring cnunty. 

York cnuntv contains three distinct ge:degical bells. The lowt/r. nldest. 


I c ■ ; ^i n ■! .J - 



i. S, 



or slate in its southern portion. The more recent, or middle, a limestone 
in which York is located, is in its central por.ion. The upper or newer, or 
new red sandstone, is in the northern The middle portion is less 
in area than either ot" the others. 

The county has an area of less than 1,000 sciuare mile^. The three natural 
divisions were settled much about the same da. e, on or a little before 1730. 
The southern portion was chiefly settled liy the Scotch-Irish, who were Pres- 
byterians. The center was settled by the Germans, who were Lutheran, 
German Kcfornied, ^Moravians, ^[ennonites and Tankers. The north was 
settled chietly by Friends, who extended into what is now Adams county, 
which was before 1*^00 part of York county. The Conewago Creek even today 
abruptly s-'[iarates tlie Er.gli'^li ami the ( as it did a century .ago. Xo 

nrsTomc york. . 27:^ 

less than 2,000 Friends IkkI settled in the county iimre than a century ago. 
Many of these people removed and many of their desremhins have become 
connected with other churches. The Episcopalians settled in York. They 
were not numerous, but influential. 

Most of the earlier houses of York were very small and mostly but a 
single story in height. The first house of Baltzer S{iangler is a fair speci- 
men of the earliest architecture. Later an improved story and a half house 

iii-C r»/se."!si .^iiiJiiV 

...'.^ .■J..\.ii3i-' 


Tile C.-riiian Liitlioriui riniri^b, Ym-k. 17i:ii-1n12. I'Mrish S'l-h 

.Skftcli of I), .SpiiiHiUr \\\((iiter. from the dixiicin 

'■1.5 MilUr. 

■ of Iir. J..l:i, n- 

with dormer windows extending from the roof Ijecame \ery popular. Many 
of the earlier houses were built of logs^ ^\hil■h were, later, weather-boarded 
or rough-coated, of which some specimens are still standing. 

Y'ork did not contain over three hundred houses during the Revolution. 
It's population then was about 1,500. Lancaster with a population of over 
4,000 was said to be the largest inland town in the colonies. Y'ork contained 
a very large number of the aforesaid buildings till aftv^r the Civil War. 
They have disappeared very rapidly since York has become a city and iu a 

274 77//; l'i:\\SYfA A\r\-(lJ:h'MA.\. 

sliort time ^vi!l 1 ol'ohic very rnre. i^cme of these Imuses -with the ileniamls 
of the tiir.e have been raided aiinther story and inw prrseiit a inon^ inock'ru 

One of tlie oMest large, brick ilwellinys stands on the southwest corui-r of 
Market and Jjcaver streets. Jt is now partly oeeuj'ieil liy tin> Adams llxjiress 
office. ]t was liuilt by Major .Tolin Clark ol' Kevoiutionary fame, who lias 
already been noticed. 

The house ou the opposite corner was the headquarters of "Mad" Au- 


, _i_ »■<:_„ .v>r»-- ■»"'■•'' 



1. Section of Murkot 11. lu- 
.3. State House. 

-. Cniirt Ilmise. occtiiiiod by tlio ruutiiiont.-il (.'oii^'i>' 
4. l!eiij:niiin ll.jishs Inn. .3. ( lott liib Zi. 

s, 1777-S. 
j.'le's Inn. 

th<iny Wayne durinir his stay in York in 17S1. The trees that are seen on 
the side are belifved to be 2.50 years old. 

Tlie Smyser hi>u-;e, comer of Market and Xeuberry, was built in 1773. 
Some of its occupants were taken out of the upper story windows in the 
great tlood of the Codorus Creek in l>il7. Twice since, in ISS-i and in 1SS9. 
has this " tloo<l district" been invaded. The Codorus speedily rose to a 
height of twenty-five feet above low water nuirk. It appeared like a raging 
river nearly one half niile in width, sweeping away bridges and buildings 
and doing an immense amount of damage, especially in its later visitations. 
It has been fomjiuted there was a rainfall of twelve inches. 

York has always iiad a largo miniber of lioifl--. The large number of srage 
line- and great amr.uni of tr:i\el before the days oi railroads created a neces- 

IllsTOh'ir YOh'K. L'T.-) 

pity for tlio'^e li'-^trlvios. A liottl liiriisf was aln^in'v ^rniitt.'(l in the tirst 
year uf tlic town's cxisti'iicL'. l'.'ilt/.(r Spaii^lcr 's first liduse nt' 17;i:!. aui.-ur'l- 
ing tt) L( ti' Miller, liail tlie iKHiur ot' fiitcrtaiiiiii^ I'lumias aTnl Kiehard l\ini. 
He qiiaintiy says: • ' \Vlieii William {!) ami JJicliard I'ciin laiil out tlio t"\vu 
of York they were at tlie old house of Baltzer Si'aiiuler, 1741, and ga\ e 
Mrs. Spani;!er a pound of tea to ir.ake fcr sujijier and she, never liavino- seen 
tea before, took it for greens and {tut it in a small kettle and boiled it with 
bacon. At tliat tin;e tliei'e vere Indians alniut and eame to Spangler's fur 
son'.e whiskey. Sjumgler had a small still whieh lie brought from (iermany."' 
Biiltzer Spangler's hotel, Imilt in ITtiu, wlueh is still standing, is next to 
the Sehultz house, the oldt^st Intrl building in tlie county. Neither of the 
two buildings are noAV used for hotel purposes. 

-' : ■-* 





The Helstam.l A'alley Hotel, a ver}' large stone building about three mi';i-3 
east of York, is a noted l.-inchnark. It is not as old as the former, but was 
later, supplied as a missing link lu'tweeu the jirevicus mics It 
was kept by a ^^^. IJaril in the la. ter part of the eighteenth eentury. The 
accounts that have cduie down to us of the parties and balls, especially dur- 
ing the sleighiag season of the winters, would make interesting reading'. 
Later the York and Susquehanna turnpike came by and the old road< beiuLT 
changed gave it a larger patronage. It is now used as a farm house. The 
Washington House in York entertained such worthies as Webster and Clay, 
and Presidents Taylor and Johnson. 

Lafayette and many others who had participate'! in the Ee\"<jlution re- 

2T<', 77//; /•/;.v.\.sv/>r I \7.i-f;/;A'i/ i.v. 

tunif'il to see the [u\\n to wliich su ni;iiiy aiixidus eyes \verc turned durinij 
tin ^Iddiiiiest period of tlie Kevoluti( n. 

The National Hotel in York is a pvdinitu'nt ?tructure whieh was built 
many years ago. f'harles Dickens, tlie Knglish novelist, relates that during 
his visit to America in 1S41, he was lure served with the best piece of roast 
beef, while on his visit lo this cnuntry. Tlis ninth chapter of ' ' Anu'riran 
Xctes, " which rela'.es to his stop here in York antl his journey to Ilarris- 
Vjurg by stage across the camel-baek bridge, and thence to Pittsliurg by 
canal and portage railroad, is interesting reading aftir a lapsi^ of sixty years. 

York and Y'ork county ha\"e also been jdnneers in in\'ention and disto\ery. 

s9-?»'^«r».r^.«?w3:?*?r *■? 'j 

M: ^i ;J: 












-^: 1 

1 U 3 4 5 6 

1. <;:nilu.'i-'s .-■["Vi-. ■_'. Mci;r;itirs Imi. 

.".. Late r.iiltZ'-r ."^pi'ii^IiT'-s I'.l;ii k li. rsi' Iim, in wbieli Gni. Wa-iliiiiL'tini QiiartiTt'ii. 
4. Will. Ni'>' .>-•:. .I.-. ' .">. MarktH H.ais.'. 

0. Old Cant 1I..USI'. wln'i-.- tlu' C' Ccnt'i'i s^ ui. t. 

In ]^2.') John Kigiir n nstrurtcd a sixty liv nine foot steand)oat. \Aeigh;ng 
five tons, whii-h uas | ropelled frctn \'ork lla\fn to Hinghainton, Xew York. 
Tliis boat was called "The ( 'udm-us, ' " and uas tlu' first of its kind e\ei- 
built. He also lecame notod afterwards as tlie inventor of turn-rab!es, 
switiJies, fhill bearings, jdate wheels and spring.- for luirden cars. Pluneas 
Davis in ISol constructed tlio first loci motive ever built in the Union that 
useil foal and Wiis put in acti\e use on a railroad. It was called ''The 
Y'ork. " and was built for and used by the I'.altinuire and Ohio Eailroad, and 
is still in existence anil has been exhibited in tlie expositions of Pliiladelphia 
and '_'iii<-ago as an early ■uriesity. 

Go'lfrcy I.cnliart made grandfa lier (doiks lieariiig the ini|iriiit " York- 
tesn.'' in the t-igiiteenrh centurv, uh'ch were eagerlv sought for a century 

nrsTORir yurk. 

latpr. Ho hna a son. Willia,,,, av1,o l.ocaino one of the note,] matheniati. 
ot modern times. 

Daniel Kirkweo.1, a noted astrunui.ier and math, tuati.iaii, \vas for a 
a teacher in tlie York County Academy l„unde,l in 17^7. This Acad.-my 
held a notable history. With the CullVuiate Institute and Cottage Kill 
lege, It exercised an ennnnous inlluenre. York county has 634 school 
which 134 are in the city. 

The Melsheimers, father and tuu suns-, \vere prouounce.l by 
entomolo;?ist Say to be the fathers of entomology in the I'nited ^.^.., 
elder ^Felsh^eimer was a Lutlieran clergyman at Hanover. York eountV 

the En; 


■ has 
s of 





^^'^^y r~^.. 




M i E 


^^ \ ^ :t M d 



i-^':-gi^\'',f*> "^ i; I if ;- . i- -^;- '"I 


- ' ^^': ' ^M&^^t'^'^^-r^- l^te;^ 

• » ■^^li^ani.ara^l^sSSSl^'S^gJEV! 

■V\"here General Lafayette was entertained in 1S24. 

was born in Germany in 1749. He came to Hanoyer in 17sO and .lied there 
m 1S14. He %vas succeeded as minister by his s.,n. Key. John F. Melslieinier 
who came m possession of his father's library and collections. He had inher- 
ited his father's hne for natural history. Both father and son had been in 
corresrondenee with entomologists of Great Britain and the Continent. The 
elder Melsheimer published the well-known catalogue of '-Insects of Penn- 
syhama in ISOG. It contains sixty pages and is no^y yerv rare. It con- 
tained a description and classification of 1,363 species of beetles and was t'.e 
first work Of the kind eyer published in An.erica. Dr. Knoch, of Genna.n-. 
pubbshea a book ,n isol. dedicate.1 to the elder The son ReV. 
J. i. Melsheimer, .iiod about bS3(.. and his brotlier, Dr. Ernst Frederick 


Tin: I'EWs i7.r.LV/ 1 -<;/:/m/.i .\ . 

!N[eNliPinior, iiilicritoil the collections tiii<l lilirary tliat had been aceuniulated 
hy his father ami hruther. Hr. MelshcMiiier. the ynun^iT, rcuHned to a small 
village called Davidslmi;^-, in York county, whore ho practiced his jirofessiun 
for more than fifty years. Ife died tliere in iSi:' at the advanced age of 
ninety-one years. 

Far removed froTn communication with the world of science, he was great- 
ly surprised to learn that his father's book was well known and mentioned 
in German, English and ]'"'rench works which fact was comnuinicated to him 

■ ■ iS^-:*^^.^*^^^?^' ■^^i'ip*?''- -3? 

-t. v.- 




by Dt. Carl Zimmerman, of Harvard, who had walked from York to Han- 
over in 1S34 to see Ihe elder ^[elsheimer, but learned that he hatl been dead 
for twenty years. His elder son had died fcnv years ]ir(wiously. He then 
went to Da\'idsburg to see the younger brother and found him living in the 
midst of a forest. His wife was at tlie spinning whetd. The house was rude- 
ly constructed with boards and painted red. This was before the flays of 
railroads. And yet under tliese disad\antagcs these men struggled to create 
a science which then seemetl to have little practical value and wliich doulitless 
procured him Kttlo sympathy among their surroundings. 

Twice more, in 1S.'?9, Dr. Zimmerman visited Dr. Melsheimer in c.Tinpany 
with Eev. Daniel Zeiglor, a Reft nncl miinster from York, who had also be- 
gun to turn his attention to entomohiLiy. 


In ]S42 the entnmoloffieal stu-iety of Pcriiisylvniiin was furniod and Dr. 
ilelshtinicr, of Daviilsbiirg, was jlysen its iUfsiiUiit in IS.');;. ]Wv. Dr. ,1. 
G. iforris, a DutinTan clergyman from P.altimore, also was a menilior of this 
society. Dotli reverend gentlemen are now doeeased. Their puidl, Mr. 
George Miller, a practical entomologist of York, survives, and has at-cuniu- 
lated a creditable collection. 

The Melshe'mer and Ziegler collections were bought in 1SG4 by the dis- 
tinguished naturalist. Prof. Louis Agassiz, for Harvard University, and oc- 
cupy a prominent place in its museum, and arc highly prized. The ^[cls- 
heimer collectinn filled forty-one wooden boxes 3 0',^. by 14 inches, and two 
inches high. They contained 5,302 specie.-^' and 14,774 specimens. The price 
paid was $2.")0. The Zeigler collection contained 5,302 species witli 11.837 
specimens. Of course not all the species belonged to the United States. 

Some of our York county boys left here more than a half century ago and 
afterwards became noted. Samuel Toomey, of Canal Dover, Ohio, left here 


in 1S47 and walked to Ohio and commenced the world without a dollar. He 
invented the bent felloe, or at least made it a practical invention. He 
has established a large and prosperous business. 

Isaac ]^Ierritt Singer, who worked here as a journeynum tailor, married 
here. He later ma<le ilie sewing machine a practical invention in Boston 
on a borrowed capital of tifty dollars. He worked conrinuiusly for twelve 
days and success crowned his etVorts. He faced popular incredulity, after 
this, in denujiistrating the claims of his in\entinn, bur he overcame all 

Daniel Minnich was a York county boy. He was kidnapped at nine years 
of age by a traveling magician. He la cr became an accomplished knight of 
the "sawdust arena." As an all around [lerformer he had feu e<:iaals and 
possibly no superior. He was one of tlie three Daniels, iucluding Rice and 
Gardner, whose names became household words. 

The Studebaker Brothers, the larytst wagon and carriage builders in the 
world, at South Bmd, Indiana, wore ii;\ri\t's nf the avljoining county of 
Ad;imp. once a par. uf Y'ork cuunty. They began lite in luunble circum- 

280 77//; pf:\ysyLVA\[A-(i/:N]fA\. | 

stances near Ashland, Ohio, and later removed to Indiana, and by degrees | 

established their Ini'^incss. -^ 

Hervey TIannnoud, of Lewisberry, York county, invented a \\indo\v sash :^ 
spring in 1S37, -ivhich was introducetl into the White House and other pub- ' 5= 

lie places. ^ 

Simon Snyder, a future governor of the State, learned the trade of a tan- I 

ner in York. 4 

James Lick, of Lebanon county, the well-known California millionaire, ; 

learned the trade of building organs in Hanover, of this county. \ 

^^arly Scotch-Irish names, besides the McKinleys, became prominent in the | 

history of the country. 5 

The ancestors of President James K. Polk lived just across the border in -. 

Maryland. At an early day they removed to North Carolina and later to s 

Tennessee. Colonel Thomas Polk was President of the convention that fram- < 

ed the Mecklenburg Declaration of Indejendence in 1775. Across tl;e river, i. 





in Lancaster County, were settled the ancestors of John C. Calhoun, who 
afterward moved to Sou'di Carolina. 

Robert Fulton was born across the rivtr in Lancrster county, and a town- 
ship has been named in his honor. The parents of the note<l Davy Crockett 
were natives of York county and the border of r^Iaryland. Such names as 
Lewis, Kwing, Hendrick.'j, Butler, Black, Brackenridge, Ross, Rowan, Dill, 
McAllister, Franklin. Quay and a host of others not mentioned, have been 
more or less identified with the interests of the county and have shed lustre 
upon it. 

York county has had some noted writers of Pennsylvania-German poems, 
among whom may be named Rev. Adam Stump, Mr. Henry L. Fisher and 
Miss Rachel Balm, late of Hellam. The latter had been a helpless sufferer 
for over fifty years previous to her death a year ago. But under these ad- 
verse circumstances she has produced a volume of poems that express rare 
pathos and beauty. Prof. George R. Prowell has been an industrious in- 
vestigator of our local history and we express our indebtedness to him for 
many facts and suggestions in the prijiaration of this paper. Mr. E. W\ 

HISTORIC yolv'K. 2S1 

Spanjjlcr has written a huge work on gonoalogy ami local history of great 

During the past century York eounty has been extensively engaged in the 
raising and culture of tobacco. As many as l-.OOO acres' liave been plante<l 
in a single season. In the manufacture of cigars, according to the Revenue 
Deijartincnt, it leads all other counties iu the Union. Sime towns in tlie 
county are almost entirely devoted to this industry. 

York and York county have had an lumoralile record in tlie annals of 
patriotism. On .July 1st. .1775, Captain Miciiacl l>ou<lel 's eompany of rifle- 
men left York for I-5ost(in. They were the first troops from s'outli or west 
of the Hudson ri\er to read) IjOs'i n and weie at once assigned to the most 
arduous duties, after a continuous n^arcli of twenty-five days. Clark and 
Miller who afterwards becan.e noted were with the company. This comjiany 
was later organized into a regiment of riflemen with conipanies from Berks. 
Bedford, Cumljerland, Daupliin, Franklin, Lancaster, Xorthampton and 
Northumberland counties, wiiidi was commanded by Colonel William Thomp- 
son, and later liy (^'oh^iel Hand. They were unfailing marksmen. Froth- 
ingham in his ''Siege of Boston'' says: ''They were terrilde to the British, 
being stationed on the lines. At a review^ a company of them while on a 
quick advance, fired their balls into objects seven inches iu diameter at a 
distance of I'-'D yards. The accounts of their prowess were circulated in 
Englantl. One of them was taken pris'oner and carried there and the papers 
described him as a remarkable curiosity. 

In tlie War of 181:2, a company of young men under command of Captain 
Michael Spangler was attached to the Fifth Maryland Regiment, and greatly 
distinguished itself in the defence of Baltimore at tlie battle of Xortli 
Point. The York "Comin(ms" had 5,000 men upon it ready to march at a 
moment's notice. But the enemy had received a decided check and their 
services were not needed. 

"The Commons," now known as I'enn Park has had an interesting his- 
tory, first in the Revolution, then in the War of 1812, and lastly iu the 
War of the Rebellion. iMany wounded men were brought to the hospitals 
erected there during the latter War. ^tany died of their wounds and are 
buried in a plot in Prospect Hill Cemetery. A tasteful monument has been 
erecte<l there to their memory. Penn Park also has a tasteful and conspicu- 
ous monument erected to the memory of the soldiers and sailors from York 

After the tiring on Sumter and the call for troops the Worth Infantry and 
the Y'ork Rilies, two noted local organizations', promptly responded to the 
call for troops and have had medals given them by the State as its First 
Defenders. Again in the Spanish-American War, Companies A and I of ihe 
National Guard, Eighth Regiment, promptly re.s])onde<l to tiio call for 
troops. iMany individuals have been in the arms of the regular and naval 
service and have had honorable careers and records in Cuba, China and the 

Y'ork county contains some curious natural features. Round Top. in the 
northwestern part r.f tlie county^ is the higliest elevated position in the cmui- 


THE PUXXSYfAW \[A-(;f:RM.\\. 

tv, rpachin;,' LllO feet oltovo tlie sc^a level. In the Now lu'il Samlstone Eegion 
of the upper end tlie oeoloo;ieal niai> gi\es evidences of marked protrusions 
of priinitivf t,'ranitii' ro.-ks tlirouyh tlie new red sandstone formation. Below 
Middletown Ferry, in the river is the noted Hill Island. Tliis is a high knob 
or elevation forming an island of considerable extent embracing several 
farms. It [irobably formed part of the York county side in past time, the 
river having cut a channel through the low connecting neck. 

Opposite Goldsboro, and above Conewago Falls several miles below Golds- 
boro, tlie river reaches i;s greatest width of two miles or more. Tlie " Cone- 

12 3 4 5 


1. >Ir. DouJi-l's luii. :.'. Viiriliiut Eiigii:t> IIi use. .".. DdiuIi-I's Tan Yard. 

i. Cotlorus BfiiU'L'. ' .'). Ziejitei-'s Store. 

wage Falls" above York Haven, are an interesting object in the course of 
the river. They oll'ered an obstacle to ri\ er navigation in tlie days when 
public improvements l)v water ways were belie\ed to be a prime necessity. 
Steps* were already taken before the Revolution to overcome the ditficulty. 
r>ut the commencement of hostilities cau«eil these measures to lie quiescent 
till peace was restored. In ITS!) the snbjivt of a canal ^\as broached which 
was at last completed in 17t>7. It was about a mile in length, forty feet wide 
and four feet deep. It had two locks which overcame a fall of nineteen 
feet. It cost >1 110,000. It was formallv opened by Governor Mit^in on 
Xnvember "J'Jd. 1797. An opposition canal was commenced on the I,anca«ter 



county siilo but ended in failure. This oanal was the first in Pennsylvania 
if iHit in the Unied States. 

The canal was a success, hut after its completion '"'arks'' coninicneed to go 
throufih the natural channel of thf "rapids."' Tlie experience was said to 
have been exciting and dangerous. Imt as time went on. pilots grew ex- 
perienced and the dangers diminished. 

At the foot of the rapids on the Vork county side just above where tlie 
Big Couewago Creek enijities in tlie river, York Haven was laid out in lsl4. 


%^-vi 'Si -*.: 


THK I'liMIAX (IF Till-: (■((M;\VA(.() WITH Till: SfSQIKHAXXA AT 
Kiv.T d'ixvs siMitli — C'rt'oU 111 itlnvard. 

This point was about ten niiks nortii of York. Great business pr<\iects 
were inaugurated tiiere liy Phihidtdphia and Baltimore ca()italists. \vlio 
aroused great expectations for the future of '.he place. This was before the 
days of canals and railioacls. York Haven was prosperous and had a large 
hotel at whieh many celebrities stopped. Lafayette and Secretary of War 
I.owis Cass, among other notabilities, were guests of this hostelry. But 
after the advent of canals, and especially railways, a prominent line of which 
passed through the place, the Conestoga wagon trains speedily disappeared. 
Y'ork Haven then woTit into d.ecadfuce and the town became a memorv of 
more prosperous days. In ls>."i the Conewago Paper Mill Company hoaght 


THE PEWS YLV. 1 XL 1 -fJEh'M. I A . 

the site of the .Hills- n.,,1 uafr power. The eannl was wideiicl aiM the fall 
ot water in the .anal increase.l to twenty-nine feet. York Haven bc-an.o 
rejnvenateJ an,l a new lease of life was ouen it. A similar resuscitation 
seldom oceurs ,n the history of a town. The great West affords instances 
Of towns build.n^^ up, tliriving for a time, and then being taken down' in 
sections and set np at more favorable points! Of course York ITaven pos- 
sessed natural features that were absent elsewhere and thus made an ex- 
ceptional history a possibility. It gives en,pl.,yn,ent to a large number .'f 
■ persons. 

Spring Grove, a town midway between Hamiver and York is al*o de- 
voted to making paper of a high grade. It is a town of rare prosperit^v and 
beauty, and hard times have never been known there. The Big Conewacro 
treek arises in the South Mountain in Adams countv. After takino- ^ .'rr- 
eu.tous and meand.ering course, it at last Hows into the river betuw the 
Conewago Falls, at York Haven. The Little Conewago enters it a fe^v nules 
above Its mouth. The stream in part of its course is rapid and has 
considerable fall. During the great tb.od of lsy4 it rose thirtv-six feet ab„ve 
lc« water nark, doing an inmcnse amount of damage. 

The P.ig Conewag,. presents an interesting curirritv. Some distance be- 
low wlH-re the Little C.newago becomes tributary to it some time in the 
past the creek o^ erflowe.l its banks during high water and took a drect 
course erst toward the river. Being deflected from ihis course it pa^^.d 
down parallel with the bank of the river and entered it at Xew liollmd 
two miles below. Within a half mile of its mouth there is a shnrt bifur- 
cation. When the rivtr is high it tlows toward the creek. When the <-reek is 
high It flows toward tin- river in tl,e shorter branch. The main south branch 
ot the creek, during high water, is a rapid strean,. During low wafr it 
IS s ug.,sh or be..on,es dry. The ncrtl. or main bran<d, of the Conewago runs 
north almost parallel with the river but up stream about three nules and 
empties into the river at the lower end uf ;he Conewago Falls, at York 
Haven. This com-se seen.s at first sight to be a ,-ase of water running up 
hill apparently. The configuration of the countrv is curious 

These branches form a .lelta of about fi^•e s.,uare miles. Whether a simi- 
ar exanip e ex.sts elseuhere is a question. It may be noted in this cuinec- 

Ounoco wit the Rner ^egr^, a tributary ,.f the An.azon. It sometimes 
flows from the Orinoco into the River Xegiv, and in the opposite 
clirect.on as the water is high or low m the rivers which it connects 

na u acturing plants and for other purposes. Thus what are tern.ed ob- 
stacles or evils m one age become blessings in future times 

senl^menr"l';'t."'7"V'-'"''' ''' '^' ^ ^^^"'^' ^"^'--^^^^ ^^^ ^'^ -^-1'-* 
settl n.ent At the foundation of the county in 1749, it had a population 

in 1 -;;'.:';'''' ^--^'"^/-o territory of Adams eou^y. This po i.l on 
.n l.ol had increased to S.OOn. In 1790 the population was 37.717. When 
-X.ian.s was taken fren. the territory of York in 1800, it left Vork -o.(i:U. 



Till ]SoO tins popiibifion lunl iiicionst'il to r)7.4.'iO. In 1900 Ihe impulatiuii 
re;u-lie<-l 1]G,47S. Tin- iinpulatiou tluis far lias' tlouhioil itself in fifty years. 

The town of Yoik has, liowever, liad a more rapid increase. xVt the close 
of the Kevolutionaiy War in 178:! tlie pojmlation tlieu taken was 1,779. In 
1>U0 it reached 2,503. Till l^.:u it iia.l reached 0,9(33. At the beginning of 
the War of the Rebellion it was about 9,000. The growth during the next 
twenty years or till 18S0 was steady, reaehing 13,971. In 1S90 it had reach- 
ed 20,S-19, and in 1900, 33,70S. Since then the growth has been very rapid 
and with the suburbs would make a largely increased population. 

The market sheds of Center Square liave been rej>laced liy an open square 


m rrt r^s fffl i:?^ 

•^_L.A?Ii-i*li^.l-;>-'^— -~" ^^ 

ri : ! 

Colonial IIoti.1. Iluiii's Huiiaiii 


1 and 2 above.) 

market and four largo market houses in various parts of the town, which 
hold thirteen marke'.s weekly, including all week days but Monday. The 
supjdy is unlimited and is noted for its freshness and cheapness. The Cone- 
wago strawberry is fame<] for its quantity and quality. 

The Fire Companies of the town are in the highest state of eciuipmeut and 
efficiency. There are six companies. Some of these companies have had a 
history of consideralily more than a century. Instead of five or six cliiirches 
during the Eevolutioii, York has now about sixty. 

The contrast between the town of the olden time and the newer York of 
the present is marked as shnwii ]iy soine of the vie'ws liere given. Old York 
was a town vi hand labor; the; newer York is a town \v]i(n'e laljor is largelv 

2S(; Tin: j'jj\\sYL]A\iA-(.i:h'MA\. 

performed by the iiiii'roved iiiaL-hiiiory of the day. Tlie newer York bids fair 
to bcconie an iidand town of great extent and still greater iiros[)erity. It 
is favorably situated fur expansion of its borders". Its siirroun<liiigs are in- 
viting and healthful and its business men are spirited and enterprising. Its 
growth has been steady and uninterrupted and gives promise of eontinuanee. 
The organization of the York County Historical Society, 'uith its valuable 
growing collection bearing upon the past from every point of view attain- 
able, shows that the community is not unnnndful of past associations. As 
time passes, fewer and fewer evidences of its past will remain to remind tlie 
beholder of that which was once so real but whicli eventually must be re- 
called from the historical page. 

List of Continental Congressmen Present at York 1777-8. 

New IIA^[^SH!KE. Folsum, Dr. Mattliew Thornton. 

Ehode Island. — Henry Merchant. William Ellery.* 

CoXNECTicCT. — Dr. Oliver Wolcott,'^ William Williams,'^ Law. 

Massachusetts. — John Hancock,* John Adams,* Samuel Adams,* El- 
bridge Georg,' .Tames Lovell, Francis iJana. 

Neav Y'ork. — William Duer, James Duan, Francis Lewis,* Goverueur 
Morris, Philip Livingston.* 

Pexxsvlvaxia. — Daniel Koberdean, IJobert Morris,* James Smith,* Wil- 
liam Clingan. 

New Je!;>;ey. — John Witherspoon,* Dr. William Burnett. 

Del A v.- are. — Thomas ^McKean.* 

Maryland. — Samuel Chase,* Thomas Stone,* Charles Carroll,* James 

A'"iF,GiXLV. — Richard Henry Lee,* Francis Lightfoot Lee,* Benjamin Har- 
rison,* Rich. .Tones. 

North Caiiolixa. — Jolui Penn,* Cornelius Harnett, Richard Hudson. 

South Carolina. — Henry Lawrens, Arthur ^Nliddleton,* Thomas Hey- 
ward, .Tr.,* Edward Rutledge.* 

Georgia. — Dr. Nathaniel Brownson, George Walton.* 

N. B.^ — Those marked thus (*) were also signers of the Declaration of 
Independence, twenty-five in number — more than half of all. 




The Hudson River 




This is a haudsoine work, a conipaiiiuii vuluine 
to that other book The Mohawk Valley, pub- 
lishei.l two years affu by tlie same Knickev- 
booker Press. As the former issue was re- 
plete Viith legend an<l history, this is even more 
so, since the Ilmlsou excels tho Mohawk in local historic and literary inci- 
dents. What American has not either read of or \'isited this tdassic river 
of America, uitli its charming scenery and its wealtli of local history sucli 
as has admitted it into the choice company of the Thames, the Seine, the 
Khiue and the Nile? No other river in America has a fund so rich in legen- 
dary and historic associations. Every mile of it is covered with reminders 
"of ti'.e early explorers, of the Indian wars, of the struggle of the colonies, 
and of the quaint, peaceful village existence along its banks in the eariy 
days of the Republic." It is an ideal work on local history, \vell tohl. 
beautifully and ciipionsly illustrated — a historical pilgrimage more than ;i 
hundred and fifty miles long, covt-ring about three centuries of time and 
telling the story of half a dozen races ur nationalities that have exploited 
upon its banks. Among them we find the familiar German exiles, after- 
wards migrated to Pennsylvania, whose history they so largely helped .to 
make, among whom the Kev. Joshua Ko(dierthal labcred, and to whose grave, 
with its strange epitaph, we are led. We cannot too higldy commend the 
author ni r the publisb.ers for issuing this magnifii-ent, V(;iUui!inous work. 
Its perusal is better than a trip up the river, but should be su[iplemeutary 
rather than siro-^titutionary to an actual visit. The author is Edgar M. 
Bacon; the publishers, Geo. P. Putnam's Sons; tiie size, 590 Svo pp.; the 
illustrations, 100 plus a fine sectional map; and the price, .*4.5u net. 

Religious Training of Children 


This is an excellent tract on a nu st im- 
portant subject from tho pen of a mother 
in Israel, who has justified her right and 
wisdom in issuing such a bruehure by her- 
self rearing a large and model fan\ily to lienor and usofulness. Such litera- 
ture should be sowed knee-deep, heart and head-deei' in all our hou:es and 
churches. American Sunday-school Union. Philadelphia. I'amphlet. .31 p[i., 
Svo; price, 15 cents. 

Here a Pennsylvania "Dutchman" dishes up in 
choice Phiglish (what is not a translation into 
choice Pennsylvania-German verse) with a Spanish 
title, a collection of prose writings and piietic effu- 
sions that will go far towards knocking the already dead phrase, alwavs 
untrue, about the "dinnb Dutch" into "innocuous desuetude." This clever 

011a Podrida. 



THE J'KXXSYL I . I v/ ir; /;/.'!/. I A , 

specimen- nf our stock has biiriiished liis editorial pen so ^\ell tliat its pro- 
ducts have for years sparkled and ranked ■v\ith the finest sjiecimens of our 
English lit»-erateurs. Frequently tliis gift and attainment has won its pos- 
sessor the honor of being the chosen orator upon set occasions of various 
kinds. These speeches and papers have been collected, as well as his long 
famous translations, hymns and poems, into two vohimes and issued by the 
Times Publishing Company, of Eeading, Pa. Because of its varied character 
of composition the work has been given tliis Siianish title for chow-chow. 
Let us assure tht- reader he never part'ok of so enjoyable and spicy a dish 
of hash before. The author's diction, liumor, poetic sentiment, v.ide read- 
ing and love nf nature have fitted him for this fine literary production. We 
are proud of tliis John Burroughs of our Pennsylvania-Oernmn hills and 
dells. The work 'Jiniited edition), sells by the author at $1.73. 

^ -^ 


-^ ^ 


"Told after Dinner" is a vivid story of the dark ways of Wasliington's 
official life. It is by Ella ^liddleton Tybout and appears in Lippincott '.<: 
ila(ja:uic for Marrh. 

The Yovtlt'.-i Coii'.paiiioti. of Boston, Mass., keeps up its old record of 
being the cleanest, brightest, best periodical for youth in the land. 

The Era jLtujazinc, of Philadelphia, has greatly enlarged and inproved, 
and now raiik> in contents, illustrations and general get-up with the best in. 
the land. 

For briglir. racy and compdeted short stories give me Llpinncott's. 

Did you ever see The Foiir-Tiacl: Xeus, a charming monthly issued by 
New York C entral Railroad Company ? It will make you wish to see it 

The X. K. Fairbauk Company ha\e sent out the Fairy Plate Calendar for 
1903, whi<;h has been so widely advertised for montlis past. This is the sixth 
year that the X. K. Fairbank Company have taken this method of calling at- 
tention to the product frDiu which the calendar derives its name. "Fairy 
Soap." This calemlar is ma<!e up of five largo plaques, four of which do not 
contain any type matter whatever, but are exact reproductions on heavy 
plate paper of the originals painted on royal Vienna china in twelve colors 
and gold, with tlie center countersunk and the border embossed, and all this 
beauty cmphasied by magnificent heads by Ryland. The Fairy Plate Calen- 
dar will be niailo'l postpa- 1 upon receipt of ten oval fronts from Fairv Soap 
box fronts, or. if ycu preter, for twenty cents in stamps. 



A'i * . :^ - ' ' 


"f'. «i i 

Vol. IV. JULY, i£^03. 

NvJ, 3. I i 

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Fiicsimile of Fr.ntii;M'?oe of Fv<^v. J. Cr 

a. '•■J d 

I'.-cher's Universiry Albuni. 

EDnr.'''jAL , 2S0. 


Fa;.iox".? I■■E.^'^"SYLVA^:IA-€!E^.^tA:'^'s 


Poetic Grj^.fs 


Sonntae Mora-p'd:5 rn der Z^'s^'l K^roh. 

Die Larniug. 

Mt. Grecna in Wiii^er. or a "V'isiv to 

I"airy-Lar 3. 

Ein DeutscLor Ynnk:. Dudel. 

D':^ Ju-.n ani (-or .Tu'i, 

Der Yok.l un dio l-'sn.'L .Rou''^. 

V'- G-iiz. 

Cs liaei:.-;!! F-k A=. 

LA:;o::rAi>K; HTSTnT*v cf CrTixD T^''r:TanEy- 

isii iCv ^''E.^:^'syL^■.\^■;A 


Book No~ icl'!: 

V. -if ,— f n ,- ? 
(.13 - V _r^ ■->» 



■■ i ''/ ■«■'■■■ v .K^ 


- ' l-'':T^:.Ti i ■■ ^5^.^" \l'T>,/^ --1^" ■ ' '^^^^r'''''.'^S\''''\^ f'Xy/ "%^x:i \\ ^':-p:i^:,, i 

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O H 



Pennsylvania- German 

RKV. P. C. CROLL, A. 51. 

Eiliior and Pul.llsber 


Bu-iiU'.-ss Maiia-.;^r 

Ttrnis: $1.00 per year in tiilianee; fl.'J-') afttr three rnonfli.t 

Vol. IV 


No. 3 

[y.alT^i at tlie Ph-i-o-^ •; a' !.■ i.a j..-i. Pa 


T ^^lATTERS not whether you spell it w-e-a-t-h-e-r. or 
w-e-t-h-e-r, or w-h-e-t-h-e-r you spell it at all : an> how it 
is al\va}'s capricious. We are never without it. Sometimes 
we have a good deal of it. It is ahva} s discussed, some- 
times to one's disgust. ]\la}" it not he so now. 
In the good old times it was dished up b}' almanac-makers in 
square three-monthly blocks, and labeled for the four seasons of 
the year — spring, summer, autumn and winter. It usuaJly came 
on time and made its exit as regularly as the style of a lady's 
bonnet. But now it is manufactured at Washington and doled 
out in 24-hour doses by our <laily newspapers. It is the only 
prophetic part a newspaper prints, except the probable political 
appointments, and one is about as true prophecy as the other. 
Only this way we always have some weather and usually a good 
deal of variety. 

This magazine is no newspa[)er. It is a chrunicler — a historical 
reminder — "lest we forget." 

And what is so easily forgotten as the weather? Who can 
remember last winter's schedule of snow and ice. and hail and 
thaw, and frost and blizzard, and sun and storm, and set a 
calendar date to each note of the var}ing. weathery staff? Who 
remembers that last fall hung warmly, smilingly and summer- 
ingly on 'through the usually bleak Xovember to the very thresh- 
hold of winter? We do. and vou will after vou are reminded. 


As the sun went down on the halniy 30tli of Xovember, the green 
velvety lawn was a sight to behold. Xo severe frost had dis-- 
turbed it. Xext morning the earth, where the writer lives, was 
white with snow. Less than two weeks after, he was out with 
horse and sleigh in drifted roads and scareely did seal-skin cap 
or fur-topped great-coat keep ears and ciieeks from the frost bites 
of cold. Old Boreas held sway. Xor did he loosen his grip 
until his little game of two months was played. Usually he 
scattered snow, hail and ice like ashes to make pedestrians loose 
their grip. And not a few remember that they pointed their 
heels unwillingly to the stars during December and January. 
Then came two weeks of repentance and sorrow, of bland kind- 
ness and genial smile. The peach and maples responded, only to 
have their tender buds frozen by its final breath that blew upon 
February iC, clothing orchards and forests in inch-thick bodices 
of ice and covering the earth with a foot-deep snow. On Febru- 
ary 17th we hied to ]\It. Gretna hills to see the matciiless wonder 
(for which see our poem in "'Poetic Gems" column). Uut, after 
two weeks, the enemy was repulsed. { See records of high water 
accounts). ]\larch ist dawned a typical spring day. Flowers 
burst forth from the ground as if by magic. A bed of the finest 
crocus blooms ever seen— more than a hundred perfect specimens 
— greeted the writer on his wedding anniversar%' (Alarch nth), 
lasting over a week, while nosegays of arbutus and wdiite violets 
were worn by young men and maidens from the Ides of March 
to its close. The buzz of the bee and the click of the lawn-mower 
were heard in the land. The last of March found me and a few 
of my "chicks" bringing in a basket of arbutus from Gretna's hills, 
where a little more than a month before the hobgoblins of winter 
had held full sway. 

April was cool and distant like a wounded lover. All the 
coaxing did not change his mcxid. Sullen and shivering, he 
shrank from warm embraces ; what he felt like doing was to 
scatter frost and snow. And this he did. Plants and flowers pre- 
maturely set out hung their heads wiltingly on the morning of 
the 5th. Yet the month closed to find ''the dog-wood had al- 
ready pitched his snow-white tent on the <i<\gt of the forest," and 
the ap])le spread his pnk canvas in the orchard. He bowed 
(Cuniinueil on pa^e^ ;!0S.) 


By RE\^ A. SrAPLKTON, A. M., M.S. 

From time immemorial the natives of Swit- 
zerland have been noted for their valor, love of 
freedom and nobilit}- of character. Not even 
the mighty legions of Julius Caesar could con- 
quer the brave inhal)itants of her snow-capped 
Alpine summits and lake-embosomed valley's. 
"""Hug.'t""' '"'"■ Her history abounds in episodes of startling 
and absorbing interest, and her territorial limits have ever been 
too circumscribed for her virile race, hence great numbers of her 
people have sought a wider field for their activities in foreign 

During the provincial period of our country the stream of im- 
migration from Switzerland to America was very heavy, espec- 
ially to Pennsylvania, and this Commonwealth can point to no 
better class of people within her bounds than the descendants of 
the Swiss immigrants. From this famous land and race came 
John Conrad Bucher— the scholar, soldier and pioneer preacher. 


John Conrad Bucher came from a ilistinguished patrician fam- 
ily, whose ancestral records run back in an unbroken line ovei 
four centuries. They were of the Reformed faith and prominent 
in church life from the days of the Reformation. As indicating 
the rank of the family it may be noted that Mary Flizabeth 
( 1732-1812), a sister to John Conrad Bucher, became the wi^'e 
of the Count John Conrad von Pyre. John Conrad Bucher was 

RuchiT Aniis — "Shie! , .\ziiri'. Hn<i Ci'iitrf Arjjfiit mi «bli-li is a P.i'ech tri-o — erailicat- 

eO, viTt, on wlii^h hMiifi ii 'ouiitei's hnru — st i'iiig*,'d, <jr. Crest, thi; tree and tiDtn as 

»n thu shieM." 



born July 13th, 1730. in Neukirk, ncai the city of Schafthausen 
on the Ivhine. His father, John Jacob I'.ucher, was "land vogt" 
of the district of Schafthausen. This office was of considerable 
importance. The father spared no pains or expense in the edu- 
cation of his son. The records show that John Conrad attended 
the Universities of liasil and St. Gal! in his own country, be- 
sides visiting, as was then the custom, other great seats of learn- 
ing, to round out his education. His '"Gedenk P>uch" (memento 
book), contained the autographs of ZollikoiTer. the great theolo- 
gian, and ^^losheim, the renowned church historian, and others; 
men who were leaders in the literary world of that da}". 

Besides a knowledge of the classical, he also possessed a thor- 
ough knowledge of Hebraec and European languages. Among 
his theological books are Dutch, French, English antl German, 
all of -which bear marks of stu- ^ - - 

dious usage. His sermon notes * "*> 

abound in Greek-Eatin and He- 
brew references which indicates 
a practical knowledge of these 
languages in a degree rarely pos- 
.sessed by literary men. 


The general supposition is 
that John Conrad Bucher, likq 
many other young men of qual- 
ity, took service in the army ot 
the Dutch Republic, and then en- 
tered the British Arm}" under a 
commission at the breaking out 
of the war between France and 
England in 1755. It is well 
known that England at this period sought the services of com- 
petent foreign officers to command her troops sent to operate 
against the French in America. It has been held that Bucher 
came as an officer in the Braddock ExiK^dition which arrived in 
the spring of 1755. and that he was present at the crushing de- 
feat of Bratldock at I't. Duquc'^ne. July g. 1755. Against this 

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ary Kli/nKeih Bii.;lier. sifter cf V.ts . J. 



u.her, huru m Switzerlaii.l. Maj 16. 1 
Diarriii tirM to Dr. Ott. aa.l -ccuoJly 
10 Junker J. Coiira.l Pyre. 


FEV. JOHN COSh'Al) liVCnER. 293 

sup])c.oition stands the fact that lUiclier's arrival is given as No- 
vember 1st, 1755. at which time the army had been withdrawn 
from Western Pennsylvania, and was preparing to operate in dis- 
tant qnarters. It shonld also be noted that lie Ijronght with him 
a large nnmber of theological books — family heirlooms — genea- 
logical reci^rds. etc., all of which indicates his arrival in a civilian 
instead of a military capacity. Among the relics mentioned is a 
massive gold signet ring. The lUicher coat of arms is cut in- 
taglio in a tine square ruby, flanked with diamonds. ring 
bears the date 1541, and has been in the family since that time. 


The first definite knowledge we have of our subject in a mili- 
tary capacity is his participation in the expedition of General 
Forbes for the reduction of the I-'rench at Fort Duciuesne in 1758. 
In that expedition the British forces were supplemented by a 
Pennsylvania contingent of 2,800 men, mostly commanded by 
German, Dutch and Swiss officers. 

The intelligent reader need hardly be told that this Expedition 
in which the youthful Colonel Washington, \\ho was fated to 
become "the father of his country," again distinguished himself, 
was of the greatest importance to the Province, as one of its im- 
mediate results was the founding of Pittsburg on the site of the 
captured Fort Ducpiesne, and the opening up of the Upper Ohio 
region for settlement. 

After the successful termination of the expedition in the autumii 
of 1758, the Provincial forces were tlisbanded with the exception 
of 150 men who were stationed in small detachments in the fron- 
tier forts. F)ucher remained in this service and was stationed 
at Ft. Louther, at Carlisle, Penna. In 1759 he was in charge of 
small detachments on the frontier, spending most of his time at 
Ft. Louther. In the winter of 1759 and 1760 he was in charge of 
the garrison at Carlisle, and acted also as recruiting officer. On 
February 26, 1760, he was married at Carlisle, as will be presently 
more fully n,oted. On April 19th he was commissioned lieutenant. 
and placed in command of the defenses of the valley, as is shown 
in the following order : 

•Vide Peiiiia. .\roh. S.coud Serlii^, Vol. 11, p. r>,'J9. 


"Carlisle, 12th June, 17G0. 

"Sir — T am coiiinianiled by (ieiR-ial Monkton* to acquaint you that you are 

lo roniaiii at Carlisle — witli the coninianJ of rank and file to 

guard the kinc^'s stores stationed at that place. The General has therefore 
seen fit to o'der tluit you :ire not on any aci-dunt to aV)sent yourself from 
Carlisle or suffer any of your command to do it. You will carefully pre- 
serve an exact discipline, and gi^'e all the assistance in your power to Mr. 
Adam Hoops, agent to the provision contractors in loading and unh^ading 
and forwarding the stores and provisions to the army. The General has 
also directC'l me to acquaint you that he has ordered the commamling officer 
at Shippens'burg to report to you, and he is to follow all such onlers and 
directions as yon may from time to time have occasion to send him. copy 
thereof you are, with your own reports, to transmit to the General. 

"I am, sir, your most obe<lient, humble servant. 

"HOKATIO Gate-S, M. B. 

"To Lieut. Boughart, of the 1st Bat. The Penna. Regt. " 

Tlie war between the mother cotuitry and h'rance was still in 
progress and the times were fnll of peril. Indian forrays were 
freqtient, and Rticher's command was frequentl}' called otit to repel 
the savage invaders. In the autumn of this year he received the 
following order from General Gates, the commanding officer : 

"Carlisle, 3d November, 1760. 
"Sir — Tt is General ^Monkton 's orders that you march forthwith to join 
Captain Nelson on Sivleling Hill with all the men of your command here that 
are fit for duty. When you have performed all the services required of you 
by Captain Nelson you are to return to Carlisle. 
"I am, sir, your obedient, humble servant, 

"Horatio Gates, M. B. 
"To Lieut. Bougert, commanding detachment of the Pennsylvania, Carlisle." 

After tliis service he returned to the post at Carlisle for the 
winter. The following spring, under orders of General Monkton, 
dated June I2th, ijdi. Lieutenant P>ucher was [)laced in charge of 
the transj)ortation service at Ft. Pitt, a position that required great 
energy and alertness in view of the great danger from the wily 


In 1762 we have nothing definite in regard to the movements 
of Lieut. lUicher, other than may be gathered from the general 
operations of the Provincial troops on the Pennsylvania frontiers 
as found in the Archives of the State. A sudden change, however, 

•C'lmnmiiijt r .«f thi> Briti-ili f.ircr^. 

i.'A'j'. JO US com: AD in vutiu. 295 

oqciirred to break the monotony and routine of garrison duty. 
Altliough the 'J'reaty of Paris in I'eljruary, 1763, had closed hos- 
tilities IxHween the mother countr\- and i'rance, nevertheless the 
greatest jjeril that ever confronted I'emisylvania, with the excep- 
tion of the Ci»n federate Invasion, during the Civil War, was 
suddenly thrust upon our frontiers b\ the uprising of the Indian 
tribes of the Northwest. 

This movement in the spring of 17^13. known in histor)- a^ 
"Pontiac's Conspiracy." was a concerted action of the XorUiwest- 
ern tribes to make a simultaneous attack on all the frontier forts 
from ]''ort P.edford at the base of the AUeghenies to Detroit in the 
Lake region, with the purpose of driving the encroaching white 
race into the sea. The great conspiracy was \vell {)lanned. and 
eight of the eleven garrisoned posts quickly succumbed. A great 
nuiTiber of soldiers and civilians were cruelly butchered by the 
savages, and over 2,000 faiuilies, or practically all the inhabitants 
north of the P>lue ^Mountains, tied for their lives. The Pennsxl- 
vania Archives state that on Jul}- 25. there were 1.384 refugees in 
the little village of Shippensburg alone. I^etails of this great 
struggle are not material in this connection, except as they may 
be related to the subject of this biogra[)h\'. As soon as possible 
the British Government dispatched all the regular troops available 
to Carlisle, where a formidable expedition was titted out for the 
relief of Fort Legonier and Fort Pitt, then closely besieged by the 
red men. The command of this perilous expedition was intrusted 
to Col. Pouquet, who. like Lieutenant P>ucher, was a Swiss in the 
P>ritish service. With this expedition was attached a part of the 
Royal American Regiment, comp'OSed of brave Pennsylvania 
frontiersmen, to whose lot it fell to do the hard work of flanking 
and pioneering. In this command was John Conrad I>ucher, as 
Lieutenant in Captain James I'iiter's company. The exijedition 
proceeded undisturl)ed on its way to the relief of Fort L*itt, until 
they reached Pushy Run, in now Westmoreland county. Here 
on August 5th, the advance guard was suddenly set upon by the 
Indians in force, who had left their investment of Fort Pitt and 
had purposed to ambush the expedition. The main force of 
Bouquet was hurried forward and one of the most terrific battles 
ever fought between the white and red races ensued. When dark- 
ness closed the contlict at niuht it shmved the armv in dire 


Straits, with every prospect of being utterly annihilated on the fol- 
lowing day. May we not su)4)ose that Lieutenant Ikicher, who, 
as we shall presentl) show, was already then a minister, spent this 
night of woe and despair in giving spiritual comfort to the dying, 
and, like Paul at ]\Ielita, cheering his fellow men with the promises 
of Divine assistance? Of his timely ministrations in this dire ex- 
tremity we have no doubt. 

The battle of Rushy Run \Vas won by the whites and the army 
saved from destruction by a brilliant ruse, into which the In- 
dians, who were led by some of the shrewdest chiefs their race 
has ever produced, should have been the last to fall. On the sec- 
ond day of the battle the whites pitrposely attenuated their line 
of battle at a point where the Indians were most strongly massed. 
Piouquet had rightly divined what the foe would consequently 
think and do. Without dreaming of its purpose, and supposing 
that the thin line meant weakness and was easy of penetration, the 
red men rushed against this point of least resistance, never dream- 
ing of the fleet-footed 77th Highlanders and royal Americans, 
who had been partly concealed, and who, quickly entilading them, 
crushed them as between the upper and nether millstone. The 
brilliant victory that followed broke the power of the red men — 
the beleaguered forts were relieved, and Pontiac's conspiracy 

Contemporaneous with this movement, a force of Indians had 
collected on the Great Island in the Susquehanna river below the 
present city of Lock Haven. A company of Lancaster County 
Rangers had a severe encounter with a part of this Indian force, 
in the Muncy Hills, in which both sides sustained a considerable 

To clear the entire region of hostiles an expedition under Cap- 
tain Armstrong, fitted out at Fort Shirely in Huntington county, 
consisting of about 300 Provincials. In this expedition was Lieu- 
tenant Ihicher, who acted in the capacity of adjutant to the com-' 
mand. Armstrong l;oped to surprise the Indians, but the wily 
savages were alert, and as the whites approached, they aban- 
doned their encampment, leaving behind a considerable amount 
of supplies. 

A part of the Provincial force remained on the Island until 
late in Xovembcr. In that month a sale was htld of the captured 


Stores, Lieutenant lUiclier actini^ as clerk. The purchasers were 
mostly officers from the Cumberland X'alley. 

bouquet's gkkat expedition. 

Although the Indians were defeated, they were not wholly 
subdued. Convo_\s to the frontier forts were still attacked, and 
Indian bands penetrated the settlements, leaving death and de- 
struction in their trail. On July 26, 1764, Enoch Brown, a school 
master, and all his pupils, with one exception, were massacred, 
and the school house burned, a few miles north of Green Castle, 
in now Franklin county. 

To send an overpowering force right into the Indian country 
and destroy their villages and plantations, was an undertaking of 
last resort, and all the resources of the Province were taxed to 
fit out the expedition. 

This great movement was again entrusted to the efficient 
leadership of Colonel Bouquet, and the place of rendezvous was 
again Carlisle. A great quantity of stores and ammunition was 
gathered here for the maintenance of the army. To this command 
was attached the Second Battalion of the Pennsylvania regiment, 
Lieutenant-Colonel • Asher Clayton commanding. C)n July 12, 
1764. Lieutenant Bucher was promoted to the rank of Adjutant, 
in which capacity he had previously served, as we have already 
noted. This promotion was quickly followed by another, namely, 
on July 31. when he was given a captain's commission. Captain 
Bucher acted as adjutant for his regiment in this expedition, and 
some of his neatly-kept and hitherto unpublished returns are still 
in the possession of his descendants. As showing the great im- 
portance of this expedition it is worthy of note that the Govern- 
ment bent every energy to eciuip it. Governor John Penn, grand- 
son of the founder of the Province, came personally to Carlisle to 
direct its organization. After manv vexatious delays the army 
was ready on August 9th. 17^4, to enter upon the most daring and 
formidable expedition ever sent against the ral race. After an 
encouraging address by C,overnor Penn, the army took up its line 
of march over the old Forbes road, by way of Forts Bedford and 
Pitt, right into the heart of the Indian country on the Muskingum 
river in r)hio. The brilliant success of the expedition, in the sub- 
jugation of the red men and the recovery of over 400 white cap- 


tives, with which the touchine^ story of the Httle German girl 
Regina is inscparahly connected, need not be related here. 

Peace having dawned at last. Captain Bucher resigned from 
the army in the Spring of 17O5. after a continuons service of 
abont seven years. 

By the terms of their service in the last campaign, which is the 
"Bonqnet Expedition" of history, the ofticcrs of the Provincial 
contingent were entitled to bonnty lands. At a meeting held on 
the 8th of September, at Ft. Bedford, on thtir retnrn march, they 
decided to select their lands in close proximity. A committee 
was appointed to negotiate the matter with the Government. In 
1768 and 1769, on the west branch of the Suscpiehanna river, 
24,000 acres were snrveyed for them in Buffalo \'alley, in now 
Union and Bald Eagle \'alley. in now Clinton and Centre county, 
and on the Chillisquaciua creek, above Sunbury. The tracts were 
given by drawing lots. Captain Bucher obtaining a fine 
body of land in P.uft'alo N'allc}-. which he exchanged for a prop- 
erty in Lebanon, which remained in the possession of his descen- 
dants until 1844. After a most eventful military service of seven 
years, in which p-eriod he participated in three great campaigns, 
fraught with peril, and all the excitement incidental to contact 
with hostile savages, it would seem Captain Bucher, now a regular 
minister, still inclined to the public service. There is extant a 
letter written to him. dated at army headquarters, in New York, 
April 27, 1769, by an officer named John Small, in which the 
writer acknowledges the receipt of a letter from Bucher, written 
at Carlisle "about a twelvemonth ago," in which the latter's appli- 
cation for a chaplaincy or some other government service, is 
clearly implied. The writer was an intimate friend and states 
that he had worked unremittingl\- in Bucher's interests, but hither- 
to without avail, and advised him to comnumicate directly with 
General Sir Frederick Jrlaldemand. who was also a Swiss in the 
British service, and at that time in command of the South, with 
headquarters in Florida. 

When the War of the Revolution broke out. it found Captain 
Bucher in ill health, as the result of his severe service in the fron- 
tier wars. Flis military ardor, however, was undaunted and the 
fire of his Swiss patriotism un(.|uenched. and he was ready to enter 
the struggle for .American freedoiu. 

KKl'. JOHN C0NI:AI) JilCllKK. 299 

, In the previous wars, as we liave seen, he served in a purely 
niihtary capacity, but in the new contlict he chose a relation more 
in harniony with his holy callinL,^ lie accc{)ted the chaplaincy in 
the "German Regiment."' so-called because composed of soldiers 
from the German counties of Pennsylvania. 

We have no data relating- to his services in the opening stages 
of the war, but that he was in active service in 1776.- there can be 
no doubt. In the spring of 1777, it is probable that his feeble 
health did not permit him to follow the fortunes of war, and he 
sought and obtained a leave of absence. Among his papers is an 
autograph letter in the German language, from that stern old dis- 
ciplinarian, the r>aron von Arnt. at that time in command of the 
regiment, of which the following is a translation : 

"Quihbleton. May 4th, 1777. 
"Highly Honored Sir Chaplain — At my entry into the Keginient it came 
to my knuwieilge that you were attached to it as T'haplain, but- are now at 
home on leave, but as 1 cannot have anybody belonging to the Eegiment 
absent without the greatest necessity, I herewith give you the order to re- 
turn to it without further delay, otherwise your resignation will be requireil, 
a&cl some one else take your place, so I do hope to have the pleasure of 
seeing you with us soon. 

"I am respectfully, 

' ' B.\ROX vox Arxt, 
Col. of the Gernmn Regiment. 

The records of the German regiment are very imperfect, and 
we do not know whether Chai)lain Bucher obeyed the summons 
or not. In the event of his return, he saw plenty of hot work, in 
the campaign in which the regiment participated soon after this 


It has been alread}' observed that John Conrad lUicher came to 
America with a very thorough intellectual equipment, undoubtedly 
with a purpose to pursue the sacred calling of the ministry. By 
what aiuhority he invested with the ministerial office we 
have not as yet determinetl, but of its regularity we cannot doubt. 

He first began to exercise ministerial functions in the spring of 
1763, in Carlisle, while in command of a detachment of Provin- 
cials there. His marriage record begins in March, and his baptis- 
mal record in April of this vear. Some of his sermon notes are 
also dated at Carlisle in the beginning of this year. His baptismal 


and iriatrinionial entries in 1763 and 17O4 are broken by great 
gaps caused by the military campaigns with which he was con- 
nected. He, however, exercised occasionally while in active ser- 
vice at such widely separated points as Fort Leigonier, Bedford, 
Redstone, Fort Pitt and the Susquehanna. His marriage record 
for 1765 included 44 pairs, and a nuich larger number in 17O6, 
showing him to have been popular in this line of service. After 
his resignation from the army in 1765 he became the pastor of 
the Reformed Society at Carlisle and Falling Springs, or Oiam- 
bersburg, in the Cumberland X'alley, and Middletown and Hum- 
melstown, east of the Susquehanna. This is shown by his rec- 
ords, which bear entries of baptismal services, etc., under these 
respective captions. In 1766, he was regularly ordained by order 
of the Svnod. to the full functions of the ministry, which, as we 
have seen, he had already exercised for three years. 

In 1768 he removed to Lebanon, not. as has been supposed, to 
take exclusive charge of the Reformed Society there, but rather to 
reside on his own properties, which, as we have noted, he ac- 
quired in exchange for his bounty lands. His field of labor became 
much enlarged. We will give an extract from his record as found 
in his diary, beginning with January, 1768: January i, 3. 4, 5, 
Carlisle: 8th, Quittapahilla ; 9th and loth. Lebanon; nth Heidel- 
berg; I2th, Weiseichenland ; 17th, Carlisle; 24th, Falling Springs 
(now Chambersburg) ; 29th, Quittapahilla; 31st, Carlisle. Feb- 
ruary 1st. Heidelberg; 2d, Weiseichenland; 3d, Rapho ; 7th. Hum- 
melstown and ^Middletown ; 8th. Blassers ; 9th, ]\[aytown ; r4th, 
Carlisle ; 21st, Falling Spring ; 26th, Jonestown and Klopp's ; 27th, 
Camberlin's ; 28th, Lebanon and Quittapahilla ; 29th, Schaetters- 

This itinerary, which continues with but slight variations, and 
occasional detours, constituted his regular held of labor, ex- 
tending into Lancaster. Lebanon. Berks, Dauphin. Cumberland 
and Franklin counties. His extra trips, made doubtless, at the ur- 
gent solicitations of weak and destitute societies, often involved a 
travel of hundreds of miles through unbroken forests and over 
- lofty mountains. We here give a few examples from his diary. 
April 13. 1768, we find him at Dr. Schuebley's, in Franklin county, 
and the next day at Hagerstown, Maryland. And a few weeks 
later. May 31!. he preached at Quiggle's, and on the 5th on the 

h-Kl'. JOHX COSKAl) UlCHEi:. 301 

Coclorus ; both places were in York county. The following- Sep- 
tember he preached at Reading-, in I'.erks county. In October ho 
jiiade the following tour: October 2, Carlisle; 4th, I-""alling 
Spring;: 5th, Dr. Sclmel)ley ; dth. Hagerstown : 7th. Peter Shang's ; 
8th, Sharpsburg-, near the i'otoniac; 9th. Frederick: the last four 
appointments being in [Maryland. He then returned to his regu- 
lar field. A few weeks later. May 6th. he was in liedford, and 
on the 13th and 20th, at h't. Redstone, tie was undoubtedly the 
first trans-Allegheny minister to preach in the German language. 
His diary of 1771 shows that he had relinquished the congrega- 
tions and seldom crossed the Susquehanna, but preached regularly 
at the following places: Lebanon. Ouittapahilla, Maytown, Man- 
heim, Rapho, W'eiseichenland, Htimmelstown, I '.kisser's, Jones- 
town, Lancaster and Hemphill. 

In giving an estimate of the character of John Conrad lUicher, 
we are led to sa}- unhesitatingly that he was one of the most 
learned and zealous of all the ministers of Colonial times. He 
preached in the English, l~rench and German languages. He 
never wrote out his sermons in full, but made beautiful and well 
arranged sermon briefs or notes, mostly in the German language. 
That he took pains in their preparation is shown by the frequent 
Greek, Latin and Hel)rcw references found in them. Several 
hundred of these briefs are still preserved in a silk-lined receptacle, 
in the fabric of which is woven the name "J. C. Bucher," and the 
date 1767. 

This noble, patriotic and zealous divine was suddenly cut down 
by the hand of death in the midst of his best \ears. On August 
15th, 1780, he went to Annville to perform a nuptial ceremony, 
and aniidst the festivities of the occasion suddenly expired from 
heart disease. His age was 50 years. 2 months and 5 days. His 
ashes repose in the Reformed churchward at Lebanon, Penna. 


Inasmuch as there has been hitherto considerable uncertainty in 
regard to the parentage of the wife of John Conrad Bucher, we 
have, after considerable research, gathered the following facts. In 
1733 John George Hoke and his wife, Barbara, with their family, 
arrived in Philadelphia, from Germany. Among the niinor chil- 
dren recorded in the Pennsvlvania Archives was J( ihn George. Jr. 

302 THE PhWW SY LV A M A-Ghh'M A.\ . 

The town of ^'oi k in Pennsylvania was lai(,l out by order of tlie 
Proprietors in 1741 and the tirst lots were sold in Xoveniher of 
that year. Among the tirst purchasers of lots was Samuel Hoak, 
who purchased lot 105, and George Hoak, who purchased the ad- 
joining- lot. Xo. 107. These men we know to have been brothers, 
and the latter was the father of Mrs. Bucher. Prior to locating 
in \ork, George Ploak married in I.ancaster county, Barbara 
Lefevre, who was either a daughter or granddaughter of Isaac 
Lefevre, who married Catharine, the eldest daughter of Madame 
Ferree. The Ferrees and Lefevres were French Huguenots, who 
fled from France at the Revocation of the Edict of Xantes. and 
located in the Palatinate. From thence they went in 1709 to Eng- 
land, being assisted by Queen Ann. and from thence to Xew York, 
and two years later (1712). to Pennsylvania. locating on lands 
granted them by William Peim during their sojourn in England* 
George Hoak and wife. Barbara, were among the first members 
of the Reformed Church at York. Their eldest child seems to 
have been Mary Magdalena. They also had a son, Benjamin, who 
in Provincial <lays settled near Winchester, Va.. and Peter, wdio 
was one of the first citizens of Cniontown. F^ayctte countv, Penna. 
Some time prior to 1759 George Hoak removed to Carlisle, 
Penna. There is extant a letter from a presumable suitor ad- 
dressed to Molly Hoke, Carlisle, dated September 13. 1759, in 
which the writer pays his respects to her parents. On August 21. 
1761, his son-in-law. Lieutenant Bucher, wrote to him from Fort 
Pitt, addressing his letter to George Hoke, Esq.. Carlisle. Finally, 
the records of the county show that in 1762 George Hoke, of 
Carlisle, died, and his wife Barbara became his executrix. The 
identity of the family is thus incontrovertibly established. The 
Hoke family attended the Presbyterian Church, under Dr. Duf- 
field. and that distinguished minister likewise performed the cere- 
mony at the marriage of Lieutenant Bucher and Mary .Magdalena, 
or "Molly" Hoke, which occurred, as we have stated, on Februarv 
26, 1760.1 On Xovember 4th. 1762. Dr. Duffield gave Mrs. 
Bucher an honorable dismissal from his congregation,! and, in- 
asmuch as Lieutenant B>ucher soon thereafter assumed the func- 

•Si-e memorials of the HiierutTiots by the author of tbis article, 
tshf WHS Iht,; K.'l.ruiiiy LM. 1742, at York. Penna., and died at the home of ber sou at 
Ah-xundria. Ta.. .M,,r.t, llili, ]M'j. 
JUupp's. Kt-rks Co. i'. 4,-..><. 


tions of the ministry, \vc are inclined to the belief that the spring 
of 1763 marks the beginning of the Reformed Society at Carlisle 
under his care, while serving as an officer of the garrison. Their 
family consisted of four children, namely, John Jacob, who wa:J 
born January ist, 1764, and died October 16, 1827. John (ieorgc 
was born October 4. 1766, and died April 8. 1843 ! ^lar)- Elizabeth, 
was born April 8th, 1773, and died in 1791, and John Conrad, who 
was born June 18, 1775, and died in 1852, besides two that died 
in infancy. 

The sons were all men of considerable prominence. John 
George lived and died in Lebanon ; John Jacob made his residencQ 
in Harrisburg. and was one of the first and foremost citizens o5 
the place. He was coroner of Dauphin county in 1796, a justice 
in 1798, a member of the Legislature from 1803 to 180S, a Com- 
missioner to erect the State Capitol in 1810. In the Legislature 
from 1814 to 1816, and Associate Judge from 1818, to his death, 
in 1827. His son, John Conrad, born December 28, 1792, was in 
his day one of the leading citizens of the Commonwealth, a mem- 
ber of Congress, and an Associate Judge for many years. The 
many letters still preserved by his descendants from many leading 
men of the nation, aniong them several Presidents of the L'nited 
States, indicates his high standing in public atfairs. John Conrad. 
the youngest son of the immigrant, located in Alexandria, Hunt- 
ington county, where he was a merchant. In 1812-1815 he was 
postmaster, in the Legislature in 1815-1818, and County Com- 
missioner from 1825 to 1828. 

A considerable number of descendants from maternal lines also 
became noted. Among the munber we may specially mention the 
late Dr. Thomas Conrad Porter, D.D., LL.D., a grandson of John 
Conrad Bucher, Jr. Dr. Porter was born in 1822, and died in 
1901. He was a scholar of rare ability and lofty attair.ments, and 
for many years occupied the chair of P>iology and Ceneral Geology 
in Lafayette College. 

Dr. Porter made extensive researches in various fields of study, 
especially in Botany, and many c<^ntributions of permanent value 
issued from his prolific pen. He was a linguist of note, an expert 
in Finnish and other obscure literature. He was an authority on 
Ecclesiastical his^-ory and enriclu-d the litcratitre or his Church 
with his valuabij contributions. Althou-di bfarini: an Aui^lo- 

3^^. 2i/A' rKXXsyLlAMAGhl^MAN. 

Saxon nanie. he iicvcrllieless was proud of his German ancestry 
and^ at tlie time of his deatli was the President of the Pennsyl- 
vania-German Societv. 

■ Conclusive!) we may add that John Conrad Bucher was on 
terms of intimacy with the foremost men of his times. Among 
his papers, now mifortunatcly scattered, were many from his conf- 
panions in arms, the famous Generals Pjouquet and Stamvix. In 
■ ecclesiastical circles he was intimate with the noted Peter ^liller, 
Prior of the Kphrata connnunity, who was one of the most learned' 
men of his times, and who. by direction of the Continental 
Congress, translated the Declaration of Independence into tha 
German languag-e. One of his bosom friends in the Forbes and 
Bouquet expeditions was .Alajor. afterwards General, Tohn 
Philip dc Haas, of Lebanon. Pennsylvania. General de Haas'was 
a member oi his congregation at Lebanon and sponsor at the bap- 
tism of most of his children. 

The descendants of Rev. John Conrad Bucher, now so widelv 
scattered over the Union, have just reason to feel proud of their 
illustrious ancestor, and the Peformed Church in America will 
doubtless assign him a more honorable position in her history as 
his Stirling qualities and valuable services to his adopted countrv 
and the Church are better known and appreciated. 

Appexdix I. 
[We append the following beautiful poetic tribute from the pen of Prof. 
J. H. Dubbs, D.D., of Lancaster. Pa., first published in Philadelphia Press 
among "Poems Worth Reading." and kindly furnished us bv ^^Irs. E. B. 
Hummel, of Karrisburg. Pa.— Editor.] 


We have read full oft of the heroes grand 
Who live in the annals of Switzerland; 
Of thr courage high and the warlike deed 
Of Tell, and Melehthal, and Winkelried; 

But in rhyme the story has ne 'er been told 
Of the little band of Switzers bold. 
Who across the sea, to its Western shore, 
The precious faith of their fathers bore. 

Names uncouth in the English tongue — 
Goetschius, Schlatter — remain unsung; 
But as brave were they as The men who fell 
On the fields of Uri or Appenzell. 

liEV. JOHN CONRAD liltHKR. 305 

Have you road the story of one who came 
Across the ocean in quest of fame, 
From the place where over the rooky wall, 
At grand Schafl["hjuisen, tlie waters fall? 

Have you heard how he wielded his valiant sword, 

But laid it aside to serve the Lord? 

It was Conrad Bucher! I^et me tell 

How he served the king and his ^Eaker well. 

In the quiet cloisters of old St. Gall 

He had heard in his youth his Master's call; 

He had sat at the feet of godly men 

In the schools of Basil and Gcettingen. 

But, 'twas said, in the land of the setting sun 
There were battles fought and honors won; 
And there came a message across the main 
That Braddock was beaten at Fort Duquesne. 

Could he hear the sound of the rolling ilrum 

That to distant battles bade him come? 

Did he heed the music far away. ' 

When he followed tlie fortunes of bold Bouquet? 

Have you read of the German regiment 
That was farthest into the forest sent? 
How in summer's heat and winter's snows 
They freed the land from its dusky foes? 

There bright in the forest's darkest shade 
Was the flash of Bucher 's battle-blade. 
And the painted chiefs, the legends tell. 
Knew the hand that snu)te them when they fell. 

It was when they lingered, to rest awhile, 

In the famous barracks of fair Carlisle, 

That the soldiers prayed him to preach the Word, 

So precious of old, so long unheard. 

For there comes a time in tlie soldier's life 
^\Tien he hungers anew for the Bread of Life 
And he longs, like the scion of .Tesse's stem. 
To drink of the waters of Bethlehem. 

Once more the Master's call had come. 
And louder it sounded than fife or drum ; 
"Renounce thy laurels and sheathe the sword! 
Take up thy burden and serve the Lord!" 


Ah! where \vas the soldier's dream of fame? 
To the Saviour's altar he humbly came, 
And the "Fathers" ordained the cajitani tliere, 
With benediction and heartfelt prayer. 

To his faithful soldi'^rs, and fair Carlisle, 
As a Koyal Chaplain he preached av^hile; 
But then until life's ^York uas done, 
He served his Master in Lebanon. 

And A\herever our ancient churches stand, 
■^ From bright Snatara to Maryland, 

The hearts of the people were deeply stirred 
"When his voice like a trumpet blast was heard. 

All hail to Buchcr! For him, we know, 
No drums are beaten, no bugles blow; 
But 'tis well! For he cast his laurels down. 
And took up the cross to win the crown. 

Appendix II. 


Through the courtesy of Mr. C. P. Hatfield, of Alexandria, Pa., a <^> 
scendaut and present possessor, we have had in hand for a few days the 
original I'niversity Album of John Conrad Bucher. "We had tlie title page 
photographed and a facsimile of this Fractur Schnft probably by Mr. 
Bucher himself serves as frontispiece to this issue. Nine years ago the late 
Prof. Thomas C. Porter, of Easton, Pa., also a descendant of the subject 
of foregoing sketch, published a small pamphlet of notes on this somewhat 
remarkable Bucher relic. Same is also published in fifth volume of Pro- 
ceedings of Pennsylvania-German Society. The book itself is seven and one- 
half inches long, four and one-half inches wide and an inch thick, well 
bound in red ^lorocco, with leaves of stout gilt-edged paper, with an occa- 
sional one of vellum, which pages are adorned with beautifully hand-painted 
illustrations. Of the lofty sentiments and Mell wishes by a large body of 
university professors and student friends recorded here, as well as affection- 
ate effusions by close relatives, fifty-seven entries are in Latin, thirty-four 
in German, two in Greek and two in Hebrew, and one in French. One is 
a poetic sentiment set to music by the Professor of Music in Marburg. Al- 
together it contains more illustriotis signatures, more lofty sentiment, be- 
trays greater erudition and evinces a more careful chirography and letter 
ornamentation than one is wont to find in such albums. The names of sever- 
al universities and scludarly men show our subject to have been well born 
and advantageously surrounded in his youth. The reading of it is like wak- 


ing up the past of one hundred and fifty years ago, and strolling through its 
German seats of learning, or like wandering through an ancient and fam- 
ous churchyard to road its tombstone inscriptions. We Tvould love to copy 
many but Ave uill have to let one sntlice. This is the inscription of his 
own father in a fine hand, opposite a lovely characteristic painting illus- 
trative of sentiment, as follows: 


Leide nur der DCaner stechen, 

Du wirdst schon noch Eoseu brechen. 

Dieses wenige hat zu stilts-wahrendom Angedencken seinem liebem Sohn, 
Johann Conrad Euchern, S. S. Tlieol. Stud, wohlmeinentlich beyfiigen wolien. 

Joh. Jacob Bucher, L. D. 

Symb. — Mea Anchora Jesus Christus. 
Xeunkirch, den 30 October, 1751. 



Never mind the prick of the thorns, 
You will pluck the roses by and by. 

This tid-bit is kindly inscribed to the enduring memory of his dear son, 
John Conrad Bucher, student of divinity, by John Jacob Bucher, L. D. 
Motto: My anchor, Jesus Christ. 
Neunkirch, 30 October, 1751. 

That of the celebrated church historian, John Laur. Mosheim, of Got- 
tingen, recorded on June 19, 1753, reads as follows: " Ama rejuri et pro 
nihilo putari, Memoriae et Honoris causa iScribebat." 

Altogether the album merits careful preservation and is worth an at- 
tentive study. 

Appendix III. 

Mrs. E. B. Hummel, of Harrisburg, Pa., another descendant of the sub- 
ject of our sketch, possesses many relics of tliis illustrious ancestor — aniung 
others, the original list of marriages and baptisms performed by him. The 
former list was copied by Mr. Lutlier PJ. Kelker. of Harrisburg, who had it 
published in the Pennsylvania Magazine for October, 1901'. The portrait of 
our subject's sister, the Countess Von Pyre, herewith presented is also in 
Mrs, Hummel "s hands; so is the coat-of-arms. Also a large tin box, pad- 
locked, and full of valuable papers once belonging to a relative of this 
celebrated pioneer. Also a complete genealogy of Bucher family from 15-41, 
and a family ring. 



Appendix IV. 

Tombstone inscription in First German Reformcil graveyard of Leba- 
non, Pa. 

iiier ruhet im todt der leib 
Conrad Bucher. 
Pkediger 12 Yahre in Libaxon. 

Geborex dex IOten Juki. 1730. 

j\IiT seiner Ehefrau. Magdalena, lebte er 20 Yahre, 

Zeigte 8 Kinder — 4 sind in die Ewigkeit 


Gestorben den 15tex August, 1780. 

Seines ruhmvolles Alters, 50 Y., 2 M. und 5 Tage. 



(Contiuueil from page 290.) 
himself out with a flush of inid-sumnier heat in the East, aud with 
a bhghting snow bhzzard in the West. Was it to make emphatic 
the century-mark of our Louisiana purchase, that President 
Roosevelt and a shivering multitude were obliged on its last day 
to inaugurate the St. Louis Exposition with chattering teeth ? 

May came apace, ushered in by way of the Xorth Pole and clad 
in furs and great-coats. On the mountains she scattered flurries 
of snow, while in the valleys twirled into drifts the petals of the 
blooming apple and cherry. But presently she doffed her furs. 
for gauze and with a raised parasol walked ankle-deep in dust for 
three weeks to protect herself from the fiery sun and the brassy 
heavens. The last week she changed parasol for umbrella. All the 
while she was on dress parade and presented June with a pink 
garment of roses, strawberries and clover. As June, with its con- 
ventions and commencements, is yet fresh "in the memory of men 
still living," we shall not connnent upon it. It is time to keep 
"cool and this may be done by recalling pictures of blizzardy last 
winter and, therefore, we have presented our picture of "]\It. 
Gretna in Winter" in Poetic Gems' column. 

We omit our Historical Pilgrimage in this issue, and substi- 
tute for it a Landmark History of the early Ignited Brethren 
Church. We are sure our readers will grcatl)- cnjo_\- the article 
fr^m the able pen of our friend and co-worker. Rev. Dr. Brane. 

By Lek L. Gki'mbixe, Esq. 

Der Kiingel-klang der Soiintajf's Kloeke, — 
Die Vdgol im Thiiim versturt un ' verschrocke, — 
Zuni Gottestlieust die Lent bei zu locke, 

Durch 's stille Thai sehallt, 
(Statts in dei- Faulheit dflie"m rum hiicke, — ) 

Uewer Iliiwel un ' Wald. 

Des scho iiielodiscb Kloeke G 'spiel, 

Im friihe Sommcr Morge'kiihl, 

Es g'ebt e 'n lienlieh Feuertag's G'l'iihl 

Zu Munsche un' Fiih, 
Der Bauer hat Ruh, un' der Miiller, un' die Miihl, 

Sonntag Morge'ds friih. 

Die Amschel singt ibr friihlioh Lied, 
Die Felder sin ruth mit siiss Gebliith, 
Der Knecht vom ruhge is schon miid, 

Leit rum so faul, 
Die Schu un' Kock aus, streckt er's Glied, 

Un ' sparrt 'uf 's Maul. 

Nach der Kerch zu geh was g'ebt 's e'n G'rischt, 
E 'n Gewiisch un' G 'strlil un' 'Ufgofrischt, 
Unnerkle 'der so weiss wic ihr runde Briist, 

Was e 'n Lust un ' Freed, 
Wie leicht zu sei 'n guter Kerche-krist, 

Bei so sehone Miid I 

'Uf der ganse Welt nix so sho un' siiss, 
W^ie die Miid geputzt von Ki'ipp zu Fiiss 
In Sonntag 's Kle'der, gebloV-ht in der Wies' 

So weiss as Schnee, 
Sie gueke wie Engel im Paradies, 
So siiss un ' gch(l. 

•From "D.T r>.-iij:<'l>ti rk luul ..ilu-r rn,.nis aiul Translntlc 
ptienis now ill VT'-SM. By P"riiii>sii.ii of tl.c ;i\ith(ir. 

a book of dialect 


Jetz wird's 'f tier Kerche-weg gegange, 
Bal' wird die Klock 'uf 's zwe'tiiial klaiige, 
Bis uiir hi' komuie wird's bal Zeit fiir a'fange, 

Iset hinne dra ' sei, 
Konnt mer Hinimel so gut wie die Kerch erlange, 

War ieh g'wiss dabei-I . ..•..-■ 

Die Xachbare seht iiier au' schon geh, 
Bei ganse Fainilia — gross un' kle' 
Un' 'f 'em "Weg g'ebts als noch nieh, 

Unser Auue geiit vor, 
Hebt der GoT^nd ■vveg'ni Sta'b, giiekt heftig scho, 

'Me 'nt der David Kohr. 

Te'l komme 7.u falire un ' te 'I zu laufe, 
Un ' sel' Paar hat e 'n kle' Kind zu taufe, 
Sei Paethe were e 'in ?ohon G "schenke kaufe, 

'S war so der Gebraueh, 
Mag's 'uf waohse e 'n gute Frau uu ' e 'n Brave — 

Dort heult's — 's hat's im Bauch! 

Konmie bei die alte Kerciie Yiiter, 

Mit wichtig Geniiith, un' Sonutag's Kle'der, 

\Venig blet un' u'g'sehiokt fiihlt e 'n jeder. 

Is es net recht g'wunt, 
Hinne noch die Weibsleut, e'n wenig bleter, 

Ihr Sache gut g'me'nt. 

Awer horehl Jetz niicher klingelt die Klock! 
Mer seht schon e'n niancher Sonntag's Rock, 
Un' dort geht e'n alter Mann am Stock — 

So langsam un' lahm — 
Kuht weil vor der Kerch, 'uf e'm grosse Block, 

Un'er'm Schattebaun.. 

Un' inimer als mer niicher komme, 

Yon alle Weg bei versammle die Fronime, 

Bei der Kerch un ' ini Kerchhof bei de Blume, 

Fiir geistliche Speise, 
Un ' der Parre, der der grad Weg (statts der Krumnie) 

Nach e'm Himniel soil weise. 

Sie stehn drauss rum un ' wechsle die B'riehte, 

Sie sch^iitze vo'm Bauere, vo 'm Wetler, von de Friichte 

Sie verzehle nan'er ihre Xachbar's G 'schichte, 

Un' allerhand Dinge; 
Am Nachtmal deuk^ sie ihr Handel un ' Pflichte 

Uewer e'ns zuirin^e. 


Sie le?o die Grabste' niit lan^eni G'siolit, 
Das Jenseit 'm Grab is e'u duukle G 'sftiiclit, 
'S macht sie rlenke an dor Jiingst-tag's G 'riebt, 

Un' verspreche iin Stille, 
Niicher zu candle im Geistes Licht, 

Uni' Gottes AVilie! 

Do is der Platz wo die ^^lary ruht, 

Unser erstgeborues Fle'soh un' Blut, 

'S bringt ihr ^Mutter un ' niieli in e'n trauriger Mutb, 

'S macht Schnierz un ' Well, 
We'ss wohl der ITerr niaelit alles gut, 

Kann 's doc-h net versteh. 

Schou lang is e'n g'ehrter Yater fort, 
Der rund, grii Hiiwel un' der Grabste' dort 
Bezeug e-?, un ' nierke der lieilig Ort, 

"\Vo sei Kurper sehloft. 
In 're bessere \\'elt unser Konnr.e erwart. — 

I'ns zutreiTe dort bofft. 

Do in der Stille, gans alle, 

Am Grab nieine Liewe bleiw ieb steb, 

Mit sc-hwerem G'fiibl un' Herzeweb,— 

Aus der aire Zeit 
Hot icb Stinune, un' bekannte G'sicbter seh, 

Der Yergange 'beit. 

So 'uf der Tag die ernste Dinge, , 

Die Klock im Tburui ibr Loblied singe, 
Un' Sinder die Erlesung klinge, 

Yo 'm gross Yerderwe, 
Un' wenig niicher z'anime bringe, 

'S Lewe un' 's Sterwe. 

Dann jetz die Klock zum letst Mai geht. 
Un' ruft 's Yolk nei das draus rum stebt, 
Der Parre bat scbon in der Hut gebet, — 

^Va^t bis sie sitze — 
Er is gans voll mit Lehr — mer seht, — 

Fiir Sinder schwitze. 

Die Yorstehr trage die Kurwlin ram, 
'S g'ebt docb ke' wieste grosse Sum, 
Sie fiible die Ebr, trage G 'sichter fromm 

Do in der Kerch, 
In an'erl Dinge geht 's e' bissel krumm 

Un ' fj ..erzvverch. 


Zum f iihre im G 'sang die liewe Mitklieder, 

Der Parre g 'ebt aus die Worte der I-ieder, 

'S erst leint er sic aus, no' singt nier sic wicder, 

"Wenig paehte un ' blot, 
Glci ' stininie sie ei ' — die Swest're un' Bn'ider — 

Mit Eifer un' Freed. 

Was der Vorsingcr drum sei ^laul 'ufsparrt, 
Er singt schier gar wie e'n Scha 'ffli ' blarrt, 
Als Musick sei Singe is net viel werth' 

Doch — ich sag's net spottich — 
'S wird g'wiss bei viel sehier lieuer g 'lifirt 

As des lang Gepredig. 

Der Orgelspieler fiilirt die Weis, 

Der Blasbalgtretter sc-hafft niit Fleiss, 

'S wird g'sunge vun der Hinim 'iisebe Eeis, 

Xaeh der Ewigkeit, 
Von p]rlesung ohne Geld un' Preis — 

L'n' Barniherzigkeit. 

Aus der Orgel rollt der siisse Ton, 

Mer nie'nt es kouimt von (Jottes Thron. 

"Wann e'n Seelig's bckoninit die Hininiel's Kron. 

Sei Lob un ' Ebr 
Dem Vater, Heiliger Geist un ' Sohn— 

Dreieiniger Herr! 

' ' Sei Lob und Ehr dem liuebsten Gut, 

Dem A'ater alle Giite, 
Dem Gott der alle Wunder tbut, 

Dem Gott der niein Gemiithe 
Mit seinem reiohem Trost erfiillt, 
Dem Gott der allem Jammer stillt, 

Giebt unserm Gott die Elire. " 

Nach 'em Gebet ^\ird die Sehrift gelese, 
Dann noch 'mal g'sunge hat's gehese, 
Mer sucht der Text niit grossem Wese, 

Un ' e' bissel stolz, — 
Kaut Xiiglin un' Peppermints un' so G 'friise, 

Un ' Zimmetliolz. 

Un' faule Koj)p fange au ' zunucke, 
Un' diirstige Hiils were miiehtig drueke, 
Un' knitze Buwe alle Ecke aus gucke, — 

Un ' zum Fenster 'naus, 
Un wui! 'ere wo <lie Kerdiliof Sidipucke 

Sin Tags zu Ilaus. 


'S Diaf; .Schiilil sei die schliifrijir Luft iin Summer 
Das tlie balb Geine' veryesst ihr Kumiiier, 
Un' verliere sich in ticfcr Sclikiniiner, 

Awer Buwe un ' Miiil 
Weclisle 'n nianoher Bliek un' denke, " 'S is e'n Dummer 

Ap schlofe geht. " 

Die Wabrheit von dtT Kensel tliesst, 

Der I'arie es Evaugalium giesst, 

Sol Weisheit 's Sehiitze gern 'ufschliesst, 

Mit gross Freigawp, 
Mit Pausi: un' Lcrnung schlagt er wiest, 

Der bos U'glawe. 

Mit ernster A'dacht thut er bemerke, 
Die Sind un ' Thorheit sieh in sterke, 
Un ' sich verlosse 'uf Monsche Werke, 

Des komnit vo'ni Buse; 
Net besser as Ileide te '1 an'eri Kerehe, — 

Abgottisch Wese! 

Ja, Gott sei Dank! Was e'n guter Glawe! '^ 

Was meh' will e'n guter Krist dann hawe ? 
Des Wort geht iiwer die Kiipp der Tauwe — 

Sin tief im Schlof ; 
Die hiire so viel as drauss sin vergrawe, 

Im Kerchhof! 

Der Gottesdienst endlich komnit zum Schluss, 
'S nenimt g'uiss au' niemand ke 'n Verdruss, 
Doch gute Sache gehn net im Schuss, 

'S hat alles sei Zeit, 
Der Parre hat au ' e 'n freundlicher Gruss, 

Fiir all die Lent. 

Awer ob er dann der Soge sjir^cht, 
Die Orgel nochemal frisch ausbreeht — 
All die Schliifrige ph'Uzlich 'ut'gewiicht — 

Der Lobspruch spielt; 
Un 's Singe laut sehii. als e'n jedes recht 

Froh un' ernstlioh fiihit — 

" Ehr sei dem Vater, und dem Sohn, 
Dem Heiligen Geist, auf eiaem Thron, — 
Der Heiligt'ii Dreieinigkoit. 
Sei Lob uud I'reis in Ewitikeit. " 


Was batt die Laming? Nix— un viel: , 1 

'S depend en wennig uf der Kop : •* 

En nianelier eiforsiehtger Drop I 

Mit frisohem :\ruth un hocheni Ziel i- 

Hot's Haru sdiier gaarli raiisgsolitudirt— 1= 

Un was hot's dann am End gebatt? i 

Ei. endlich hot er, blee.-h un matt, I 

Sei Kriifte gans veruminirt. | 

rtar Zueifel hot sei Seel vezwarnt: | 

Uf dunkli Bariige rum is er # 

Wahnsinnig gschtolpert hi ' un her f 

Un hot dar recht Weg net gelarnt. ^ 

Die Laming muss vewandelt sei - -3 

In's Lewe— juscht wie Brod zu Blut, | 

Sohunscht dhut's 'm Mensch gans wennig gut, | 

Kann gaar noch Seiiade dhu debei. ' | 

Es gebt en Seheeheit vun de Seel, ' | 

En liebliehe Gerechtigkeit, ' . . I 

^ 'As sich vesohennert mit de Zeit i 

Un is vuni wahre Gott 'n Dheel. , ■ 'I 

Sei is die haiipt Sach ; in dar Dhat j 

Sei is es cenzigsoht Ding 'as bsohteht ■ f 

^ Waun Welt un Himmel niol vegeht, I 

Un sei hot aa die Mamnii ghat. ' - f 

In ihrem klwne Finger waar ' I 

Meh Weisheit vun de reehte Sart 

'As man.her Witzkop finne uard 
In all de Bioher gross un rahr. 

St. Louis, March 7, 1903. , ' ^^ ^^ ^*^^«^e«- 



Last week I broke a fixe-l rule; 

I kept my ten-year boy from school 

To visit fairydand. 
A chilly rain, the day before, 
Ha.l caujjht and held'tlic land'scape o'er 

In Frost-king's icy hand. 


While orcliar.l-trees and shrubs ami grass 
Stood clad in armor of clear glass 

Am] weighted down quite low, 
The mystic weavers of the sky 
Sent down a blanket from on high, 

Of woolly, flaky snow. 

When morning dawned quite brisk and clear, 
And snow and ice clung everywhere 

I thought of Gretna's hills. 
■^liere goblins, sprites and fairies all. 
Such days must dance through SAlvan hall 

And play by pearly rills. 



February 17, 190.>. 

On iron horse the mount we scaleil 
To find the forest-trees regaled 

"With crystal glories bright; 
No palace ever looked so grand! 
Xo glass emporium in the land 

E'er shone in such a light! 

Cathedrals grand and towers high, 
From snow-white earth to soft-blue sky, 

Reared up their charming walls; ' 
While candalabra, set Mith pearls, 
And diamond stars ne'er worn by earls 

Lit up their magic halls. 


The brooklet flowed 'round isles of snow, 
While hiireh and maple bending low. 

Built crystal arches o'er. 
A hundred huts the pines' supplied. 
By elfin all were occupied, 

From glassy roof to floor. 

A myriad Christmas-trees stood decked, 
^Vhose brilliants did the sun reflect 

Like thousand tapers bright. 
Such glory ne'er did wealth command; 
No palace-halls were e'er so grand. 

Illumined by such light. 

Where churches camp, Chautauquans meet 
We waded through each sylvan street 

Of alabaster snow. 
No song or eloquence was heard; 
No note was stirred by man or bird, 

Save one by lone Jim Crow. 

..Eolus now woke slumbering breeze; 
, To harps he turned the tops of trees. 

And deftly picked their strings. 
Then played a glass harmonica. 
Ten sylvan tumbleronica — 

An orchestra on wings. 

Reluctantly we turned away. 

Where acres of choice diamonds lay, 

Where music passed all rule. 

' But as we homeward turned our way, 

I heard my little youngster say : 
'Twas worth a day in school. 


Copied from " Der Lihanotier Mortii^nstern" den l>ten Merz. 1S09. By perniissioii ^of 
George Gerhericli. so Seton St., X. W., Wasliiiigton. 

Alls dem Baltimore corrcspomlent. ; 

Schiirft den S;ibel, putzt 's Gewehr, Auf, ihr Briider! frisch gewagt; 

Maeht euch viel Patronen- Dann hiilft kein Besinnen, 

Kommt ein Feind von ohngefehr, Wenn es gilt, seyd nicht verzagt, 

So wiiszt ihr ilin zu lohuen! So v,erilt ihr 's gewinuen. — Cho. 

Chorus. Mit Frankreich und mit England, 

Yilnky dudel — sieh dich vor, Sollen wir uns schlagen; 

Man will dich verfiihre-i- Ein Rock soil die Tdry-Hand, 

Krieg is unsern vnr dem Thor. Yun Theer und Fetleru tragen. — 

Lerne — exercieren. Cho. 



Statt eiu Storn iind Ordcnshand 

Soil cin Rock sic zieren, 
Uiiil 7UT Soban \voll'n wir iluroh 's 
La ml 

In Triumph sie fiiliron. — Cho. 

Seht die Freyheits Guttin lacbt, 

Es ist ihr Entziickeul 
Dafiir soil uds in der Sohlacht 

Kuhm imd Siege schmiioken. — 

Laszt die Freyheits Fahnc wehn 
Jedeiii Feiiul ein Srhrecken; 

Freunde, konimt, liiszt uds sie soliiin 
Auf Quebock's Wiille stecken. — 

Diirtcn winkt der Kuhiu uns nur, 

Feindo zu besiegen ; 
Ist. beyin Styx! (ein barter Sobnur) 

Deutseben ihr Verguiigen. — Cho. 

Ilier uclnnt unser Lebenwohl, 
Alle deutscbeu Sidiuueu — 

Dein die Ku^^-'l troffeii soli, 

Dem srheiikt eure Thraneu! — 

Peuen sey ihr Glas gefiillt, 
So den Tod verlarbeu; 

Wenn, im Pulverdauijif gebiiUt, 
Die Kauducn Kracben. — Cho. 


Der Juni is s<?hon bal ferbei 
Die Hoyet is iin gang; 

Die Baure sin ah all dabei. 
Sie schoffe herd und lang 


Die Fracks und Ilosse -uaare nas. 

Oft halb wegs an die Knie, 
Fum nasse Dau, so friih im Gras; 

Doeh wars uns gar ken miih. 

Am fier Fhr sehteene sie sehon uf, 
L'nd melke erseht die Kiih ; 

Noh laude sie die Milieh uf 
Und schioke sie ferd, friih. 

En Kriemeri ergeiiils nemt sie ei, 
En deel geet noch der Sehtadt; 

Des Butter schtosse is ferbei- — 
"Was ■nar sel als en tsohob. 

Der Raam TAar os eniol ferhext, 
Mer hot ken Butter krickt; 

^rir hen gedreet und hen gekrext, 
Und oft ins Fas geblickt. 

Ferhext wars werd, doch wars net 
wohr ; 
Es gebt nix fun der Ardt ; 
Deel Kiih hen ken Frueht grieht 's 
gans Johr. 
Sie waare din wie Bord. 

lai Juni hen mir Hoy gemaoht. 

"Was hen mir als gemeet 
Mit deitsrhc Sense, und gelacht ; 

Die Meed hen 's Gras fersohpreet. 

"Wan 's sehtump war ben mir als 
Und als en well geruht; 
Und mit ile Gras-ferschmeiser 

Sel hoc sie als tresuit. 

Mei Iliinil hen Mohler fun der sens, 
Wo ieb miob g'schnitte bab 

Am wetze drunne an der Fens; 
Es wetze war mei tscbob. 

I"nd schmiirtze hab ioh kat im Riick; 

Er war bal hahver ab ; 
Wie froh war ich fers Xein Uhr 

Sel war als juseht tip-top. 

Schnaps, Koft'e. Wasser, Kuehe, Fei, 
Sel war als unser Kosoht ; 

En jeders war gans niichst dabei, 
Zu sc-baffe wars en Luscbt. 

En guter Man hot. dan und wan. 

Mei Sens g'wetzed fer mieh; 
Noh hot sie g'schnitte, es war Fun, 

Mei Muth war wider friscb. 

En schlecbter Wetzer bin ich noch, 
Ich wees net wie es kumt; 

Habs bescbt g'du und immer doch 
Is sie druf naus g'tschumpt. 

Es Frueht Reff war fer mich zu 

Im Schtroh wars immer fascht; 
Ich hab g'zojit fer wider los ; 

Es war nur als en Lascht. 



Poch Fruilit s'luiinie liab icli oft, 
Sel war mir jusclit als frcfil; 

Uiiil for ilor zeit, oft hab ioh koft — 
Es helfe ah doel Meed. 

Es waare iTiinier soni dabei, 

Sel war so angeiieoni; 
Die Mansleit siu g'riiseht druf uei, 

En jedors geet fers Geem. 

Do hot nier ah geru Hoy g'macht. 

Nas war iner oft niit Schwitz; 
Una mange Load war Heeni g'broeht 

In aller trrosehter Hitz. 

Und wans ans Fahre gange is, 
Hen zwe Meed noh g'recht; 

Die heus Hoy g 'sehliinkerd- 
Hen all gedu es bescht. 

-J a, 

"\Vie heeineld iiiich noch selle zeit, 

Duch is sie all f erbei ; 
Es Hov und Frucht FeUl war foil 

Nau is Miischinerei. 

Die Gras maschin. die kleppert nau, 
Und meed en gros, gros Schtiick; 

Der Meher werd net nas funi Dau, 
Und krickt ken krummer Riick. 

Gras sehprehe duth sie ah so scho, 
Mer meent es kent net sei ; 

Es kent jo gar net besser geh 
Mit dutzeud Meed dabei. 

Sie Eeche ah nau niinme noh 
Wans Hoy g'laade werd; 

En Gaul ini Keche mus sel du, 
Es geet ihm ah net herd. 

Alit Weune sehnt es grad so aus, 
En Kicker mus ins Feld; 

Mit ?ex Fiisz sehUioht er hinne naus, 
Seent juscht mol wie er sohneld. 

Fiel g'sohwinder und juseht grad so 
Word? Hoy nan ah g'macht; 

Und sel is was die Baure suit- 
Wans sie juscht wennig koscht. 

Und Frucht bind ah ken Meedel meh, 

Sie hasse nau die Sun ; 
Sie v.olle schnock sei, weis und scho, 

Doch schpringe sie sonscht rum. 

Der Boinder nemt nau seller Platz. 
Seent hie wie er Fr\icht meed, 

Und bind sie uf und drinkt ken 
Sel macht de I'.aure freed. 

Der Juli kumt dcm .Juni nuh ; 

Noll erudt mer Fruelit und Hoy; 
Der Herr sehoft alios ohne Lnh, 

Schtiird aus schon friih im Moy. 

Ehn Monat hclft deni anre mit, 
So geets Johr ei. .Johr aus ; 

Sel lehrt der Herr uns zutu Profit, 
Helf elms dem anre raus. 

Und s'o geets ferd so lang die Weldt 

In ihre Orbit geet; 
Fiel Leit feriliene Ehr und Geld, 

Besonders guthe Meed. 

Und Summer, Winter, Schpot und 
Friih ; 

Die bleiwe niemols aus; 
Des Lewe is foil Erwed, ]^Iuh, 

Sel meent — Schaff dir en Hans. 

Drum, .Tuni, dir sag ich "Good- 
bye. ' ' 
Du hoscht dei sach g"du; 
Bis du's niichst Johr kumscht wider 
Sin fiel ferd in die Ruh. 

Und Juli, nau kumt dir dei Zeit, 
Mit Tage lang und hees; 

Du hoscht fer uns noch fiel arbeit, 
Fiel mehner das mer wees. 

Der Pennsylvania-German ah, 
Der schlupt im .luni raus, 

LTnd bis der Juli gumt — hurrah! 
Is er in jederm Haus. 

Drum danke mir, forhiindig, dem 

Gott und guthe Leit, 
Das mir g'lebt hen wie mir hen, • 

Und ah bei dere Zeit. 

Der Himmel mag wohl schijner sei 

^As wie die Erd do is; 
Doch in dor Jugend will kens nei; 
. Net bis mir schteh alt is. 

L'^nd noh is es em nuch ferleet, 

Sin so fiel Saehe do, 
Mer wiinsi-ht zu scene wie es geet, 

Es schterwe bast mer so. 

Docii wan die Wehlt uns nimme will, 

Dan sage mir — Adje, 
Zu .Juni, .Juli- -yeets wie's will, 

Und fahre in die Hoh. 





L'fnie Sani^tag Noiumctofx 

Kiuiit dor Yokel in die Stadt, 
D'nob gelit or uf die Luncli Eoute 

Un est sich dick nn satt, 
Fon Gehlreve, Saur Krout, 

Bomnieraiitze I'ie, 
Bull Frogs un Krotte Flesch, 

Was si-lik'cht der Yokel nei ! 

Eothreve, Leve^-^Verseht, 

Sehweitzer Kase un Fish, 
Broat Werscht niit Knovlich drin, 

'Sis alles uf em Dish; 
Kutth'tleek un Delawar Shad, 

Weisses Kraut un Speck, 
Beefsteaks init Swivele druf, 

'Sis alles frei fun Dreck. 

Ijebkuchc, Kornbrodt, 

Oyshter Soup un Clams, 
Blutwe-rscht uu Zitterle, 

Seide Speck un Hams, 
Kimmelbrodt un Schuiier Kase, 

^Vaffele noch dabei, 
Die Buwe sclilagen recht nei 

'Sis yo alles frei. 

Pannhaas uu Schnitz un Knep, 

Sparrow Grass un Lung, 
Seifies un Ochse Schnuth, 

Wasserkress un Zung, 
Noodle Soup un I>andeline, 

Alles uf Credit, 
Grundsau mit Gravy druf, 

Des macht en Appedit. 

Rosina Boy un Bona Soup, 

Haase un Fersant, 
Hinkel Chowder, Kalb Flesch, 

Alles is uf Hand; 
Mackrel Fish un Schnitz Boy, 

Erbse Soup un Tripe, 
Des macht en guter Wechsel — 

En Ferennerung in der Leib. 

Celere un Kraut Zelath, 

Chips un Bumpernickcls, 
Schwa rtenuige, Schmokewerscht, 

Grundniss un dehl Pickels, 
Schwartz Brodt un Krumbere Soup, 

Lever Knep un Hash, 
Ift'iugrmaclito Custard Boy, 

Uu all J.0 artt G 'trasch. 

Der Yokel wert nau Dorschtrich, 

Un drinkt sicli ziendich foil — 
Von Applejack un I'>raiitewein, 

Des geth net bei der ZdU; 
Cock-tails un Fancy Stufcht, 

Gin un Lager Bier,. 
Es wert ihm wennich schwiudlich, 

Kt sieht yo nimme die Diehr. 

Der Yokel ^\ert gans luschtig 

Un is awennig duniin ; 
Klei kumt en grosser Schlifflel 

ITn j)uscht en hinue rumm ; 
Der Yokel is nau fechterich, 

L"n schlecht niol wennich nei. 
Hinne naus un forne naus, 

Ehns un tswe un drei. 

Es necht is der Lockuji, 

Der Yokel is net Ghame. 
Ei, Ei! dhu Hebe Mutter! 

Er winscht er wer D'hame; 
Y'etzt kumt er for der ^[ayor; 

"Was huscht dhu dann g'dhu, 
Es scheint mer wann dhu shloppich 
werscht, — 

Dhu warscht en schlechter Buh." 

" Ei nay, dhu liever Mayor, 

Ich bin en guter ^[ann, 
Nau geb ich dir die Stohrie 

So guth as wie ich kann; 
Ich war niol uf der Lunch Eoute, 

Hab g 'f resse wie en Kuh ; 
Hab g 'sutfe wie en Einstickfie, 

Doch bin ich en guter Buh. 

"Of course ich war im Schtettel 

L'n war net gut bekannt, 
D'noh kummen die Polies Leit 

Un nenimen mich bei der Ilandt; 
Sell is nau grat wie 's gauge is, 

Ach ! Mayor, loss niich frei ; 
Die Lunch Eoute bin ich fertich mit, 

Un bleib g 'wiss g 'trei. ' ' 

"Well, Yokel, dhu warscht schlop- 
pich ; 

Doch geb ich <lich desmohl frei. 
Ghe Hehm un dliu dich butze, 

L''n blieb mer d'noh g'trei; 
Geh zhu der Frau un Kinner. 

Bleib fon der Lunch Eoute week, 
Un wann dhu widdcr hungrich 

Ess Sauer Kraut uu Speck." 





Der geitz, der geitz, der lieliwa Der tox, of courso, wert sclieh 


Die Bibel mohlt 'ii dunk'l- 
Er hut 'ni Achan 's guick f er- 
Un niooht 'ni Nabal 's schiinpa 

Der Auanias un sei frah 
Hen aw den Maniinon awg'beht; 
Sie hen ihr hawb un gut ferkawft, 
Un hen die helft yus(?ht eig'dreht. 

Doh koni 'r winters nix d'fohr; 
Won 's ovver geht t'er 's Grischten- 

So schondeshohver 'n f ert '1 's 


Fer 's Gottesreieh un Mission 

Hut 's hertz ken blocka, tzort un 

Ahnosa gevva .' links un rwhts! — 
Des sin so dumnia porrasehtraich. 

Der Tetrus mochts 'ne soliwartz un I)cr porra pre<Ucht frisch druff lobs; 


Sie folia uni, nunisrocka doht; 
S'is schreeklich worn 'r drivver deukt, 
Un docli hut 's fiel ini sehina boat. 

Sie gropscha, nmcha, dawg un nocht, 
Un essa sieh net hohver sott; 

Sie tzwouka 's ob on leib uu seel 
Un klawga sich noch foischter 

"Won '3 yuscht bei sellem bleiwa debt 
No kenut m'r sawga: "Gott sei 

Wit hondla niit 'nel geb uscht acbt, 
Sie neninia butter, brod un scbonk. 

Sie kawfa ei uff Deitsch g'wicht, 
Un peddla 's mit der Yuddawog; 

Die ehrlicbkeit bleibt nob d'hebni 
Un heilt sich sott om wasserdrog. 

Sie schtena on <ler gortafeus 

Un gucka 'm Xalioth ivver 's feld, 

Un plana wie ni 'r 's mocha kon 
Fer 'n mortgage kriega uhna geld. 

Won mohl der geitz die wipbond 
Noll gelit 's de gullop dawg un 
Ken tzeit fer bebta, busza dub — ■ 
Mit sellem wert ken gelt g'mocht. 

Won 's geht fer biss'l opfergeld 
Dob schtarrt m 'r wieseht in 's 
weschpanescht ; 
Sie ferchta sich fer 'm "gling'l- 
Wic 'n Kind fer 'm wasser 
worn 'r 's wescbt. 

"Aeh! hiet eich, liehwa ieit, fer 
'm Geitz, 
Fer 'n buss un fuftzeb dabler cash 
Ilengt Jesus blutioh dert om 
Kreitz. " 

Er hut 's so scbeh un gute g'mocht, 
Sie schparra 's moul uff, schlofa ei, 

Bis doss 'r endlich ' ' Aineu ' ' sawgt, 
Dags druff geht 's widder .frisch 
druflt' nei. 

"Geld tzwingt die welt," wie 's 
scbprichwort sawgt, 
Un Mammon 's lieb tzwingt leib un 
seel ; 
Fer 'n hondfoU bech scbwaert erner 
Der onner hut sei scbtinmirecbt 

Won ebber so mobl schtarwa muss, 
Eh bond im geldsock, ehnie draff, 

Un 's hertz om such fer noch meb — 
Wos gebt 's d'nohf Haert 's 
geitza uff? 

It'll glawb 's mohl net, m 'r haert 
tzu fiel 
Wie sellie ort sich waehrt un 
Wie org der dobt sich blooga muss 
Bis doss 'r 'n olter geitzbols 

S'war mohl so 'n alter gnopser, 

hebst '3, 

Dert hver 'm seeh im Fransaland, 

Doht-kronk im bett, ken huffning 


Dor geldsock bei sioli in der bond. 

FOETIC 6'A'-l/.b'. 321 

E-r liet for 'n ilokt'r eudlich " St-l, fatter, koseht tz\veh dahler 

g'schickt, null." 

Der het dor kup so schep p'nuokt Dor f;ittt*r guckt der dokt'r aw — 

Vn g'froa^'t: "Well, fattt-r, bet 'r " Kh J'ert "1 sclituu uii dob net 

sehun seblob. ' ' 
Fer 'n porra ])iss'l runig 'guokt ? " 

"G'sehwind. dunrl diob, bolwier 

"Was I Muss icb srbterwa .' Kaimsebt niieb scbuell'' — 

nix iliib? Der liarber but not lony g 'wetzt, 

Mei sock! Wuh is 'r! Ob yab, I'n ^\•as aw nooli 'n wunner war, 

dob." Jlut not a 'mubl fer 'n cent wort 

"Neb, fatter, 'u bulwie scbtun uff g'sebwetzt. 
's leugscht. 

Is ebbes uocb, so guekt'u nob." S'war 'n wetting tzwiseba geitz 

iin dobt, 

Er leit gons sobtill, er nuK-kt siob Der dobt ferliert 's, der geitzbols 

net — loebt 

Ferleiobt gelit docb 's g 'wissa uff; I'n kollcrt ivver 'm ausgeb noeli — 

Uff ebmobl fongt 'r hortiidi aw : "Eh dahler- — ueintzit-h — cent — 

"(I'sobwind, sebickt fer 'n barl>er, g'niocht." 
sebiekt "n ruft\ '" 

Dert drivva, denk irb. sin sie fr^h 

Der barber kuninit niit kneii' un Won ebber so yusebt onua kunimt 

berscht, — Os olles selwer hovva will — 

Der alt der nenunt 'n niobl in 's Olibordieb 's feior wub so liruninit. 

"Du, sawg, 's ko?ebt tzeha cent fer Dos gebl des geld, des wiedieh geld, 

'n sehafe, I'n dooh kon niinmond drunner 

Was koscbt "s for 'n dobtes dub ; 

schafa. sawg?" Wer niit 'm Agar belita kon 

Don lusst 's gwiss in guter ruh. 

.Der barber sebtutzt un deukt a'wei!, Gilbert, Pa. 



Doh stebt's alt Hous am Weg, Der Bauni am Brunne schwebt"; 

En Stueok von alte Zoite her; Dor ^laulebecr hen sie verkaekt. 

Mor giikt 's jo oftmals a'. Die Kinnor singe: "Mi, sol, fa; 

Dort gebt die Kindheits-sp icbersteg. Die Blum, des Laub, der Stamm 

Ees haemelt em a', vergebt!" 

Sie heamelt em a'. Und's haemelt em a', 

Es haemelt em a'. 

Doh is des Kaemmerlie; Dor Todesaeker blueht ; 

loll l:>in gobi>re worre doh. ^lor fueblt not ganz so fremm in 

Mer donkt so manchmal dra '. dem. 

Mer waes jusclit wann, mer waes net Ya, Mutter. Kind und Frau — 

■wie, Guk, wie mer jetz die Name sieht! 

Doeh heamelt 's em a', So baenolt's em a', 

Es haemelt em a'. Es haemelt em a'. 

Horoht, hacrt die Glooke geh! 

Dort is dicsolbe SchwoU ; Sic tollt en ^lancber in sei Bett; 

Es stehne fremme Fuesse druf ; Der Soblof, dor legt sie dab. 

Mer sohleioht ira Zweifel na'. Die Glock soblagt hart, sie duht em 

Es is wie's war, un doob net, gel? weh ; 

Doeh buomc! 's em a', Es haenielt em a', 

Es haemoh em a '. Sio haomolt em a '. 



THE Church uf the Vnitt'd liiothien in Christ was originally exclu- 
sively Geriiinii, Ijeliig liorn ai;il brought uii among those who 
spoke that language. Moreover, it luul its beginning -in the 
Keystone Commonwealth, an<l therefore may be mentioned with 
perfect }iropriety in The Pennsylvaxia-German. It v\"as conceived in the 
spirit of flivine grace and compassion for men in a period of religious in- 
difference that was taxing to those who realized the peril of sin and the 
v\orth of souls, and who knew that even a lovely landscape like the 
Lebanon Valley, wiih its boundless resources of material wealth, must 
prove a cold and barren community without the life-giving influence of the 
Sun of Iiighteousness in the soul of tlie settler. In the absence of Spirit 
fruit the soil of life can furnish nothing worthy the aim and ambition of 
an immortal soul. 'I'lie true jihilosopliy (if life is bound up in the tloctrine 
of spiritual supremacy. That is the divinely established center around 
which every other experience and expression of life must siibordinately 
gravitate. "Seek first the Kingdom of God and His righteousness," is 
the direction of the great Teacher. In the spirit of that persuasion, real- 
izing that the church must not be silent, much less satisfied, when the air 
is thick with the fog of sin and the duty of the hour is to utter the protest of 
God against a debasing tendency, our sjiiritual ancestors, faithful ministers 
and members of various churches, raised the "danger signals" of the 
Gospel in the counties of Lebanon, Lancaster, Berks and Dauphin, and also 
throughout the beautiful Cumberland Valley, and thus induced thousands 
to enter the ark of safety. 

Soon after the town of Lebanon was laid out, and when most of our fair 
and fertile farms were covered with forests upon which the keen blade of 
the woodman's ax had not yet been tried, and through which wild beasts 
and wilder Indians still roamed, the one often in hot pursuit of the other, 
the work of a sonl-sa\'ing evangelism was organized and entered upon in 
those sections of the State already mentioned, the movement being pioneer- 
ed by a company of plain but preachers, chiefly of the Mennonite 
Society, but includincj members of ev^rv other Protestant persuasion in the 
eastern part of the State. At that time the trend of church life, in spite 
of the faithfulness of the few ministers then employed to preach the Gos- 
pel, was largely negati\e and neutral, affording little or no stimulation to 
sidritual enterprise. Moreover, this was the period immediately preceding 
the Kevolutionary War, which was additionally demoralizing and detri- 
mental to religion. Fortunately for those who have been favorably ef- 
fected by the influence of United Brethrenism, the period of religious in- 
difference to which I refer was broken by a great Pentecostal meeting at 
Isaac Long's, near Lancaster, in 17Ct~, on which occasion people of high 
and low degree, anil rcpre^-enting almost every phase of belief known to 



the ComnioiiTM'ftltli of Israel, eaiiic fruni far aiul near aiul sat undor the 
spell of Gosjiel iiiiity in a larj^e barii where Martin Boehni, a Meunonite 
rniuisfter, preached tlie Won! -vvitli such power and luution that scnes were 
then and there led to forsake sin and embrace the Saviour, realizing that 
through Him the gift of God is eternal life. At the close of the sermon, 
and before Mr. Boehni had time to resume his seat, William Otterbein, a 
Reformed minister, affectionately embraced him in his arms and said: "We 
are brethren."' That fraternal utterance and scene suggei?ted tlie name 
of the church — "United Brethren," the additional j.hrase, "in Christ," 
being supplied when the denomination was organized at Frederick, Md., 
thirty-three years later. 

That was a meeting in whieli ministers and members of various churches 
participated, and in which the grace and love of God were so abundantly 




-5^ . 



J Vijl'-f 



' -;■ 


.Uji'f - 

_;„' ,:. 

^:\'.c* ;°'-',-i»i*-.**— ^ 

Whore the l'eiiti'C(ist;il meeting was held in ITGT 

realized that sectarianism had no show at all. While Boehm preached in 
the barn, overilnw meetings were held in the house and orchard near by, 
where some ministers from Virginin preached the Word. 

Of course the old trees shown in the cut are not the ones under which the 
people gathered on that occasion, but they occupy the same ground. 

Denominationally speaking, there were no United Brethren present, ex- 
cept in embryo: but most of the leaders and many of the people who came 
together at the meeting, which lasted several days, subsequently became 
members of the church and participated in its organization in ISOO. But 
Lutherans. Presbyterian?. Methodists', Amish, Reformed, Dunkards, Morav- 
ian? an<l Menuonites came together "in the uuitv of the faith, anil of the 



kiiowle.l^p of tlip Sdii of Cioil," anil tliero wi'diioht to His glory and the 
salvation of souls. At tlie >-losi' of the nifctini; tlie Icailc^rs liejil a confer- 
ence in \\lii<'h thoy ai^^rt'O'l upon a basis of iloctrinal harmony an.l mutual 
co-operation, and planned for tl\e iwtension of the uurk in Pennsylvania. 
Marylanil and Virginia, and tlius gave new life and ijistinetive features to 
the germinal forees of the movonuMit. -which eulminate<l in the organization 
of the church of the I'nitetl Tirotinon in Christ at Peter Kemp's, near 
Frederick. Md., in ISOd. 

Having said this much concerjiing the (jrigin and organization of the 
church in general. I wish to s[>(nik more particularly respecting its history 
in Lebanon County, where the soul-saving intlnence of those " unsectarian 
preachers,'' as United Brethren niinis'ters were then called, is now em- 
bodied in a comnuinicant membership of about fi\e tiiousanij, with thirty 

■\.,,:^- V t,-' 

.^,- -;> >' ■ ,1 : 

^^"^'^' % t 

I.s.VAC I,(>N(;\S OKCIIAKl'. 
Where llir ovi-rrtuw inrctiiisr nci'iui-i'il In 17 

churrhes and one educational institution — Lebanon Valley College. On 
reflecting upon such substan.tial results, I ex{ierience a dtvp sense of grati- 
tude to our spiritual ancestors, realizing that they have left us an inherit- 
ance clo.sely akin to that v.hich is incorruptible, undefiled, and that fadeth 
not away, amounting to infinitely more than all the material wealth of the 
county. Their simple faith and labor of love and self-sacrificincr service and 
soul-saving sermons, associate<l with the best intluences of all the churches 
in the community, have stocked the county with godly men and capitalized 
her chief city with the life and spirit of Cliristianity. They broke the box 
of spiritual y>erfume on every hill-toi» and crowded the valleys with the 
odor of the ointment. More than a century ago William Otterbtnn. 'Martin 



Boeluii and Maitiii J\i\'i.iri- (.-aiivasseil tliia hively valley for simlis witli aJl 
the diliyoiice of a huhIoiu IjiK.k agent, and somi had liorn to their bpiritual 
fatherhood hnndroils- of souls, in(diiding Abraliani Druksel, Casper Sherk 
and Felix Ligiit, eaeh of ^vhonl gave his time and talent to the revival nuive- 
meut and beeame a tower of strength to the cause of Christ, not only in 
Lebanon county, but also in other States and coinnuinities. Of the six 
men %Tho originally pioneered the cause of United I'.rethrenism in Pennsyl- 
vania, four -were nati\es of Lebanon county, namely, Martin Kreider, Abra- 
ham Draksel. Casper Sherk and Felix Light. 

In the year ITtJT four things ooeurred wliich had much to do with this 
great revival movement and the history of the United Brethren Church. 
The things to which I refer are the?e: the Pentecostal meeting at Isaac 
Long's, the conversion of Martin Kreider and Christian Xewromer, anil the 
birth of Felix Light. iEoreover, it is edaimed traditionallv that the three 


Tile first Chiirob .Mc-.-f:-.! by tlio Unit. a Hivthioii. I'.iiilt ni Aiitietaui. Mil., in 171 

former events happened ou Whitsuntide. The far-reaching intluence of 
those four events may be inferred from tlie fact that the Pentecostal meet- 
ing at Isaac Long's resulted in plans which led to the organization of the 
church, and in the conversion of ^^lartin Kreider ami Christian Newcomer 
the revival nioveiniMit gained the co-operation of two great and gifted men. 
Mr. Newcomer became a bishop in the chun h and labored more widely and 
abumlantly than any of his co-laborers. As for Felix Light, he was then 
placed in the line of promotion, not to the same position in the church, but 
to the same prominence in the work of the ]^[aster twenty-five years later. 
^Nlartin K)eidei- stood next to P.o.-hni and (^tterbein in point of age and 
service in the cliurdi. lie was the son of .lohn Kreider, and lived aV'out a 



mile ur two south of Lel'auoii, whore he also died and was buried. He wa3 
born February H, 1740, and died November 14, IS'iti. His remains lie on 
the old home farm, and his yrave is marked by a nati\e limestone. Plis 
home was one of the first T'nited Brethren preachinij places in the county 
and Slate. Mr. Kreider marrieil Miss Catharine Selunutz, who lived a few 
miles south of Lebanon, and was a neighbor of Abraham Loro,v, whose 
daughter, Susana, became the beloved wife of William Otterbein, the found- 
er of the United Brethren in Christ. 

Kext to ^Martin Kreiiler, Abraham Drakscl stood most helpfully identi- 
fied Avitli tlie revival movement in I'ennsylvania, and especially in Lebanon 
county, where he was born iu 17.j3. lie was called ''the silenced preaclier. " 
because his Amish brethren, amon^ whom he v\as a nuni:?ter, thought he 

:'- ri^^ 




:ri,S.'3r.>f. ^ [Tr^** L!^v -'^ ^^4-,-««?; 


.^ "Tir^ 

Near Lebanon, wlirre tlic 

Tfii-: Kia;im:K (iUAVF.YAUK 

niiiHiiis of UfV. Martin Kroiili-i', a pioneer I'nited Brettiren 
niinistei', are Ijuiii'il. 

made too much of the doctrine of regeneration in his preaching. But he 
insisted that the t'hristian religion is' a matter of now life and enjoyment in 
the Holy Ghost; so he was "silenced " — uotitied that he must stop preaching. 
Of course Mr. Draksel continued the work of an evangelist, and was dis- 
tinguished for his abundant labors, sweet spirit, Gospel sermons and blame- 
less life. It is said that his beaming countenance, which was always lit up 
■with an optimistic faith in God and the Gospel, was an index to the spiritual 
joy and sunshine that reigned within. He lived two or three miles north- 
■west of Lebanon, on the farm subsequently owned and occupied by Mr. 
Louis Yingst, whn was the grandfatloT of Mrs. A. B. Schropp. an honored 
member of Triinty I'. B. chiirch of this city. A sacramrntal meeting of 


great puwer anil far-reacliini;' influence was helil at Mr. Draksel's Imnie on 
the fii'.-<t day uf >ray. 179G. It began the Saturday before with a business 
meeting, Avhieli was followed uitli a sermon by Christian Newcomer, of 
Maryland, who s]ioke with great liberty on these words: "When a strong 
man armed kcepeth his palace, his goods are in peace." On Sunday morn- 
ing George A. Ciceting, of Autietam, Md., preached a wonderful sermon from 
the 47th Psalm. But the crowning service of the day occurred in the after- 
noon, when ;^^artin Boehm, of Lancaster county, preached from this text: 
"For the Son of man is come to seek and to save that which is lost." At 
the close of the day Newcomer wrote this in his journal: "This day we had 
a great time. The grace of God wrought powerfully among the people. 
All were melted to tears and lasting good was done." 

Casper Sherk, who lived in Bethel township, was also one of the early 
converts to a more spiritual life, and straightway identified himself with the 
revival movement inaugurated by Otterbein and Boehm, but he never form- 
ally connected himself with the churL-h, so far as I know. He was a Meu- 
nouite, it is said, and desired Ids daughter Barbara, a charming young lady, 
to marry a man of that faitli; but she decidedly preferred a certain Felix 
Light, who came to her home one Sunday morning while her parents were 
at church and took her to Anuville, where they were married. The trip 
was made on horseback, ^^liss Barbara riding behind Mr. Light. Soon after 
this Mr. Sherk led his son-iu-law, Mr. Felix Light, into the same religious 
experience. From that time on, they were close friends and fully committed 
to the cause of evangelical religion. 

Felix Light lived on the outskirts of Lebanon, wliere the American Iron 
and Steel "Works are now located. He became a minister of the GoS'pel and 
one of the most able and faithful representatives that Christianity ever had. 
In his physical form and features he was the embodiment of strength and 
beauty. He was six feet and three inches in height and weighed two hun- 
dred and forty pounds. Moreover, his fine mental and spiritual endow- 
ments increased the comeliness of his personal appearance, especially in the 
pulpit, where the force of his fervor and the charm of his logic was a 
lifted-up Christ, in whom he led many to exercise saving faith. When he 
was about forty years ol<l he left the farm in the hands of his boys, and 
gave himself almost exclusively to the work of an evangelist, preaching 
every four weeks at Lebanon, Jonestown, Kauffmau 's and Gingrich's, and 
every six weeks at "Weiss', Sherk 's, Dinger's, Kendig's and Strohm's, in 
addition to which he had many special engagements and preached many 
funeral sermons. As a [lastor lie was faithful and efHcieut — wonderfully 
gifted and enterprising — and went from house to house conversing with the 
people concerning their spiritual welfare, relieving the wants of the poor, 
sympathizing with the aillicted, and thus gave counsel and comfort to all. 
Finally, as if to "cap the clinuix'" of that great and good man's gratifica- 
tion of heart and life, and to multi[>ly his blessed personality among the 
elders of Israel, God called his three sons, John, Casper and Joseph into tlie 
ministry. They b(X;ame lea<lers of religious thought and feeling in tlie 
countv. and ;ils'i extended tlieir labors and intluence into other comnumities. 



Andtlior person of rplijLrious worth and inorfasinj"- usefulness in the 
church was John Light, "tanner." who lived in Bethel township. When 
he accepte<l Christ he .liil it with the faith of the heart; and from that day 
to the close of his eventful life he stood for all that is essential in the 
Church of God, and remained a cons[iieuous witness to the saving jtower of 
the gospel, lamenting tlie fact that so few seemed to realize its value. To 
"John Light, tanner," religion was a diviui- life, a glorious reality, an 
increasing joy, all based on his personal knowledge of sin forgiven. More- 
over, he lived out his religions profess'iou and convictions in his daily life, 
no matter how costly or "peculiar" his course might be. He was born in 
1800, the very year in which the United Brethren (.'hurch was organized, 
and died S7 years later. Ilis renunns lie in the graveyanl at Wolfe's 
Meeting House, between Frrdericksburg and ^It. Zion. As to his influence, 
that will continue to speak for heart-felt, experimental religion — even 
throughout the boundles's ages of eternity. 

The "Weiss appointment was estaldished by Frdix Light, who first held 

\ -. ,11 ,.- 


^ ■" <!>\'i' •'^ ■'' - ■■V*'> 

'^; \ j:-! t J : 



One of tLe tirst I'uiteil Brotkreii preacliinv: ulaofs — Imilt 1S20. 

services in a frame house which was built by Mr. Weiss about 17V)9. near 
Schaefferstown. In Is-^a the V)rick strut;tare which still stainls was built; 
and when the fanuly moveil fr(nn the frame house into tlie new brick 
dwelling, a religious service of a dedicatory diaracter was lield in it by 
United Brethren ministers. It was conducted by Felix Light and his sons. 
For more than fifty years the Weiss home was a regular preaching place 
for United Brethren ministers. The house was sulistantially built, and the 
home was a beautiful one. Here IMr. .John Weiss, son of the builder, lived 
and reared a lovely fanuly. nmst of whom VttH'anie members of the church 
and devoted Christians. One of them recently said to the writer: "Those 
services made impre-^sioiis on my child niir ^ and heart tliat tlie world can 
neitlier give nor take away. I would not part with then\ for anything tlie 



Wdrlnl iiiii;lit offer, fur they have Iieen a lielp ami a conifort to me ever 
since. Ami those dear people ^vilo eaiiie to the services, the men plainly 
clad ami the women in calico dresses and gingham sun-bonnets, I shall 
meet and know in the better land.'' 

Another faithful and influential minister in the United Brethren Church 
iu Pennsylvania was George A. Mark, Sr., who was born on the sixth day 
of Xoveniber, 1790, in Lebanon county, lie was converted when he was 
seventeen years of age and joined the :\[ethodist Episcopal church; but in 
1840, childly for the reason that he was German and the ^[t-tiiodist services 
were conducted in the English language exxdusively. he Ijrouglit his creilen- 
tials to the T'nitcd Brethren chundi and opened his home for regular preach- 
ing. On the 30th of January, 1S17, he was married to Christiana Runkle^ 
by whom he had six children, one son. Rev. George A. Mark, dr., and tive 
daughters, one of whom married Kev. Samuel Etter. Mr. Mark is said to 

LebaiKin, I'a., (1820). 

have been one of the most faitliful and spiritually infiuential men that God 
ever raised up in the Lebanon Valley; a man whose whole life was an open 
letter of love and loyalty to Jesus, full of comfort an.l inspiration to those 
who were trying to live the life of thf righteous, and especially to young 
Christians, for whose continuani-e in wtdl-dding he manifested great con- 
cern. He was tiie embodiment of charity, and for that reason all who knew 
him loved him. He first liv^'d in the vicinity of the Water 'W orks, but 
later in life he moved to Annville, where he died December 2i>, IStis, and was 
buried beside his wife. 

The first church occupied by the Ignited Brethren in Lebanon county was 
built through the influence of Felix Light, and largely at his expense, about 
1810. It was a brick structur(\ 40 by (30 feet, and stood on a triangular 
piece of ground ju^t iiurth of tlic old Pitirgrov.> road, at the intersection 
of Seventh and Lehman streets, l.cb.iitnii. Ir was a union churcdi, largely in 



the iiitoiest of the Mt nnouitos, ami was callcl "liight's ^Meeting House." 
The deed uas maue mi the ilOth of May, isll, and was recorded two yeais 
later. The trustees were Felix Light, Martin Light and Abraham Light. 

In IS'29 one of the trustees invited Rev. .John Seibert, the first bishop of 
the Evangelical Association, to preach in Light's Meeting House, because 
he thought our peoide were a little too quiet ami " unspiritual. " Rev. 
Seibert preached in the "demonstration of the Spirit and of power," but 
not to the satisfaction of a few United Hretliren and Meunonites, who said 
that the shouting and jumping evoked by such preaching -was an injury to 
the meeting house an,l must be stopped. But Rt'V. Seibert thought differ- 
ently. He said he could not see how a brick church, standing on a lime- 
stone foundation, could be injured by a little jumping, but thought it might 
be detrimental to the frozen feelings and formal religion of those who wor- 
shiped in that house. 

la East Haii'ivtT IN.iwnship |.1S20,I. 

The next oldest I'uited Bretlireu church was erected in Annville in 1823. 
Then there was preaching in Lebanon and Annville every four weeks by 
the pastor of Lanca-rter Circuit, which included appointments in Lancaster, 
Lebanon, Berks and Dauphin counties. 

In 1825 the Mennonites built " Sherk "s :\reeting House," in East Han- 
over township, but the United Brethren had no interest in that church, 
though they worshiped in the neighborhood long before it was built; but in 
1833, when the Mennouite pastor died and his people bcx^ame few and ceased 
to hold service^ there. Rev. .Jacob Erb, who baptized Rev. John Wiuebrenner, 
the founder of tlie Church of Ood, was granted the use of the house for 

iKirnD 1!i;eiiii:i;xi.<'M ,s /7;\.vm /,|-.i.v;.i. ::u 

ana Mite, Henry Miller and wife. Ja.ob Sherk -in-l wif. TT ;"'^'-^. -'\^"'^-^" 
wife, Jacob Miller and wife, Jacob Alb.-rt a '^^^ I hi X V' J' ';" 
.aeob Harper a., wife, Oeor.e a.l "feta l>:;i^'t\-- r^:; 
.T/eJ.. i; r"f" •'""' ^''''' '^'' ^^-'^^ouites abandoned reoular ser- 

^?e^vZ"'' ''n'r^ t'^"^^-" '^' ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^'- General AssL^;.- 
ot Penns>l ama, was sold by Jacob Sherk to Jacob Albert. George Bom- 
gardner and Henry Xeidig, trustees of the United Brethren i; Chri^s^ ' 

In 1S42 Brightbill-s church was built. It is located se^eral miles south 
sold It to Mr. Bnlsbaugh. It as a substantial stone structure, one story and 


'■BKECriTI'.II.r/.s MRATL'X KOr.SE,- 
Built in 1S42 

a basement, and very beautifully sUuated. On the 4th of March. 1S47 the 
^lhS""ri"V^ ''' '"''''' ^--^-'--^ '--Terence was held .n 
Graf' worl '"t • "'' "'"'■■■• "'^^^ ^^^" '■^^-•'- ^^ote '«Nei..e 

■:; i:, " ! and music, presiding. About thi.s time churches were built 
at S haefterstown, Kauffman 's and the Water Works. At the latter place 

Michaei% r 'h f " ''''' ''^^°'^"-' "^^^ ^^"''^ '^y ^^^^-'^ Keilman an,l 
a;e of S7 ,t::: '" '''''' ''''''-' '' ''' ^^" ^^^-' -'- ^^"^ !'-• at the 

In 1844 a one-story stone church was built on Cherrv street in Mvers- 
to.-n, ,vhere occasional services had be... previously hold under Un.ted 
Brethren xnfluencs n, private hous... In 1^4:2. Rev. Samuel Enterline was 



apjioiiittd to LfbaiMU ('iiciiit, wliirli tlu'ii ineliuled ^^iiikitig Springs, Schaef- 
ferstown, Fredericksburg, Myerstuwii ami other points. After several iiu- 
successt'ul etYorts to secure a preaching placi' in .XFyerstown, Kev. Enterline, 
in the spring of 1S43, preaeheil a sermon in the center of tlie town, and at 
tho close of the service, ^Ix. John Daniels, who was soniev.hat un.jer the in- 
fluence of strong drink, invited the pastor to preach at his luune the next 
time, assuring him of an abundant welcome. "Perhaps,'' sai'l riie preacher, 
"when you cool off yon will not keep your promise." But the tijisy man 
said he would keep his word ; so an ap[i(iinrnient was made feir the L'otii of 
Ajiril, 1S43, when Ilev. ^fr. Enterline spoke to a "crowded house'' and 
stayed for the night with .Mr. Daniel Meyers. During the night the [ireacher 
was sent for by Mr. and Mrs. John Meyers, whom he found in a state of 
deep distress on account nf their sins, pleading fur mercy at the throne of 



!?uccess..r to Lliiijfs .MecliiiK Il'ms^e, built 1S40. 

grace. Bef(jre morning both were happily converted and became the first 
fruits of Mr. Enterline 's ministry in !Myerstown. At their request a three- 
weeks ' meeting was held at their home, and tho result was the conversion of 
thirty souls, including the tipsy man who had invited the tirst appointment, 
and his wife, ^Fr. and Mrs. John Daniels. On the 'Jtith of October, 1S43, a 
class of thirteen members was organized, as follows: John Myers, 8arah 
Meyers. Daniel Meyers, Catharine ^Teyers, Jonas Eckert, Xancy Eckert, 
John Daniels, Anna Mary Daniels. Susan B. Meyers, Nicholas Eckert, 
Daniel Meyers-, ,Tr., <'atharine Ganiber au'l Catharine Eckert. The organ- 
ization of this 'dass le.l to the erecti'.ui of tiie stone (dmrch alreadv referred 



to; anj in ]s7n tlio present substantial briek structure wan ereeted at a 
cost of .•f^.CH.10. 

In ISJo. uniler the pastoral care of Rev. Christian Sniitli Kreider, grand- 
son of Eev. Martin Kreiiler, tlie co-laborer of I'.uehin and Otrerbein, a new 
stone dunch uas erected under the auspices of tlie I'uited Hretliren on the 
southeast corner of Ninth and Cluirch streets. Lebanon, l)y tlie congregation 

,X Mil y«t 3£. ,?^ '! XA ' 

™\ y IT'; ; ^ 

^ 1 

--J - _~ X.. 

LebiaioM, I'a., tlSti"). 

•which had worshiped for many years in Light's ^Meeting House on Seventh 
street, which now took the name of ''Salem United Brethren Church." So 
far as the d^'nomination is concerned. "Salem" congregation is the mother 

church of Lebanon county, and is pr(d)ably the third or fourth that was 
establi-^h.d in the State, "Neidig's" Meeting House at Ub.'rlin, Pauphiu 


county, being the tir<t — 179."). Salem oliuveh lias iiirluiled in lier membership 
many persons of . prumineneo in the business and religious affairs of the 
comniuuity, among whom were Casper Light, Abraham Sherk, William Light, 
Abraham Miller. Felix H. Light, John Kochcnderfer, Jacob Light, William 
Hornafius, Jose]ili Zimmerman and Gideon Light, the three first mentioned 
being the board of trustees when the stone ehurch was erected in 1'54.5, and 
fo whom the site was deeded by Miehael and Elizabeth Iloag, on the 17th 
of Septemlier, lS4.i, for $-_'00. But the growing needs of the congregation 
required the erection of a larger and more modern house of worship; so, 
in 1S91, under the directing hand of Rev. H. S. Gabel, the present edifice 
was built at a cost of .$15,000. "Old Salem" is large and influential, num- 
bering about six hundred members, with Kev. I. H. Albright as pastor. 

In ISGtj a new demand was made upon the United Brethren church in 
Lebanon, and tliat was a matter of language. Vp to this time the services 
in Salem chureh were cou'lucteil almost exclusively in the German language, 
while many of her young people were demanding English preaching, for 
lack of which some had gone to other churches. Just then the annual con- 
ference, which met in Columbia, appointed Rev. G. W. M. Rigor to co- 
operate with the Salem church in the eFifablishment of an English United 
Brethren church in Lebanon. So. with a membership of fifty-nine from Old 
Salem, including J. M. Gettle, J. B. Kauch. Felix H. Light. Abraham Sherk 
and Dailiel "Weaver, who were the first board of trustees, the hit on the north- 
east corner of Xinth and Willow streets- was purchased for $.3.2.j0 ; and 
in July, ]Sn7. the corner stone of Trinity United Brethren church 
was laid by Rev. W. S. H. Keys. In the spring of 1S6S the lecture and 
class rooms of the chureh were furnished, and formally dedicated by Bishop 
J. J. Glossbrennpr ; and on the 23d day of May. 1S69. during the session of 
the General Conference, which met in Salem church. Bishop J. "Weaver, 
preached the dedicatory sermon in the auditorium. The next Sunday, .May 
30, 1S69, the balance needed to pay off the debt (.^S.OOO) was secured, and 
Trinity church was solemnly dedicated to the worship of Almighty God. 

In 1900 the church and parsonage were remodeled, pavement, curb and 
gutter laid at an expense of ^.j.-lOO; and one year ago (1902) the congrega- 
tion paid off a debt of ■•fS.-^OO and contributed $3,000 for the purchase and 
placing of a pipe organ. The value of the chureh and parsonage is $40,000. 
The following pastors served the congregation: 1S(36-1S70. G. W. M. Rigor; 
1S70-1S74. W. S. IL Keys, D.D. ; 1S74-1S7G. D. Eberly, D.D.: lS7tMS7^, L. 
Peters; lS7S-l^vi, j. T. Schaeffer; 1SS1-1SS.>. M. P. Doyle: ISs.l-lS.sO, J. 
W. Etter. D.D.; l'^^0-l><94. C. J. Kephart, D.D.; ls94-lS9.5. Z. A. Weidler 
and R. Rock. D.D.; 1S9.3-1S90, G. W. M. Rigor and R. Rock. D.D.; 1S90- 
1903, C. I. B. Brane. 

In 1SG(5 the East Pennsylvania Conference, whose territory included 
Lebanon county, together with other co-operating conferences, established 
Lebanon Valley College, at Annville. At that time the church bought the 
Annville Academy, \\hich was founcled as a firivate school in 1n34. It was 
turned over to the I'nited Brethren in Christ, and from that day to this 
has been successfully operated as a Christian college. The first faculty con- 


sisted of Thomas K. Yickioy, Vli.T)., John Kiumbein, E. Bonj. Biernian, 
A.M., Pb.l>., iLiss Ellen L. Walker, ami Miss Lizzie ^r. Eigler. 

There is an interestinfi scrap of bis'tory in the fact tiiat Annville Acad- 
emy, instead of becoming the nucleus of an educational plant under the 
auspices of the United Brethren in Christ, came within an inch of develop- 
ing into the institution of learning tliat \\as subsequently founded at AUeu- 
to^vn and called ^Tublenberg College, and -which is now successfully operated 
by the Evangelical Lutheran Church, whose ministers and members asso- 
ciated with those of the Reformed Church, ]iioneered the cause of Chris- 
tian education in Lebanon county. The matter of locating a Lutheran Col- 
lege at Annville was talked of in a private way, some of the main men in 
the academy movement being members of that church. 

In the city and county of Lebanon the cause of Christ and the L'nited 
Brethren Church have greatly blessed by the lives and labors of such men 
as Moses Heilman, Tobias* Kreider, William Ilornatius, .Toseph Suavely, 
Abraham Herr, Elins Dundorc, Mii-hael l^rcider, Daniel Kreider. Samuel 
Weiss, John Weiss, Cyrus Mutch, Peter Zimmerinan, Clir'.stian Groh, Joseph 
Ellenberger, Henry Oingrich, John Eunk. .Tdlm Pliillips, John Light, Samuel 
Schaeffer, Rudolph Sherk. Samuel Bowman. William Rupp, Joseph Moyer, 
John L. Meyers, John Slierk, Henry Light, Henry Blouch, Michael Seltzer, 
Daniel Light, Samuel Etter. George A. Mark, Sr.. George A. Mark, Jr.. Jo- 
sejih Light, John II. Kinpr-rts. Joseph K. Euston, John B. Rauch, S'mon 
XoU, Michael Blocker, Michael Haak, Jonas Knoll. Job Light, Eelix H. 
Liglit, Josei)h Young, .John Spangler, William Wolf, George Zeller, David 
Moyer, S. S. Horst, Joseph H. Light. Henry Clelbach, Rudolph Kreider. 

Among the pioneer ministfrs and members of the L'nited Brethren there 
were no literary lights, and but one distinguished theologian; but they were 
men of intelligence and integrity, full of faith and the Holy Ghost, apt to 
teach and anxious to save souls, the crowned princes of God. They found 
the fields white already to harvest, and when tnucli precious grain had been 
gathered, they put the outstanding sheaves and shuL-ks, by which I mean 
individual Christians and congregations, of which there were many, within 
the sheltcf of a visibly organized church. After all, human history is a 
divine story. God's hand and heart appear on every page, no matter what 
the writer, who is always the maker of history, strives to be, or not to be; 
to do, or to leave undone. Our heavenly Father guides the good and over- 
rules the bad, and thus makt-s up the record. I recognize His hand in the 
origin and organization of our Church; in the prest-rvation and develop- 
ment of her spirituality; in the evolution and multiplication of the pure 
and happy lives which constitute her membership, and in the hopeful outlook 
with which we are permitted to enter upon the second century of our life 
and labor. 

Moreover, instead of being a split or srpdinter from some other church, 
riven and wrested from its rightful relations by internal strife and con- 
tention, as has been the case in too many instances, the Church of the 
United Brethren in < hrist rame firth like her Master, in the spirit of sav- 
ing love, auil even ''as a root out of a <iry ground, without form and come- 


THE PKNNSY LV A.\ I A (U:l!M A^ . 

linoss, " Sit liarn-n si-eincil the soil and utterly nn[irniiiisinp; the civi.-uin- 
staiices of Iht oi-ii;in and nr^'anization. Hut secretly and silently she j^rew 
from that in\isil)lf stock whence all true heliesers get their sjiiritual life 
and pouer, and are thendiv placed in the line of promotion, not to worldly 
fame and honor, Imt to eternal life ami glory. Throughout the borders of 
this Commonwealth, along the high ridges and wide ranges of the Alle- 
gheny Mountains, from Lancaster to the lakes, her faithful evangelists 
searched out the hidden places of sjiiritunl need, that they might Ijreak the 
bread of life to the perishing, ■svhich they did in nmny towns and com- 
nninities \vhere the I'nited Brethren ('hurdi is not now estaldished. But 
their long rides and abumlant labrus and gracii'us services are o\er now, 
and to eaidi and all the ^Master has said, "Well done." Life is the ilay to 
toil, death is the night for repose: life is the dusty march and stormy battle, 
death is the warrior's welcome home. "Jesus, Jesus,'' said the dying Ot- 
terbein, "I die, but thou livest, and soon 1 shall live with thee. The con- 
flict is over and past. I begin to feel an unspeakable fulness of love and 
peace di\ine. Lay my head upon my pillow and be still.'" With those 
sweet words he fell asloep. Peace to his ashes! Blessed lie his memory! 
Thank God and the ('hiirch for su(di men! 



Camp Pottsgrove. 
Sept, 2Gth. 17 

Mr. Benjamin Bertolet, of Philadelphia, is the 
author of a very interesting historical pamphlet 
with this title. It idaims to be a new revelation 
on the RevolutiiMjary Camp at Pottsgro\e, in New Hanover, Montgomery 
-county }'a., where at Fagleyvillc (ieneral Washington and his army en- 
camjted. The record is clear, the argument conclusive and tlie whole ac- 
count beautifully dished up in the best of the printer's art, embellished with 
several fine illustrations. This is the character of local history that this 
periodical s'tinudates and highly commends. 

For l.-uk of space must deter to next issue, notices of I>r. Zie^ler's 
"History of Dnnciral Pre-liyierian ('hurch" and several orlier pamphlets re- 
ceived. For same reason the --ne Loni;- l-'amily llistor,\" was crowded out, 
M'hieh will api>e:ir in our next. 

We have recenrly enjoyed an extended trip to Baltiumre. Norfolk. Old 
I'oint Comfort. Hampton. .Newport News ami Itiehmond. \,\. We nniy have 
time and space to ;:i\e a fuller account in a later issue, ^^'e allude to it 
here simply to say that we found the ubiquitous I'ennsylvaula "Hutehman" 
also in this region, meetins on the beautiful Pocahontas, the palatial day- 
bo.-it plyin,:; the historic James Ivi\er between Norfolk and Kiihinoud, a mem- 
ber of a Lehiiih and Carhmi County, Pa.. Iund>er firm, ^vho are sawing up 
a lanre timber trait in the luduhbiu-iniud nf Clarenmnt. \'a.. on the James. 
^^■e ai^o wish tei dir-ct traNelers in this re'.;i,,a to tiie exi-elient line of the 
Vir^iinia Naviuatiou Cnuipany. 


\Af^V'- ■■■•'■' - 


S. 1/ >(■»* 


ffJr^i'' '%^ i' fe' i" fei(>^l*J' I 


Vol. IV. OCTOBER, 1903. No. 4. 


EDnOIUAI. . . . 


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VXl, 33S: 319, 3u0 f ^ ^-'C-i 

Famous P£xxsTi.VA^-ii.-GEKMA>'S. 

Barbara Fritchie 330-S 50 

Poetic Gems S51o54 

D;o Araschel. 

Tl'-? NorthwesrC'T-D Paeneerfest Prize Poern. 

D'.;t Ferlohra Ehsel. 


York to Harpers Ftiry 
(Jexb;aI.'x:ical , 3T5-.']o-< 

The DcLonir Family in Aiuf-rioa. 
BcKiK Noticed i5S4 

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Pennsylvania- German 

REV. r. C. CKOLL. A.M. 

KJilor an.l Publisher 


Busiuess MaiiaitT 

Terms: fl.i") fitr i/rar in culvance; fl 'J' (ifle.v three nionfhs 

Vol. IV LEBANON, PA., OCTOBER, 1903. No. 4 

[KiiiHr.-l .-It the P.i-t-Tfi.-e at I,..-I,:iij.iii. Pa., :i- .-cu l-.-li^s niatn-r] 


n N ]^rAXY countries people and wild animals annually hiber- 
nate. Armies go into winter quarters and all cold-blooded 
animals lie dormant in their burrows and caves feeding upon 

their own fat. 

In our portion of America the hard toil of brain-workers 
is done in the cooler months of the year, and only the tillers of the 
soil do their chief work in the summer months. The professional 
classes and business men generally take it easier when the ther- 
mometer pushes the mercury into the nineties, and wherever pos- 
sible hie away froni the heat and dust and smoke and noise of 
city life to pitch their tents by the seashore or on some lofty, cool- 
ing hillside. They go into summer quarters. Thus it happens 
that every railroad company amuially issues its summer excur- 
sion book — giving a long list of cool and attractive resorts with 
points of interest and reduced rates of fare. And thus it comes 
that hordes of overworked, nervous and exhausted brain-workers 
and easy-going pleasure-seekers are on the wing in all portions 
of America — on their way to some retreat from the hardships of 
routine work or the discomforts of crowded city life. The army 
of American summer excursionists has been on the increase from 
year to year until now its numbers have passed from the liundreds 
of thousands into the millions. A few of the most popular seaside 
resorts alone number their patrons by the million each season. 
And with a myriad of suitable and available rest resorts advortis- 


33S THE Pi:\ \sy fA \.\ I A(; i: hwr A x. 

ing; f(^r the trade, our suninier excui'sionists cro^s each other's 
patlis so that were all their routes outlined in colored drawini^s on 
the map of our great country the picture presented would outrival 
the worst Gordian knot or lahyrintliian ])uzzle-^'an"'e ever seen. 

It would be interesting' to tind the lines that would mark ones 
own course in such a labyrinth. Xot taking much account of 
"what course others may take," in Patrick Henry style, our own 
usually lies clear on the map as it docs in tb.e mind. It is exceed- 
ing!}' pleasant to recall such a course after one gets back to v.ork 
and the spell of sumn'ier recreation or dissipation, as the case 
may be, is over. Here is where the greatest b'enefits of a sum- 
mer vacation may come in — the drawing on the stored-up knowl- 
edge, energ}', experience or recreation gained by recollection and 
reflection in moments of coming leisure. 

It may not greatl}' interest our readers to know the foot prints 
the editi^r has left in the sands of time during the sunmier months, 
but for him it is pleasant to recall. lie will never forget his 
pleasant steamboat rides on the Chesapeake l*.a\", the James ami 
York Rivers, the glimpse of old oceaii on the X'irginia beach or 
the bloom of the magnolia and the hundreds of shining picaninnv 
faces that he saw reflected in the sunny atmosphere of the Old 
Dominican. He tramped with the Arm}- of the Potomac and 
fought over the many battles about RichuKjnd under McClellan 
and Grant. He suffered with the unfortunate prisoners in Libbv 
and on Pelle Isle, and was a refugee with the fleeing left Davis. 
The Givil War was re-enacted in his life and its history rewritten 
and revised on the tablets of his memory. And how can the rec- 
ords of that great w ar ever be eft'acetl ? 

But there stand out other recreation experiences. Two Sunday- 
school picnics, one in the fairest land ( Fairland) of the Lebanon 
A'^alle}', the other among the green, pine-clad hills of Schu}lkill 
count}', at picturesque Fdwuo.l, to furnish food for hapin' re- 
flection. A family reunion (the DeLong's ) in an ideal park on 
the outskirts of old Kutztown, in okl Maxatawnv township of 
"Alt Bercks" count}' — the place of our birth, on an ideal summer 
day, lias [»ainted a mural picture on the walls dI our memorv, of 
a family group of four hundred kin of honored blood and noble 
deeds, scattered from Boston to the Rocky ]\Ioimtains, that will 
(C'oiitiimril on p.-iui' ."10.) 

Famous Pennsylvania-Germans 



E GI\'E space this issue to place in the gallery of Fa- 
mous Pennsylvania-Germans ihe story of a woman's life, 
whose brave and patriotic deed has shown her to have 
been great and deserving of this niche, and whonr the lines of 
Whittier have justly made renowned. We write not to add to 
her fame. That has already spread, wherever the story of 
libcrtv's fiercest struggle has been told, or the sweet songs of the 
gentle poet have been sung. We write simply to say that this 
heroine of Wdiittier's verses was a Pennsylvania-German, and 
to give a few data of her life, not generally known. The sketch 
will likewise subserve the purpose of contradicting that wretched 
tendency among certain literary tleclglings who, because they have 
not themselves seen a certain performance or communed with 
reputed actors, are disposed to cast doubt upon any narration 
of heroism, by calling the account poetic fancy or mythology. 
Thus "dame Barbara" has been treated. .V number of times more 
recently have we met the assertion that "no such person ever lived 
in Frederick,"' and that the enthusiastic poet drew but upon his 
own imagination when he wove those beautiful and familiar 
verses, descriptive of this heroine. 

A little research, however, or a personal pilgrimage to the 
historic and once Rebel-invaded town, 

"Green-walled l.y the hills of :\[arylan(l, '' 
would forever dispel doubt and enable one to set aside the bab- 
blings of these iconoclastic scribblers. Such an one would meet 
with a sufficient number of old citizens, among them many rela- 
tives of the old dame, to form a cloud of witnesses testifying that 
the essential features of the poet's narrative are fact and not 
fancy. Among these personal friends and former associates of 



Tin: VKXy^YlA AMA-Gi:iniA \. 

Dair.e Barbara, ,Mr. Henry Nixdortt has possibly been the most 
zealous of all in liavino- the story of this noble woman's life lifted 
out of the glamour of mere poetic glory, on the one hand, and 
out of the cloudland of mystic fable on the other, into the environ- 
ment of actual everyday life, by publishing a sketch of her life. 
Upon this sketch is based the following account of the heroine. 
Barbara Fritchie was the third child of Xicolas and Catharine 
Hauer, who were residents of Lancaster, Pa., during the period 
when their family of five children were born. The old German 
Reformed church records of that city still hold the account of 
Barbara's baptism h}- the pastor, Rev. William Hendel, Sr., show- 
ing that she was born December t,c\, 1766. and that her baptism 
occurred on the 14th day of the same month and year. 

Born and bred in the exciting: times of the Revolutionary 
period, it could not be otherwise but that the discussions con- 
cerning the odious "stamp act," taxation without representation, 
the Declaration of Independence, and the long and fierce Revolu- 
tionary war. should deeply impress her childhood's mind with 
sentiments of patriotism. 

It was during these exciting times that the Hauer family, with 
other Germans from Eastern Pennsylvania, migrated to and set- 
tled in the tou-n of Frederick, Md.— a village founded about a 
quarter of a century before (1745) and named in honor of Fred- 
erick, then Prince of Wales; but settled almost exclusivelv by 
Germans. Here the spirit of freedom was taught the voung girl 
in object lessons that could not help but fan the flame of her love 
of^ country into a fire of most patriotic fervor. For it was from , 
this town, as soon as the first blows of resistance of tvranny were 
struck at Lexington and Bunker Hill, that two companies from 
Frederick-town marched to the succor of the camp at Boston. 
Thus it came that our heroine had instilled in her the value of our 
national life and freedom, and it is said that she oft spoke of the 
trials, sacrifices and events of Revolutionary times. No wonder 
then that she stood like "a rock in defence of her beloved country's 
best interests." when in old age the invasion of a rebel horde 
came to her very town and door and challenged the citizens for 
an expression of sentiment in behalf either of loyalty or rebellion. 
At a somewhat advanced age, and the senior by quite a num- 
ber of years. Barabara Hauer was married to Mv. John C. 

BAIiliARA FlUTL'lIU:. 341 

Fritchic, a native of Frederick, and a glove manufacturer by 
trade. They took up their residence in a small one-and-a-half 
story house that fronted on West Patrick street, next to where 
the Carroll creek is crossed b}- the street. In the front roon\ of 
this house he carried on his busitiess, and from the "attic win- 
dow" of this humble abode is said to have been tlung- the "silken 

"Ou that pleasant nioru of the early Fall, 
"When marched over the mountain-wall,'' 

to show that "one heart was loyal yet." And here after the heroic 
act and word of "dame Barbara" 

"All day long that free flag tosst 
Over the heads of the rebel host. ' ' 

^Ir. and Mrs. Fritchie were highly esteemed citizens of the 
growing town. They led humble but upright lives, being consist- 
ent members of the German Reformed church. They lived to- 
gether in peace and honor and by their industrious and frugal 
habits, so characteristic of the German race, prospered sufficiently 
in business to enable them to live in comfort all the days of their 
married life and give her a support during the thirteen years of 
her widowhood. He died November loth, 1849. Ihey never had 
any children, but they partly raised and gave a home to a rela- 
tive, 3vliss Yoner. 

Quite a number of incidents are related of Dame Barbara, 
which her admirers may be glad to know. Thus, for instance, 
being considerably older than her husband, she was already a 
young lady when he was born, and her biographer declares oft 
hearing his mother relate that she was present at a quilting party, 
with ]\Iiss Barbara Hauer, when the announcement of the birth 
of a male child at neighbor Fritchie's house was the topic of 
conversation, in which ]\Iiss Barbara joined, not knowing that 
she was talking about her future husband. It is a privilege not 
often granted for a marriageable lady to knit baby-stockings for 
her future husband. 

Another incident, not so strange yet somewhat inconsistent 
with the lofty spirit of freedom, manifested by this aged woman, 
is the fact that for a munber of years before the war ]\Ir. and 
Mrs. I'ritchie were the owners of two slaves, known in the town 


as "Fritchie's Harry" and "Aunt Nellie." The former assisted 
his master in the skin dressing department of the business, while 
the latter assisted her mistress in her household duties. It is said 
that they were very clever slaves and were treated, while in bond- 
age, with such kindness as scarcely to feel any dil'lercnt than as 
adopted children. Such was their love for their ".Mnssa" and 
"Missus," that their liberty having been granted • them, thev 
returned to the old home as children seek the home of their 
parents. Had such relationship between master and slave existed 
everywhere there would never have been written an "Uncle 
Tom's Cabin." 

A similar act of freedom was performed by that other patriotic 
native of Frederick, Francis Scott Key, the noted author of "The 
Star Spangled Bamier," (and whose dust is held by one of the 
town cemeteries), whose ownership of a slave seemed inconsist- 
ent with his love of freedom and countr}-. 

Mrs. Fritchie is described as having possessed, in early vouth, 
many personal charms and accomplishments. She was slight in 
figure (never weighing over no or 115 pounds) and scarcely 
of medium height. Her eyes are said to have been small but 
penetrating and keen. Her hair in early life were raven, but sil- 
vered with approaching age. In later years she was always seen 
with a braid or cap upon her head, which had the effect of mak- 
ing her look more youthful. She dressed very plainly, at home 
commonly in Quaker colored calico, when at church, or on a visit, 
in black cashmere or alpaca. 

She was a great home-body, especially during the years of 
her widowhood. She was a familiar figure at her cottage window, 
engaged either in sewing or knitting or else in reading. Her 
home bore all the charms of a thoughtful, kind, and loving queen, 
and was noted for holding both herself and her husband as will- 
ing captives. 

Her dom.estic treasures consisted in some very beautiful china- 
ware and a few articles of jewelry. These are now in the pos- 
session of her relatives, resident in Frederick. Her tea-pot has 
the additional charm of having been used at the "Tea" given 
General Washington the night he spent in Frederick, in 1791, 
while filling his first term of the Presidency, when Miss Haner 
loaned her china to grace the table. After the President's death, 

B Aim Ah' A I'h'ITCHlE. 'M:i 

a sham funeral was held by the same circle of young ladies and 
our heroine was one of the pall-hearers. 

Among her other personal traits mentioned were her love of 
flowers and her cheerfulness and mirth-loving disposition among 
the young, attracting rather than repelling them, even to good 
old age. 

She is said to have been especially kind to the poor, who fre- 
quented her cottage door in search of food or clothes, and who 
were never turned away empty-handed. Though not blessed with 
great competence herself, she yet made many rich with her kindly 
words and her ministrations of love. 

Concerning the absolute reliability of the incident that gave 
Whittier basis for his famous poem we prefer to let Mrs. 
Fritchie's biographer speak. That she was in every sense a wo- 
man, from whom such heroism might be expected, is admitted by 
all who knew her, and that a similar occurrence took place is an 
acknowledged fact. The incident was reported in the newspapers 
and Mrs. Emma D. E. Southworth, the distinguished authoress 
of Washington. D. C, communicated the facts to the famous 
Quaker singer of freedom and her friends. Says Mr. Xixdorff: 

"I have frequently noticed her standing with her country's flag 
floating gracefully and beautifully from tlie same window. 

'Tn the early days of the Rebellion, when one disaster after 
another had befallen the Union army, and other patriotic hearts 
were almost overwhelmed with grief and beginning to despond; 
when matters looked so dark, so portentious, she stood entirely 
unmoved, displacing the greatest composure imaginable. Her 
loyalty to the country of her birth was one of most pronounced 
character. She never suffered that countrv to be spoken of in 
her presence in a disparaging way, without at once and in a 
most earnest manner resenting it. Yes. those small, bright 
eyes would flash with excitement and indignation and her 
usual calnmess. change to that of resolution and strong determin- 
ation, until the offensive remark was recalled, which was invari- 
ably done, for all knew that she meant what she said in her in- 
most soul. She realized that in 'Union there is strength,' and 
believed in it with her whole heart. 

"I shall never forget her appearance as she came into my store 
in the earlier part of the war, leaning on her staff and saying with 


the greatest earnestness, 'Do not for a moment despair, stand 

"Often when she entered the store she would ask, 'How do 
matters look for the L'nion side?' Sometimes 1 had just heard 
good news of a cheering character, and when I would communi- 
cate it to her. joy was manifested in the most fervent maimer. 
Her whole frame kindled with emotion and her hright eyes S])ark- 
led with delight. At other times news of a saddening character 
had heen received, and when I tuade it known to her I felt greatly 
depressed. She would notice it at once and remark. 'O, do not be 
cast down, it will come all right. T know it will ; the Union must 
be preservetl :" and remark with the greatest eiuphasis, "Be as- 
sured that God takes care of tlis people, and He will take care 
of this country. I feel perfectly satisfied that the Union of the 
Stales will be maintained. I am sure that it is God's will that the 
Union shall continue and }OU know that nothing can stand 
against it.' 

"^Irs. Fritchie was not robust, but decision of character was 
seen tiiroughout, and judging from her eyes and mouth she surely 
was not to be tritled with. If she said, 'No!' it was quite plain 
that she was settled in the opinion formed, and to change it was 
no easy task, for when formed aright it was formed to last. 

"On Wednesday morning, September loth, 1862, the Confed- 
erate army began to move out of Frederick City. 

"General Jackson's corps was in the advance. As they passed 
out West Patrick street. I stood at the front of my dwelhng 
looking at regiment after regiment, clad in grey or brown uni- 
forms, as they marchecl past for several hours. So intent was I 
in noticing and reflecting on this lamentable action of the people 
against the best government on earth that I lost sight of wdiat 
was going on at .Mrs. Fritchie's, although her residence was not 
a square distant from my own. But this I do believe, that if the 
opportunity was presented she did not fail to improve it, for I 
do not think she w ould have taken a backward step though con- 
fronted by their entire army. In the language of Mrs. Abbot, 
'Aunt Fritchie was fearless and very patriotic' A single incident 


will show the si)irit aiiiniatiiig her. On one occasion a nuniher of 
Confederate soldiers halted and sat down on the porch in front of 
her dwelling-, and were drinking water hrought from the spring 
near hy. 1 o this she had not the least ohjection, hut hefore leav- 
ing thev began speaking in a derogatory manner of her beloved 
country. In a moment she arose and passing to the front door 
she bade them clear themselves and applied the 'cane,' with 
which she used to v\"alk, in the most vigorous manner, clearing 
the porch in a few moments of every man upon it. I am inclined 
to believe from inquiry that General Jackson on the day the Con- 
federates passed through Frederick, did not pass by the dwelling 
of Mrs. Fritchie. It appears that he left his soldiers, at the east 
end of the city, to call on the Rev. Dr. John B. Ross, pastor of 
the Presb}'terian church, the wife of whom was the daughter of 
Ex-Governor McDowell, of \'irginia. with whom he was well 
acquainted.- It being early in the morning it is declared that he 
wrote the following note, and slipped it under the front door at 
Dr. Ross's dwelling: 

" 'Rev. John B. Ross : 

'Regret not being able to see you and }vlrs. Ross, but could not 
expect to have that pleasure at so unseasonable an hour. 

'T, J. Jackson.' 

"Dr. Ross resided on West Second street, and it is stated that 
General Jackson, on leaving Dr. Ross's residence rode on to what 
is known as Bentz street, commonly called 'Mill alley,' which 
leads out into Patrick street a short distance beyond or on tlie 
west side of Mrs. Fritchie's residence. I measured the distance 
from ']\Iill alley' to her dwelling and found it to be sixty-three 
yards. Grant that it was not General Jackson, might it not have 
been some other officer in command? If so. it would not change 
the principle involved. I have, however, no personal knowledge 
of its occurrence. This I do know : called for a moment from my 
front door that morning to see a friend, I happened to look up the 
" street, and saw a very intelligent lady, a neighbor, standing on 
her front porch with a small L'nited States flag in her hand wav- 
ing it and making apparently the most earnest remarks to a Con- 
federate officer who had ridden his horse over on the pavement 
up to the porch where she was standing. I was afterward assured 

340 THE pi:yx SY TAWy I AC luni AX. 

by those who had the pleasure of being present that such glow- 
ing words of patriotism fell from the lips of Mrs. Ouantrell that 
the officer looked on, and listened with wonder and surprise, and 
whilst he was present would not allow his men to do her the 
least harm. After his de{)arture. however, some of the soldiers 
belonging to the army came and knocked the flag from her hand, 
breaking the staff into several pieces. 

"If this occurred at ]\Irs. Mary Quantrell's we should not be 
astonished at anything said to have taken place at any other point. 

"On the I2tl-i of September General ]\IcClellan's army entered 
Frederick City. The advance was under the command of Gen- 
eral r.urnside. As they moved up West Patrick street on the 
National pike leading westward, they passed I\Irs. Fritchie's resi- 
dence. She was standing at one of the front windows of her 
dwelling, leaning on her came. Beside her stood her relative, 
Miss Julia Ilarishew, now }ilrs. John X. Abbott, and Miss Yoner. 
As she stood by the window she waved her hand time and again 
to express her joy. ]\Iiss Yoner, no doubt at Mrs. Fritchie's re- 
quest, went into the adjoining room and brought forth ]\lrs. 
Fritchie's flag. The old lady grasped it and stood at the window 
waving it. As she waved her flag the soldiers were perfectly 
delighted, some of them loudly cheering her, others ran to the win- 
dow and as soon as they got near enough grasped her by the hand 
and said, 'God bless you, old lady, may you live long, you dear old 
soul.' And then cheer after cheer was given as our noble sol- 
diers marched along. That same silk flag I had in my hands only 
a short time since. Among those who shook hands with her 
that day was the beloved and valient General Reno." 

We must, therefore, conclude that, if in all particulars the in- 
cident, as given by the poet, be not literally true, the estimate that 
the poeni puts upon ^^Irs. Fritchie's patriotism and valor is not 
to be discounted by a single whit. Her friends and relations 
about her have not had occasion to believe that even fancy could 
easily color her patriotic fervor in too rich a glow. 

If no- Confederate bullet dared touch "a hair of }'on gray head" 
on that day of heroism, yet the sly Archer of that warfare in which 
there is no discharge, soon thereafter brought down that form, 

" Bo .e'l M'ith four-score vears and ten." 



Mrs. Fritchic, liaving enjoyed almost a century of life and al- 
most uninterrupted good health, died after a very brief illness, 
December i8, 1862. Her end was full of the Christian's peace 
and hope. A few days later her remains were buried, beside 
those of her long" slumbering' husband, in the German Reformed 
cemetery of her city. Her grave is marked b}' a neat marker of 
marble, bearing the following inscription: 

Barbara Fritchie 

Died December iSth, 1S62. 

Aged 96 years. 

Her husband's resting place is similarly marked, and an iron 
fence encloses the burial lot. 

The citizens of Frederick have not forgotten the lessons of 
patriotism taught them by their own illustrious citizens, whose 
treasured remains are mingling with their soil. As one might 
expect, so the visitor will fmd, that over Barbara Fritchie's grave 
in the Reformed Cemetery, and over Francis Score Key's grave, 
in jMt. Olivet cemetery, the flag which the former so devoutly 
loved and the latter so beautifully enshrined in song, is con- 
stantly waving. 

And how could we close the account of this heroic Pennsylva- 
nia-German dame, "who will henceforth live in literature side 
by side with Joan of Arc," in a more fitting manner than by in- 
serting the following very creditable translation of Whittier's 
celebrated lines into the Pennsylvania-German vernacular, which 
was first read by its author, Lee L. Grumbine, Esq., of Lebanon, 
Pa., before the Pennsylvania-German Society at its annual meet- 
ing in 1895?' 


Alls greene Feldtr, niit Friclite reich, 
In tier Morge Kueble, im ycheue Deieh, 

Uminaurt bed greene Hivvel dort, 

Stebn die Kirche tliunn dor Frederick Stadt. 

Mit Eppel iiu' Pershing Felini ringsruinkclirt, 
Ke ' Fand ineh ' lieldieli iii" gonser Erd ! 


ITonlii-li shtrecbt 's vor wio'n Gottes Garte, 
Zu de liuug'richo Awga der Rebel Soldate, 

Wie seller September Merge, free 
Mfircht ivver der Berg der General Lee — 

Ivver der Berg die Kebels sin kiimnie 

Mit Geil un' Manu die Stadt ei'genuniine. 

Meh as ferzig Flags, \vie rot he Feohthahne, 
Ivverall flatteru die Rebel Faline 

Ini !Morge Wind; die Mittag's Sonn, 
Die selit ke' e'uziger Union Mann. 

Don koninit die alt Barbara Fritebie vor, 
Gebeicht mit ihr achtzig un' zelin Yohr; 

In gonser Stadt herzhaftigslit von Alle, 
So g'schwind is der Union Flag get'alle 

Hat sie 'u Mieder 'nut', in ihr Fenster naus, 
'S war noeli e ' treu Herz in sellem Hans. 

Die Sthrose ruf kommt der Rebel Sehritt, 
Der Stonewall Jackson, am head, rent nut. 

Umier sei 'm Hutranf t, wie er geht, 
Bliekt links un' rechts; der alt Flag sebt. 

"Halt!" die sbtawige ranks stebn sbtill; 
"Fire I I " die Bixe maehe' ihr laut Gel)rill. 

Es brecbt das Fenster zu Shtiekere nei ', 
Es reiszt der Fahue zu Zottle f ei '. 

Scbnell "Wie er fallt, vom Stoek abbruch, 
Die Barbara greift das seidich Duch. 

Sie lahn 't weit 'naus ivver 's Fenster Schwell 
Un' sehittelt der Fahne hoeh un ' scbnell. 

"Scbiess, won du v,it, der alt grau Kop, 
Dei land's Flag spabr! " un' uf ' un' ab 

Webt sie den Flag. "Wie'n Scbatte vor's Licbt 
Die Schamroeth' ziegt ivver sei Gesicbt. 

Ihr That un' Worte niache ihm Sehmerz, 
Sei besserie Nature ercpiickt ini Herz. 

' ' Wer 'n Haar 'uf selni weisse Kop verletzt 
Gebt todt wie'n Itundl " bat's g'be'se yetzt. 


Dorch Frederick Slitrose, dcr ganse Pag, 
SoKlate Schritt die Obre sehlag. 

Per gons I)ag laug dor alt Flag schwebt, 
Von Kebel Haend net a 'geregt. 

Die Shtrefe flattern hi' un' her 
Im treue Wind der liebt sie sehr, 

Sanft Ovetlicht slitrahlt ivver Berg 
E'n liebes Gruss zu Barbara's AVerk. 

Ihr "Werk in daare Welt verbei ; 
Un ' Eebel Soldate yetz wieder treu! 

Hoch ehr zu der Bevvy! l"ni ihr Wille ■neint, 
E' Thraen uf s Grab ihr Rebel Feind. 

In Friede las?t riihe ihre Shta'b; 
Freiheits Fahne 'uf ihrem Grab. 

Frie<le, Ordnung, Gereohtigkeit 

Zeigt um die Zeiche d'?s Land 's Freiheit, 

Un' inimer, die Liohter aus Hiniinel's Ferne, 
Guekt runner, niit Lieb, 'uf die Erdishe Sterne! 

(Note. — The reader can find additional data on Barbara Fritchie by con- 
sulting The Era, of December, 1901; Atlantic Monthly, for one of the 
fall issues, 1902, and The New Voice, of July 8, 1899. — Editor.) 


Continued from page 33S. 

not soon fade. A visit to our old standby resort — the Grand View 
Sanitorium of Wernersville. Pa., has furnished another pleasing 
picture for the mental habitation in the coming months of toil. 
Although we have given this place more than a score of separate 
inspections it has new and stronger charms for us on every re- 
peated visit. Usually tliere is some new and expensive attrac- 
tion added on every return, but to speak the plain truth, the place 
-has so many, so great, so vast and so extensive charms that one 
cannot take them all in in one visit. It is too great to take in at 
one grasp, toc> vast to embrace in one sweep of the eye or mind, 
too subtle for the mind to hold in one catch of it. It is the Queen 


of Resorts for rest seekers, and the few huiulred that crowd it 
from year to }ear know it well, while the thousands that go by 
on their way to the sea, or some other mountain, will never know 
it or believe it, until they stop ol'i and take a climb up the gentle 
elevation of its South ^fountain hillside and for a week look out 
from its slope, or the Institution's windows, where in everv frame 
hangs ready for the beholder one of the finest landscape pictures 
this scenic country of ours can aiiord. 

But we nnist not forget Mt. Gretna and the Pennsylvania Chau- 
tauqua. Here is Pennsylvania's ideal summer school. Its Chan- 
cellor is Peims}ivania"s able and gifted Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, and its hundreds of refined and intelligent cottagers 
make up an ideal summer community. It is enough to sav that it 
was our good fortune this summer to secure a cottage on these 
grounds, and with our family to spend seven delightful weeks 
here. If }T)U will here-after seek the Editor of the P[-:xxsyl\'an!a- 
Germax during thic months of July and August in the lack of 
any better, more definite knowledge at hand, we would direct 
readers and friends to call at "The Crow's Xest," ^^It. Gretna, Pa. 


In behalf of our advertising patrons vre would respectfully call atten- 
tion to the things otTered for sale ou our cover pages. "Will our readers 
kindly look them over. They are not the least entertaining or helpful of 
our magazine pages. You will want some time to travel, you may need a 
camera or bicycle; you will want lo keep I'osted on the best rest and health 
resorts; you have looked for some time for a grandfather clock or a piano, 
and the prices have always heretofore been prohibitive. Here you will find 
all these offered on easv and reliable terms. 


"Home Ballads an.l Metrical Versions," by Prof. J. H. Dubbs, D.D., 
issued in ISS'^. An excellent contribution of our local Germanic and folk- 
lore history in poetic; measures. 

"Camp Pottsgrove, " a pamphlet from the pen of Benjamin Bertolet, of 
Philadelphia, giving a proof and account of General Washington's ariny 
encampment at Fagleysville, New Hanover township, Montgomery county, 
Pa., from September ISth to 2(3th, 1777. 

"Views of Historic Frodericktown. :Md., by John F. Kreh, Frederick, :Md. 



Ich gleioli es Avaiin die Auischel singt 

Im Sehpotjohr; 's laut so soho! 
So dief es in die Seel uei dringt 

jNIer nient scliier 's diit cm web. 
Es bringt Moililiimliu in der Sinn, 

Un. Juni's Koseljradit, 
Un widder daroli die V.'iildor griin 

Die Jugend danzt un lacht. 

Du bringslit de Friilijohr niit deim G 'sang, 

'S Sehpotjohr niit dir vergebtj 
Un darch de Winter kalt un lang 

Ebniohls nier dieh ah g 'seht. 
Dei rothe Bruseht is vsie en Sehild 

Gemohlt von Summer 's Glut. 
Mer dtMikt an sanft un mild 

Wann sinke will der Muth. 

Der lievo Gott hott dieh gesehenkt 

Zum Trosht iu derrer Zeit, 
En lichter Blaeke das cm lenkt 

An die Vergangeuheit. 
Dei Danklied dringt zum Ilimmel hie, 

Wie unserg dringe soil. 
War unser Ilerz, wie deins, ah nie 

Von nix ass Freude voll! 
Lititz, Pa. 

(We give below the Kaiser Prize Sung, tlie eompositiun which won the 
prize of .$.30 for words and .fl50 for musie, uU'ered by Kaiser William of 
Germany to tlie Xortlieastern Saengert'fst of the United States, which held 
its annual coriveution last June in Baltimi)re, MA. The original words and 
one translation are from the pen of I'ev. A. \V. Hildebraudt, ot" Constable- 
vilh?, X. Y., and the music to which it was sung, is by Mr. Funis Victor Saar, 
of Xeu- York City. Immediately after the publication of th.o CJerman text a 



Tilt: rEXXSYLVA -V/.l-C/A'AM/.l Y 

number of Enylisli translations, possessing more or less merit, made their 
appearance. Beluw are given the German original. Rev. Mr. lliMehrandt 's 
own translation and another arranged from translations by I'rof. Otto 
F\ichs, of the ^raryland Institute.- and " Wanderbursoh," fcdlowed bv a 
third sent in by a reader of the Baltimore Sun. They are as follows:) 

(German Original.) 


Du hast mit Deiner solichteu Weise 
Mein Herz gebracht in Deinem 
Dass ich aus Deinem Zauberkreise, 
Der mich umschlingt so lieb und 
Mich nimmermehr befreien kann! 

Es sang mit Deinem siissen Klange 

Die ilutterliebe mich zur Ruh'. 
T\'ar noeh so thriinenuass die Wange, 
Die Mutter sang, und bei 'm Gesange 
Schloss mir der Schlaf das Auge 

Beim fruhen Reigen um die Linde 

Erklangst Du in der Sommeruacht. 
Der Ijiebste singt's dem schmuck- 

en Ivinde, 
Der Wanderbursch' im Morgen- 
Und der soldat auf stiller Wacht. 

Da ich nun fand auf fremder Erde 
Nach langem Wandern Ruh ' und 
Bleibst Du in Treue mein Gefiihrte 
Und bist an meinem neueu Herde, 
Du, deutsches Lied, mein liebster 

(By Rev. Mr. Hildebrandt.) 


Thou hast in thine artless way 
Brought mv heart beneath thy 
Such the sulitlc magic of thy sway, 
That in its gracious love doth soft- 
ly play, 
And holds me bound for aye and 

My mother sang, and thy s^veet 
Her innate love for mo disclosed, 
And every tt-ar and ch Idish pain 

"Was quickly soothed by thy refrain. 
My eyes the while in slumber 

In merry sport 'midst the linden 
Thou soundest upon the summer 
The lover sings thee to the one he 

The wand 'rer to the wind as he 
And the soldier in the silent night. 

Now that on stranger e^rth I've 
After weary journeying, peace 
and rest, 
To thee, my faithful comrade, 

O German song! thy loyal sound 
Shall ever be my welcome guest. 

(By Prof. Fuchs and "Wander- 


Thou, with thy simple, tuneful 
Hast charmed and bound my 
heart to thee, 
Enshrined by magical embraces 
In thy most ^veet and soulful traces 
From which I never can be free. 

When, with thy rapturous, gentle 
A mother's love lulled me to 
And down my cheeks the tears were 

My mother sang! till I lay dream- 
Of angels, blessed, happy, sweet. 

Thy tune around the linden rings 
From revel jovous in evening . 
The ardent s^vain his sweetheart 

POETIC GKM.^. 358 

The waiiil 'frer to tlie breezes flings, A iinither's love lulled nie to rest. 

And soldier luiins iu silent nifjlit. Ilowe'er the tear-stained cheeks 

were ylowinj^. 

NoM- sinee I've wandered far and Thf- niotlier sanj:;, so pea.-e bestow- 

u-eary. in jr. 

In foreign lands found peace and :\iv eyes were elosed l>v shiinber 

I'f^t— " " blest. 
Thou, faithful friend, when l»right 

or dreary. In summer nii;lits thy strains were 

Abide in my new homestead cheery; ringing, 

German song! my dearest 'Mid dances gay 'round linden 

guest. , tree; 

The lover to his sweetheart singing, 

111 morning breeze, the wand 'rer 

(By Old Subscriber, L. S.) bringing 

THE GEUMAN- FOLKSONG. Qn sileiit watch guards humming 

Thou hast with simple lay entwined thee 

]\[y heart, and l>ound it so to thee 

That from tliy magic spell, en- Since I on foreign soil attained, 

shrined, A weary wand 'rer, peace ami rest. 

By loving, tender Vionds confined, ^ly comrade true thou hast re- 

1 never more myself i-an free. niained. 

Art at my fireside newly gained, 

'Twas with thy cadence sweetly Thou, German song, my dearest 

fiowing, giiest. 


RKV. A. c. AvrCHTEK. ^V^e 'n nossie sdiwalm im schon- 
S'war mold 'n mou im Moryalond, schtehruhs. 

Der war utt weit un brehd b'kont 

Fer'n longer bort un g's(_-heiter kup, Er hut mohl well noch orhdem 
Un hinner'm ohr en tricksaknup. g'schnojit 

"Wie'n foss won cbber seider tzoppt; 

Er war 'u man org dief g 'lehrt, T'n's schwetze? Well, s'war'n hor- 
Un yehders hut 'u hoch g'ehrt ter joli, 

■\Veii mohl der Koenich schnupdu- Do<di endlich glickt 's, noh geht 's 

vock mohl ob. 

Ihn\ g's<henkt hut im 'a seidna sock. 

" >rei ehsell och. mei ehsel, du. 

Eh dutzend aemter hut 'r g'liot. Is f ortg 'doppt. wuh such ich. wuh? 

Doch war ilnn cus der gonsa lot Er is schuii hissel schteii' un olt. 

Ken ehns so lieb wie's Scliqnireomt, Un "s link ohr hut "n glehnie folt. 
Weil sel fum Koenich Sol'mon 

schtomt. "Sie mehna oil du kenscht g'wiss 

^[ 'r sawga wuii mei ehsel is; 

In scUem omt gebt 's fiel tz ' duh, ^Vlln elm's so 'u grohse lerning het 

Won ehns sich awsehickt grawd l'«s wisst yoh olles, Aw bis Tzet. " 

wie'n bull 

Un will net wos der onner will — Der Schciuire hut sei bort g'tzu[.pt, 

Well, s'gebt so 'n klehnie Schquire En weissie hohr sich rous g 'ruppt. 

bill. Is'oh sa'.vyt'r: "Well, so wie mer's 


Well, ennyhow, eh munmidawg ITut ebber'n cdter ehsel g 's<hUickt. 
Kumt ehncr mit'ra Hiob" klawg. 

Er war fersi-hw itzt fun kv[> tzu -'Pi's ding is urn's brevier;', yoh, 

fuhs ( )m I'n.i.iawg troag ich eifrich noh; 

Der Froiihiw*;^ kiiiiit. doeli nix cum 

354 THE PE.\\sVL]AXlA-(;i:fnf.\\. 

Per tlioh kiiiiit ufl" iler Mosque fer- S>thtuls liut 'r uui sidi rum fj'ffuokt, 
leiclit ,. I'io oxla Viiss '1 sche-p fertzuckt, 

Koh sehn ioh wuh der e^el Noli seehfr: " Wdl, ich denk icli 
greisi-ht." bin 

Der ebnt/.ischt doh fun sollem tziii. 

" Wos •u-eibsk'it awgeht, geb nier 
S 'wells nininiond nix im gonsa houa week, 

Funi ehsel os ferlohra war T)oh fress irh lieliwer soup fun 

Paar dawg tz'rii'k im schtodt- dreck ; 

bazaar. licit sin sie seharf, un niorya 

Si'htunip — 
Der Scdiquire hut a'weil g'wart. ■ ^ie sin org tiel wie'n floh im 

Xoh schtreicht 'r sieh om longa bort schtrunip. 

Un sagt tzuni folk : ' ' Eh waig gebt . 

>g Yioch. " Fum wei, doh ha est 's ira Al- 

Fer'n ehsel finna, glawb ich doeh. Koran, 

* . 'Sel schtuft ferderbt de beschta 

"Haert was wh sawg so os der's 

num ; 
Der Eblis (deivel) hut's g'mocht. 

Tir , , ■, I, 1 I ^rit blute rode g tarbt un noh 

v\ er noch ken weibsmensch hut -i i ^ 

„ . . g locht. 

g'kisst, ^ 

, , . , " Dem singa un dem dood 'la. well. 

S sohpiert, • -p, . "^ . , i • i- i 

? i/ 1 ,-,/?, . Dem reis uh ous so tziemlicu 

Un nix fun lieb im hertz noch 

g 'sohpiert, 
Os ehns in olla dumhait fiehrt 


•"^o 'n grecksa un so 'n dum g'grish — 

"Wer noch ken gloss '1 wei fersucht. . ^yie hund un kotza un 'erm discli ! " 
Un mehnt die music waer yuscht 

tzucht; Ppj. Sohquire hut sich rumg'dreht 

Wer des kon sawga, der bleib Tzum mon wuh gaeru sei ehsel het; 

schteh, "Dei ehsel, denk ich, der is fort 

Die onra oil die kenna geh." ]^'u's IjqJ nix os mer lenger wart. 

S'is dies uflf un sochta fert, "Doh nemm den kerl un tzahm'n 

S ' g u c k t n i m m o n d rum, kens uff, 

schnauf t 'n wort; I'n huck dei binil'l hinna druff. 

Yoh doch, s'bleibt endlich ehner So "n ehsel finnt mer kennor mob 

schteh, Fun Ispahan bis on der Saeh. " 

Er war schun olt, gons derr un kleh. Gilbert, Pa. 

Historical Pilgrimages imo 




AFTER remaining at York for a time, -ue resume our pilgrinia3;e to- 
wards the Potomac. Such towns as Lancaster, York, Hanover, 
Gettysburg and Chambersburg each have a largo number of roads 
that radiate from them as a center. It was this fact that |iermitted the 
rapid concentration of troops at these points during the Civil War. 

Our route will for the nmst part follow the general direction of the 
early Monocacy road, which led from the Susquehanna to tlie Potomac, 
passing through York, Hanover, Littlestown, Frederick in ^laryland, to the 
"Mouocacy Settlement" near the mouth of the Monoeacy river, in all a 
distance of about eighty miU^. 

The road was not an air line and about equal portions of its length were 
in Pennsylvania and Maryland taking the present boundaries as a stantlard 
of comparison. The turnpike roads that followed later v.ere shorter and 
more direct since their construction was more costly. The railways that 
followed still later are generally longer in extent between distant points 
than the turnpikes. The general course of the Monoeacy road followed an 
Indian trail which had been used by traders and missionaries who pre- 
ceded the general settler. 

The travel between the two rivers in early days was always verj' large. 
Maryland and Virginia were settled long before the central part of Penn- 
sylvania. The line between Maryland and Pennsylvania remained in an 
unsettled condition for many years. An earlier road than the Monoeacy 
had been constructed from the "Conewago Settlement" to Baltimore town 
in 1736, seven years after the founding of Baltimore. "VNTien the boundary 
betwetm the two provinces became adjusted in 1707 about ten miles of this 
road was found to be in Pennsylvania. It was therefore the oldest road in 
York county. It occupied very nearly the site of what afterwards became 
the Hanover and Baltimore turnpike. 

Western Maryland and the Valley of Virginia were largely settled by 
Germans, many of whose descendants are found there today. The townships 
of Southwestern York county, Pa., through whi(di our route extends bear 
such names as Manheim and Heidelberg, which were named in honor of the 
localities in Germany from which the early settlers had come. 


35G Tin: PKWS YL I .1 MA-Ul^HM. I .V. 

Our route in York county extends tliroui:;li the narrow belt of limestone 
■vvhieh is continueil thinnj.'li tiie soutlieastei'ii jiortion of Adams county and 
thenee into Maryland. Tliis linies'tone fornuition m.'iy be eoueeived as 
being eontinuous with tiuit of the (,'umberlanil Valley and with that of 
Lancaster county, where it broadens and forms onedialf of its area. The 
soil is ver\' fertile and jiroductive. The buildings are tasteful and com- 
modious, the barns esjiecially being very capacious. Througl-r-it the couu- 
tiy are foun-l many large churches es[it'cially among the I^uthcran and Ke- 
formed \\hich in many cases are held jointly. The congregations are very 
large and in some cases are drawn from a large extent of territory. It is 
to be hoped that their records may lie transcribed and [mblished -^vhieh has 
been done in at least one instance by the Pennsylvania-German So(dety in 
its yearly rejiorts. Many points or settlements throughout the cotmtry bore 
Indian names such as that of the Conestoga, the (."odorus. the Bermudian. 
the Conewago and the ]\ronocacy. The peoi>le in these settlenu'nts mostly 
came from the same locality in Europe and preferred to settle in close 
proximity in the d>mse wilderness to rentier each other assistance an(.l proteC 
lion in their untrit^l f(jrtunes. 

No stage in social life can be mure democratic than such conditions de- 
velop. It can still be oltserved in tlu> great West. As communities advance 
in social life and prtisperity, this degree of nuitual helpfulness and socia- 
bility be<.-omes corresponilingly lessened. The log rollings anil iiudting, tlie 
husking bees and barn raisings of our ancestors. ha\'e passed away with 
the con<litions and circumstances that called them forth. 

The larger tracts of land which were taken up by the first settlers have 
been subdivided as they passed down to their descendants. In numy cases 
their descendants have disposed of their holdings and after a century and 
a half have turned their faces toward the setting sun and like tlieir ances- 
tors anew have become pioneers under far different circumstances. Rail- 
roads have now gone ahead of ci\ilization and prepared the way for the 
new settler. The phase of settlement that was accemjianied by the pack- 
horse, the Conestoga wagon or the boat on the "raging canawl" has dis- 
appeared never to return. The past century witnessed nuuiy improvements 
and innovations in the region we jiurpose describing. Prosperous towns and 
villages have appeared upon the nmp. >.'ew industries have been started 
by large aggregations of capital whiidi lun e also proiluce<l new avenues for 
labor. The population has increased and the giMU>ral condition has im- 
proved. While changing conditions may v.ork tem[>orary hardships until 
adaptatiim ensues, tl;e change in the end is productive of good. 

In several resjiects nuirked changes have occurred in this connnunity. 
The throngs whiidi passed over the old road, anil the stock which 
was driven over it have disapjieared. The railroad now conveys passen- 
gers and freight, satisfactorily and expeditiously. The well-kept hostelries 
that lined the road have for the most part been discontinued or gone into 
ruins. Here again changed coiuliticms have produced far-rea<diing efi'ects 
in social life. 

YORK TO IfAh'l'fJirs FJ:h'I!Y. 357 

Our route tlius far luiK led us tlirouj^li tlie central part of York eounty. 
We now turn sharply towards its soutliwestern portion. To our left is tliai 
portion oneo known as the "York Barrens," whose inijiaired fertility how- 
ever has been largely restored by iinpro\ed methods in niotlern aijrricalture. 
To our right is that lai^ge [lortion of the oounty known as the uvw Red 
Sandstone fornuuion. l^arge jmrtions of truss rock are marked on the map 
and Avitnessoil as elevated ridges over tlie ehanging lands,-api'. This espeid- 
ally ap]dies to the northern part of York and a large {>art of Adams coun- 
ties. The niemoralde "rocky heights'' at (Gettysburg are tlie outcome of 
this protrusion. Spurs from the South [Mounlain are gi\en off whi(di en- 
circle or enidose valleys, or wiiich lose themselves in the lUstam-e. The 
limestone has been made available in increasing the fertility of the soil 
especially of those sections uliere it does not prevail. The red sandstone 
has been used for fine building purposes. The scdiool houses of the u[)per 
end of the county are generally fmilt of this nniterial. The granite quar- 
ries have yielded a large amount of material for bridges and other <lurable 
purposes. A^'ry limited areas of coal have been found under the new red 
sandstone formation. 

A distance of ten mile^ from York brings us to Spring Grove whose 
postoftice is known as Spring Forge, which is one of those numerous atujma- 
lies in the State, which arises from the fact that other localities had al- 
ready appropriated the name, and to prevent confusion the (".overnment 
has wisely decreed that but a single postoffice bearing the same name is 
allowable in any one State of the Union. Of course numerous instances 
arise Aviiere the san'.e name is found in different States. 

Spring Grove is a lieautiful town whicdi has been almost wh)!iy hiiilt up 
by the pajier niamifactories that are in o[ieration. Paper for writing pur- 
poses of the finest grades is made and the demand is constant and increasing. 
Mr. P. II. Glatfelter is the master si<irit who fr(un small beginnings has 
built up this noted industry. He is also interested in other large bushu'ss 
enterprises which have been equally successful. S[iring Grove is a veritable 
hive of industry. It is noted for its orderliness, and 'mpresses the visitor 
very favorably. It is about midway between York and Hanover. It has 
good railway facilities by the Pennsylvania and Western Maryland' rail- 
roads. It has good water facilities, the (.'odorus atfor.ling a. [ikntiful sup- 


In due tiu'.e we reach Ilanoser, whi(di is situated in a beautiful aail in- 
viting country. It borders (dosely upon the line of Adams county. It be- 
comes continuous with McSherrystow ji whiidi is in the latter county. Han- 
over, since its beginning, has had an eventful history. Abmit ITl't) .lolui 
Digges, a petty Irish ncddeman obtained a title for ln.iioO a<-res from the 
Proprietaries of Maryland, which Incame knoun as '•[)i<,rges' (.'hoice. '' On 
part of this land, later, Hanover was foundc-ii. Tlu- temiiorary line that 
was run between the two provinces in \7'.V2 did not settle the couHicting 
claims in and arumicl the • ' ( ■iinc\'i nyo Settleaieut, ' ' as tlie cmnmunitv was' 
then known. This cndii'on of atVairs prtidncrd great dissatistactii ii and 


disturbance, and in soino cases murder and bloodshed. Even after Hanover 
■was laid out, yet still not kn^wn by tliat name, the troubles had not ceased. 
In 1749 York county was founded and York became the seat of justice. 
The judges of tho cuuiity courts were not learned in the law, being only 
justices of the peace \\ho administered the law under the authority of the 
King of England. At times they assumed great dignity in tho performance 
of the functions of their office, and were austere in their manner. Many 
a criminal was sentenced to the stocks, the pillory or the whipping post. One 
subject who lived near the s-ite of Littlestown was sentenced to have his 
ears cut off for counterfeiting money, which sentence was carried out. Tlie 
conflicting claims to the lands in and around "Digges' Choice" and the 
doubt whether Hanover was in ^laryland or Pennsylvania led to some in- 
teresting com]dications in the administration of justice. On at least one 
occasion the austere judges at York commanded the founder of the town of 
Hanover to punish his own criminals. They rel'used to try them. 

Owing to this state of affairs, Hanover became noted as a resort for mis- 
creants who sought to avoid the punishment for their evil deeds. In common 
parlance it became known as "Rogues' Kesort. " The founder could endure 
this no longer. He assumed dictatorial powers and ruled the town with a 
rod of hickory! But after the troubles became adjusted by the establish- 
ment of Mason and Dixon's Line in 17GS, matters settled down and the 
reign of chaos was over. 

The noted Archibald McClean, who later took such an active part in the 
Revolution, assisted in running a large part of this line. He was a resident 
then and later of the "Marsh Creek Country," as it was then known, lying 
in York county, but after the formation of Adams county in ISOO forming 
part of the latter. He lies buried in the I\Iarsh Creek Cemetery which is 
now embraced within the famous battle field of Gettysburg. His grave 
seems not very clearly marked, although a tablet has been erected to his 
memory within the present year by the Daughters of the Eevolution. He 
assisted also in establishing the "Middle Point" between Cape Henlopen 
and the Chesap*^ake and in locating the "Great Tangent" through the Pen- 
insula, and in tracing the well known "Arc of the Circle" around New 
Castle in Dela'(\are. 'ihis was during the years 17(30-2-3. He, witli six of 
his brothers, assisted ^fason and Dixon from 1763 to 176(3. When the party 
arrived on the summit of the "Little Alleghany" tliey were stopped Dy 
hostile Indians. In 1767 they again resumed the survey with the aid and 
company of a number of friendly Indians. After reaching the top of the 
"Great Alleghany" they were joined by an additional number of friendly 
Indians who were useful as interpreters with tho savage Indians who threat- 
ened opposition. The party of whites comprised 30 assistant surveyors and 
1.0 axe men. They continued westward 240 miles from Delaware to "Dun- 
ker Creek," which had been named after the noted Eckerlin brothers who 
were deposed from tliC Ephrata Seventh Day community in 1745. This was 
36 miles east of the western limit of the present Mason and Dixon line. The 
balance was run in 17S_"and 17;^4. 

YORK TO JlAh'l'i:irs FlJRtn'. ioM 

During the past few years tlic stcmes xshicli lia<l been set iij> at intervals 
or distances have lieen replaced or restored. In tlie mutations of time niany 
of them bad been removed. 

Kioliard McAllister, the founder of Hanover, was a jiublic spirited iiian of 
commanding presence and marked influence, especially among the Germans. 
He was born in Ireland and with his parents settled at Big Spring, Cumber- 
laud county. In 174S he married ]\rary Dill, whose father founded Dills- 
burg, ill York county, which town later became the birth place of Senator 
M. S. Quay. The house in which he was born is still standing. Mary Dill 
was a sister of Capt. >ratthew Dill, of Revolutionary distinction. McAllister 
established a tavern and store at the cross-roads of the road from Carlisle 
to Daltimore and the road to Monoeacy. The building was a two-story log 
house which is still standing, and later being encased with brick it presents 
a nice appearance. McAllister had come here as early as 1749. His public 
inn and store were much frequented, and he became very popular. 

The following year, in 1750, he entered the political field and sought the 
office of sheriff, which was then held by the noted Hance Hamilton from 
the "Marsh Creek Settlen'.eut. " The Scotch-Irish were very favorable to 
his second term for the office. He was a general favorite among them, while 
the Germans championed McAllister. The election was held in York town 
at the unfinished tavern of Baltser Spangler. The voting was done through 
the chinks between the logs of the building. The whole county turned out 
on horseback and the excitement and interest grew to fever heat. As the 
day waned on, both parties provided themselves with saplings, and history 
records that the Irish were driven from the polls, and across the classic Co- 
dorus, not because they lacked grit, valor and determination, but because 
their opponents with ec[ual grit and determination greatly outnumbered 
them. But, after all, ^IcAllister failed in the election, since the votes and 
methods of his enthusiastic supporters were thrown out by the legal au- 
thorities and Hamilton remained in office. There is nothing that succeeds 
like success. 

McAllister, about 1704, determined to found a town. Th.s declaration at 
once was received with incredulity by the stolid Germans by \shom he was 
surrounded. It is related that a certain farmer, after visiting through the 
neighborhood, came home and addressed his wife by the usual designation 
of the time, saying: "Ham my, I have something to tell you. Richard Mc- 
Allister is going to make a town! " The wife, after some inquiries and re- 
marks, with a sarcastic smile which s-poke more than words, said: "Ha! ha! 
ha! I am afraid that man will turn a fool yet. I think he will call his 
town Hickorytown. ' ' 

But the town was founded and proved a success. McAllister's descend- 
ants were numerous, and many of them occupied posts of honor and im- 
portance. The tov n has greatly im{)r(ived of late years. Many industries 
have been established. An Agricultural Fair is held yearly and is largely 
attended, and has proven a great success. 

A half centurj- ago such towns as Hanover, Gettysburg and Frederick 
were isolated and more or less inaccessible. The railroad from Hanover 

300 Tin: ri:.\ \s) lAAXiA-aLiruAX. 

Junction on tlie Xurthern Crutral Knilidail, whidi was huilt to Ilaiiuvor, 
was the first railroad outlet for that locality. Others follow oil from Hanover 
to Littlestow n, York, Baltimore and (Jettysbur;":. They eventually lier-aine 
links of longer lines which led directly to Cailisle, Chanilierslnirj;, Tfagers- 
town and Freilerick, and tluis beearne feeders to distant lines. 

This whole section of country was traselled o\er Viy the opiiosing hosts 
of ca\alrv which were le<l on the Union side by such intrepid and dashing 
leaders as Kiliiati'ick, Custer. I'arnsworth and C!reyg. Tiie Confederate 
forces were led by Gens. .1. E. P.. Stuart. Fitzlnigli Lee, and Wade Hamp- 
ton. They crosse<l each other's paths auil a sanguinary conrlict took place 
in and about the streets of Hanover. ]More than '>,oi\H) men were engaged on 
each side and tlie losses in killed and wounded on tlie Union side reaeheil 
more than ."id. The losses on the t^'onfederate side reaidied at least an equal 
nundjer. The action lasted several hours. It occurred on the 30th of June, 
the previous day to the beginning of the sanguinary contest at Gettysburg. 
Doubtless that colossal event has had much to do in obscuring the action 
which occurred at Hauo\er. Stuart made a circuit of the Army of the Po- 
tomac, and his absence uas sorely missed by General I^ee, wlio was thus 
hampered in getting news concerning the movements of the Union Army. 

After the engagenumt at llanov..r. he moved northward through the west- 
ern part of York county to Carlisle. I'inding that Ewell had moved on to 
Gettysburg after making some demonstrations at Carlisle, he moved to 
Gettysburg and nu?t the Union cavalry under General Gregg on and about 
the Eummel farm, where a most sanguinary contest occurreil. In fac-t this 
was one of the greatest cavalry fi-iits of the war. (iresg had al-o followed 
Stuart to York county, but was ordered to Ciettysburg. and was there sta- 
tioned to protect the right Hank of the Union army. 

This battle occurred during the third day, while Pickett's charge was m 
progress with the evident {airposi^ to make the Union rout C(.unplete. Kil- 
patrick protected the left tiank if the Union army, and while Longstreet 
made a diversion with troops to call attention away from the charging col- 
umns of IMckett. Kiljiatrick's cavalry came sweeping around Big Kound 
Top, yelling and screaming like demons. The rebel infantry was checked, 
and great confusion ensued. Farnsworth was killed. General Early also 
made his advance on Y'ork and Wriglitsville by several roads which, how- 
ever, at York again concentrated his troops. E\eiits took place very rap- 
idly during tlinse midsummer d.ays of 'Go, and the sudden appearance and 
disaioifaranre of a i[uarter of a n\illiou of imm in so slnirt a time seems mar- 
velous. Again it will be recalled, that nujre than one-fourth of this great 
host were killed ainl woundcMl, \veie takt/u [udsiaiers or ihsertt^d. 

From Hanover, as a central pidnt, let us take note of some of its sur- 
rounding localities. To the northeast is Seven Valley, which term, however, 
is a misnomer, as no seven valleys exist. The country being settled by peci- 
ple who came from the Eplirata (oinmuaity, the term Siebeu Tiiger became 
confus'.^l with the name Sietjen Tluiler, or Se\'en Valley. Another colony 
from Ephrata settlo'l in the western part of York county to the north of 
Hano\er, on the P.'-rmudian Creek. It is on rec(.ird that the leaders at K])h- 

yOA'A' TO lIAIil'EirS FEUliY. 3(U 

rata often visited these branches of the parent sneiety. The so-called I'itjeon 
hills in thi'< s^'ction '.vere named after an KuLrlish settler named Pid;re,in. 
Likewise the Krentz Creek \vas iiame<l after a settler named Kreis or 
Greist. Pulpit and Chimney rocks are natural objerts tliat have eiii;;ia,.,l 
the attention of photographers, l^ound Top in the northern jiart of the 
county is 1110 feet high, and lias had a Signal Si-rvice Station upon it. It 
is the highest point in York county. Tiie ' ' Parrens ' ' ha\e already been 

The Conewago and Codorns creeks ha\'e interesting associations pertain- 
ing to them. During Hoods they ha\ e l.ieen known to rise frcmi "2.j to 40 
feet. The fall of the Conewago during high water niaki^s it impetuous and 
irresistable. Some of its curious natural features near its outlet at York 
Haven will be recalled in the previous pa{ier. The extent of territory and 
peculiar shape of Y'ork county ha\e necessitated numy stage lines, but the 
large number of trolley lines in operation and thdse in process of construc- 
tion will confer uiUold benefits upon outlying districts uhich thus far have 
not been readily accessible. 

From Hanover tw(5 routes westward are "pen to us. That to the left is 
our chosen route which leads through Littlestown and Frederiek, to Mo- 
nocacy on the Potomac, i'roni Hanover to Littlestown is three miles, while 
to the Maryland border it is a distance of nine miles. Litth-stown is visible 
from some of the observatories on the battlefield of Gettysburg. It is dis- 
tant from the latter about 12 miles. The town contains a number of 
churches and has several industries. It is surrounded by a good agricultural 
comnuinity. On the right hand our route will lead us to Gettyslnirg. which 
is from l-") to 17 miles distant, dejiending upon the road that is selected. In 
fact, Hanover is nearly equi-distant from York and Gettysburg l.>y railriiad. 
while the distance from York to Gettysliurg is much shorter by the turn- 
pike (2S milts) than by railroad. The location and distances of all these 
places was a matter of great importance during the memorable time of the 
Confederate in\asion. 

Adams has existed a[>art from York county since ISOO. In addition to the 
Manor of Spingetsbury which was laid out in ^vhat is now York county 
propel", another mauor was laid out in what is now Adams county, known as' 
the "Manor of Masqui. " This survey was ordered by Thomas Penn in 1741. 
to emhirace 30,000 acres, but was not finally made until 1707, when the 
boundaries were marked and the grand total of acres was increased to 43.- 
50<,>. The manor was sei'arated by ;i nai'rn\v stri[) fnun another large tract 
known as "<;arrMirs Pelight." This latter tract was surveyed un<ler Ma- 
rylanil, April ord. \~.V1, to Charles, Mary and Elinor Carrcdl. The tract 
contained about .j.OOO acres. In the unsettled condition of border lines be- 
tween the [irovim-es it is easily concei\ed what difficulties and feuds must 
have arisen among the early settlers. The Germans, the English, the Friends 
and the Scotch-Irish were the principal settlers of the county. 

The lu-rthern part was chielly settled by the Friends. Two of their meet- 
ing hciuses at Meuallen and York Springs remain. Several meeting houst-s 

3G2 THE I'J'LWHY fAAMA-Gi: h'M A \. 

of early days have tlisapjieared, luit the cemeteries remain. The central part, 
that of Marsh Creek and IJock Creek, was settled chiefly by the Scotch-Irish 
Presbyterians. The lower ^larsh Creek church, about five miles to the west 
of Gettysburg', was organized about 17-10. The present church was built 
of stone in 1790. This church and buryinjjj ground were preceded by a still 
earlier one, several nules distant. In these graveyards Archibald McClean 
and Hance Hamilton were buried. This section is" embraced in the battle- 
field. The Lutherans and Reformed were well rejireseuted in the county. 
The Catholics are strongly represented in the southeastern port of the county 
and across the border in Maryland. Several miles west of Hanover and Mc- 
Sherrystown we come to the noted Conewago Chapel, one of the most inter- 
esting jdaces to the visitor. It is situated in the Conewago Valley in Cono- 
wago township. It will be noted that the orthography is a varying quan- 
tity. It is taken from the Indian word " Caughnawaga, " which is claimed 
to mean "the rapids." The Germans pronounced it "Kouowago, " the 
English and Irish "Canawaga." The Catholic missionaries wrote it ''Con- 
ewago" as early as 1740. Accordingly, those who use "Cono" follow the 
German derivation. "Conewago" is claimed to be tlie correct spelling as 
applied to the Chapel and the Creek. Custom, however, sanctions the use 
of "Conowago" as applied to the township. The Big Conewago Creek 
drains the slope east of the South Mountain or Blue Eidge and meanders 
through York county and empties in the Susquehanna as observed, at York 
Ha^en. The Little Conewago winds through the lower valley and empties 
into the Big Conewago some miles above its mouth, in York county. It 
rises about on the dividing line of the Susquehanna and Potomac water 
sheds. We shall see a similar water shed separating the waters of the 
Conococheague and Conodogwinit in Franklin county across the South 

The first claim on the land here was held by the CarroHs from Lord Bal- 
timore. Charles Carroll, of Carrollton, the last surviving of the 50 signers 
of the Declaration of Independence, was a descendant of this family. This 
locality was probably settled as early as 1720, although missionaries and 
traders probably visited the community much earlier. Conewago Chapel is 
the parent church from which the Catholic religion spread over southern and 
western Maryland into Virginia; also along the frontiers of Pennsylvania 
into the very heart of its settlement, Philadeli>hia, it is claimed. The 
churches of Hanover, Littlestown, Taneytov,n, Bowmanville, Gettysburg, 
Carlisle, Harrisl)urg, York, Paradise and New Oxford are all fruits of the 
Conewago missionary labors. 

Conewago is a thoroughly Catholic settlement. It has been estimated 
that from Hanover to Gettysburg, east to west, that half the population is 
Catholic. From O-xford to Littletown, ten miles, north and south, two-thirds 
of the population is Caholic. One can travel five miles along any road with- 
in that distance from the Chapel and meet almost nothing but Catholics. 
There are Protestant families scattered all through the valley, but they do 
not make up one-tenth of the population. The Catholic church is generally 


most repvosonted in the most jiojnilons centres, but here, exoept'onally, its 
great strength is found in the rural regions. The land is limestone and 
very fertile. It has come down to tlie descendants of the original settlers 
very largely. The church occupies a commanding position on high ground, 
and affords an interesting outlook from its spire for miles around. The 
chapel is finely frescoed, and the v.alls are adorned with rare and beautiful 
paintings which are much admired by visitors. 

We move on, taking close note of our surroundings. The approach to the 
battlefield of Gettysburg soon becomes evident. Almost every spot we pass 
over is replete with intovosting recollections and associations. Visitors to 
Gettysburg sometimes expect to see a field in which a battle literally oc- 
curred. AVheu told that the battle really covered six miU-s square or 3G 
square miles, the reality transcends the imagination. Repeated visits ex- 
tending over days, weeks, and months, fail to exhaust the countless store of 
riches that are to be found here. The tasteful, ornate monuments, hundreds 
in number, erected on the sites of the three-days' contest, make this the 
best marked battlefield in the wurld. ^fore than twenty miles of avenues, 
macadamized, have been constructed. Even the Confederate lines have been 
marked, avenues constructed, and markers erected. The guides are constantly 
pointing out and repeating the salient jioints of the conflict to an endless, 
unceasing throng of visitors. The work of the liistoriau and the photogra- 
pher are even yet in progress. Not to have visited this interesting spot is 
to have missed one of the most instructive and pleasing experiences of a 
lifetime. People froin every part of the civilized world are to be found 
among the visitors. Added to its historic interest, the scenic effects are 
beautiful when viewed from the National Cemetery or from the numerous 
observatories. The work of accumulating facts has been so earnest and re- 
alistic that the work of the poet and the novelist as related to the subject 
has thus far remained largely in abeyance. However, several exceptions 
may be noted. Bret Ilarte has immortalized old John Burns and tells: 

"How through the ranks in whispers some men saw 
Id the antique vestments and long white hair 
The Past of the Nation in battle there; 
And some of the soldiers since declare 
That the gleam of liis old white hat afar 
Like the crested plunge of the brave Xavarre 
That day was their oritiamme of war." 

A monument to the memory of John Burns has recently been dedicated'. 

The story of Jennie Wade, the only woman who was killed at Gettysburg, 
has its pathos whose story has often been told. The house with its marks 
is a prominent object of interest to visitors. Even the college and seminary 
are objects of additional interest aside from their own, owing to their as- 
sociations with the battle. 

Instances arp recorded of men, fighting here within sight of their homes 
and firesides, or wlieie tlie ironv of fate brought a wandering son from the 


Sunny South to fight on the site of his parental liome, and of others to 
perish on the paternal acres of their kindred. Instances were known where 
Southern Soldiers on the nuireh stopped during the night at the houses of 
their parents here and next morning resumed the mareh. The op[)osing 
ranks contained brethren an<l kindred in luimeroiis instances. 

We take our leave of York and Adams counties fully impressed with tlie 
interesting associations relating to tliem of which but the Ijriefest mention 
has been made. We will resume our pilgrimage at the Maryland line. We 
pass through tlie western part of Carroll county which contains such well 
known towns as Taneytown and Westminster. These places were promi- 
nent points associated with the battle of Gettysburg where nuich reserve 
ammunition and war material was held. Here we cross I'ipe crei'k which 
General ^leade originally intended should be his line of battle for the 
coming struggle. We soon come into the neigliborhood of the Monocacy 
river, which is formed by Marsh aiul Rock creeks which rise in the western 
part of Adams county. At Bruceviile v,e cross tlie AYesteru Maryland rail- 
road and enter Frederick county, Maryland. 

A distance of seventeen miles brings us to Frederick, a town situated in 
a highly improveil and fertile country. It was laid out in 1745. It is 
substantially built, mostly of brick and stone. It was largely settled by 
the Gern'aiis anuuig whom are found names which later have reaciie>,i dis- 
tinction.* Among them were the ancestiu's of Admiral Schley and of 
Francis Scott Key (1779 1^4:!) the author of the Star Spangled Banner, 
written during the battle and bombanlment of Fort McHenry at Baltinu)re 
in 1S14. A monument has been dedicated to his memory in the Frederick 
cemetery. During the Kebellion, on several occasions, the town was occu- 
pied by the op[tosing forces. On one of these occasions Dame Barbara 
Fritchie, who \Aas a resident, was immortalized liy Whittiei' to wit: 

"Up rose old Barbara Fritchie then 
Bowed with her four score years and ten; 
Bravest of all in Frederick town, 
Slie took up the flag the men hauled down; 
In her attic \\indow tlie stall' she set 
To show that one heart was loval vet. 

•■'ArouiiJ it cUisti-r lUMce ass'iciati'Mis with AtiuM-ica's '.'nlnuial lift-, than atiout any 
Otber tiiwii. fxi;i-iil A!!iia|n>li>;, iu tljc oiil Stale ■■i .Mar\laiul. ilcie, upuii "ijld Uar- 
rack's Hill," tuday, in ttio n-ar of tlif Sfiitc ln>tiiuto foi- tlie JJcaf and Dniub, 
tho stone banacks wliicli \M.'re oii'CtL'd during tlio iciuu ••( the "good ijueon Anue" 

LiiL" Mont; uaiiacK:^ v\nicii \\uif civctL'U tiui lu^ iiio iviuii "i Lue yottu '^n.ecii ^a.iiuc 

for the reception of froiich lU'isoiiers. aiul in which, in 1T.jK (loor.iro Washiiijrton, the 
youthful aid-do-cauip of lIoiiiTal lUaddock, met in C'cuncil with his General and Hen- 
jauiin Franklin v.liiie eiiroiite for tho scene of I'.raddock's memorable defeat. Uere 
Charles L'arridl, of L'arroljton, spent ilays and seeeks diirins hU historic career, the 
center of a circle of friends, whose minds were as hii-'hly cultured and whos»- uianuera 
as urbane as his own. Hero the venerable General ScolC arrai^irncd, in lS4it. to 
answer preferret! au'ainst him by General I'illow. Here Iloirer K. Taiiev, L'hief 
Justice of the Sniireme Court of the United States, lived during a quarter of a cen- 
tury. And here, iu 1T7!I, was bom Fran<-is Sci-tt Key, the author of our National 
anthem. "The star Spaiu- .1 Itauner."- — Mrs. Nellie lUessini:-E\ ster in "The New 
Voice," of .Tiily s, \^W>. 


All day long that free flag tost 
Over the heads of the rebel host. 

Over EarViara Fritcliie's grave 
Flag of Freedom and Union -^vave. " 

^Yhcthpr the poet of humanity a'.ailed himself of the usual poetic license 
may be an open questinn, but the fame of Barbara Fritcliie, like that of old 
John Burns, is semire in the atTections of a liberty loving jieople-. Frederick 
is three miles from the Baltimore division of the Baltimore and Ohio rail- 
road. The ^\'ashingtou liraiich of tlie road unites uitli the former at 
"Washington Junction about fifteen miles southwest of Frederick. The 
road from AVashington folloAvs the Maryland side of the Potomac to Har- 
per's Ferry, where it crosses the river and proceeds to Martiusburg and 
along the banks of tlio Potomac to ( 'umljerland. From liere the nmin line 
divides, giving off branches to .Tohnstown, Pittsluirg, Grafton, Parkersburg 
and Wheeling on the Ohio ri\ er. Tb.e tirst line of eommuniration ;u:-ross 
the mountains of tliis se;-tion was the National Road wliicli was surveyed by 
George Washingti n. The cornerstone of the Baltinuire and Ohio railroad 
was laid July -1th. iM's. Baltimore, wliere the railroad liad its beginning, 
held aloft the "Star Spangled Banner" through the tire and smoke of the 
war of ISl'J. Tu fact, tliis section has been associated witli nearly all the 
wars of this great Republic. It was the first railroad in the Union and 
during the rebellion it ^\as also the most disturljed, as it was from first to 
last iu the pathway iif both armies. Near its line, or but a short distance 
from it, more than oni' hundreil and fifty engagements took place ranging 
from Grafton, I'liilip[>i and Cumberland, clear down to the defences of 
Washington. The Potomac was crossed by the armies, from Cumberland 
and Hancock to Washington, repeatedly. In fact this line was constantly 
menaced by the Confederates. The course of the river from its source to 
its mouth is so circuitous and the direction of the mountains vary so nuieh 
that the points <if tlie compass to tlie uninitiated are likely to become con- 
fused in tliis section. But a short ilistance from Frederick, at the passes 
of the South Mountain, occurred the liattle that goes by that name. Across 
the mountain is tlie valley of the Antietam in which occurred the notable 
battle that goes by that name. 

But from Frederick to the nu)uth of the Monocacy is a distance of ten 
miles or more. This was wliere tiie road \\iiich (Muumenced at the Susque- 
hanna terminated at tlie "Monocacy Settlement" near and on the Poto- 
mac. Here is where occurred the battle of that name in lStJ-1 to retard 
General Early's advance upon Wasiiington when Grant was sorely pres.sing 
upon Richmond. 

Our objective aim is Winchester, tlue west from Monocacy some distance 
across the Potomac. But we shall leave that as ;i terminus for another pil- 
grimage from the Suscjuehanna at Harrisburg tiirough the Cumberland 
Valley, continued down the Shenandoah Valley to Winchester and beyond, 
which will be gi\en in another paper. In the meanwhile we will continue our 


THE I'h'yXS YL 1 AMA-GinniA .Y, 

pilgrimage in the present paper passing along the Potomac river, and the 
Cliesapeake ami Ohio canal, which has accompanied it from Georgetown and 
■s\ill contiue to do so till it reaches Cumberland. We pass the head of the 
ridges of C'atoctin Mountain anil the intervening Catoctin valley between 
those ranges and the Blade Kidge pro[ier. This valley contains saich towns 
as Burkittsville and ]\Ii<hlletown. This section contains the home of George 

^ t 


Six. ■»-»-- 

mn ■^tfciV j..j^6!»-^_jfJt^ 

- - s . ^ » 
' - r J • 





By special perinTsslon of the "■\Voiuni\'s Flume Companion." 

Alfred To^vnsend (Gath), a noted correspondent, the author of "Katy of 
Catoctin," a realistic tale containing strong local coloring with episodes 
in the lives of John Brown and John Wilkes Booth. A distance north of 
thirty-five miles brings us to Pen-Mar which is on the borders of Mary- 
land and Pennsylvania. Here Washington county, Maryland, and Franklin 
and Adams counties, Pa., are contiguous. Pen Mar is a noted summer re- 
sort -with its observatories of High Rock and Quirauck which show the 
surrounding countn,- all around to a great distance. In fact here, the 



South Mountain beneath one, can be studied in its details and the valleys 
observed on either side, the distance across the mountain and its ranges 
being no less than fifteen miles. 

Passing up the river we reach Weverton, the point of intersection of the 
railway that runs from llagerstown across part of the Antietam batilefield 
and passing through tlie gaps of the Blue Ridge, reai-lies the Baltimore and 




(«•:• , **' 






By special piTuiission of the "Woman's Home Companion." 

Ohio railroad. TVe now reach Sandy Hook, noted as the place where John 
Brown and his son stopped on their first advent into ^laryland and Vir- 
ginia. Passing on, Harper's Ferry breaks upon our view, a place second 
to no other in historic interest. 

About 1747 Robert Harper, an Englishman from Philadelphia, under- 
took to build a meeting house for the Friends on the Qpequan river near the 
present tov.n of Winchester which was founded in 1752. He traveled on 
horseback over the ^Monocacy road. He lodged one night at a tavern in 



Frederick where he heard of a short route to the Opequan, leadiug through 
a remarkable region ealled ''The Hole'' on tlie bank of the Potuniac; and 
so turning aside from the road to Antietam and Slie}>herdsto\vn, which he 
had meant to take, he rode the next day to the junction of the Potonuic and 
Shenandoah, and saw f(jr the first time the striking bv.euery wliieh ye>ars 
afterward he siiowed to Thomas JelVfrson. He found a squatter upon it, 
whom he bought out. Then going to Lord Fairfax, the proprietor, he ob- 


( -rt' ! 


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B <>•'"* i-^a s^-i^ "♦" Oi 



tained a [latent. Proliabiy the first survey of the trnct was made in that 
year by iTeurge Washington as he surveyed in that loi-ality at tlmt time. 
"Washington, it is also s-aid, selected the ''Ferry'' as tlie site of a national 
armory in 17P4. Ttie scenerv of this regi(m in the days of Washington and 
Jefferson has been <lt^cribed by the latter in a passage often quoted from 
his "Notes of Virginia," which tradition relates were written from a rock 
bearing his name, overlonking tlie scene, before the death of Harper in 17S2. 
"You stand," says Jefferson, ''on a very high point of land; on your 
right comes up the Slumandoali having ranged along the foot of the nmun- 
taiu a hundred mil'^s to find a vent; on yiur h?ft a[ipriiaclies the Potomac in 



quest of a passage also. In the moiiieiit of their juuction they rush to- 
gether against the mountain, rend it asunder and pass oft' to the sea. The 
scene is worth a voyage across the Atlantic. Yet here are people who have 
passed their lives witliin half a dozen miles and have never been to see these 
monuments of war between rivers anel mountains which must have shaken 
the earth itself to its center." 

X - 


£■, v:-.. 

^' ^^"^ * 

By spfchil iit-rmissioii of the "Wouian's Ilunie ConiiKiuiiui." 

Around the junction of these rivers during the existence of the armory 
and arsenal, a town of three or four thousand inhabitants had grown up in 
a period of some sixty years while the government works existed. On the 
northern side of the Potonuic rise the ^Tartdand Heights almost perpen- 
dicularly from the ri er's bank and l.:>00 feet above it. The London 


Tilt: I'lJ.W.SYLWWIA-aL'lLU.W. 

Heights across the Slienandoah are lower, but both heights overtop the 
"Heights of P.nlivnr" along which the town is strung. Both the former 
heights make the plai-e untenable for an army as was frequently demon- 
strated during the Civil War. The rivers are crossed by bridges. At low 
water numerous rocks are visible in the Potomac and Shenandoah, some 


By special permission of the "Woiiiairs Home Coiupaiiion." 

of which have become memorable. The place is situated in Jefferson county 
which is now in West Virginia. 

This county contained a large number of slaves, while Washington county, 
Maryland, just across the river, posses>sed comparatively few. The place 
is at the head and opens into the great Valley of Virginia. A branch rail- 
roa<l runs down to Winchester and bevond. The Slienandoah Vallev railroad 

10/t'A' TO HMU'KirS FERRY 


runs down the valley crossing tlie Potomac at Shoi.herastown some miles 
above Harper's Ferry. ]t begins at Hag.'rstown ami also crosses another 
portion of Antietam battlefield. A third road, the Ciunberland Valley, ex- 
tends from llarrisburg to Chambersburg. Hagerstown and. crossing the 
river at Falling Waters still liiglier above, it goes on to Martinsburg and 
thence to Winch.ster, one hundred and sixteen miles from its beginning. 

There is nuu-h tliat will bear careful study in this neighborhood embrac- 
ing its natural and social features. It is about sixty miles from Baltimore, 



^ 'f' 




i ^>#«ito>-:>,-"-l. .. :v>^ -% . -,jr.^, »"„-^ , „ . .r j; , j^ » « JAt"^ . ' ' . . ^a'\ > \ :.^. ^^^v'-^j^^.-^t-i^ , "^ ^ 


By special iiormisston of tlip "Woiimn's Ilnme Conipanlnii. " 

eighty from Washington, about tuenty-five from Frederick and about the 
same di.?tance from Hagerstown. The distance from ilartinsburg is about 
fifteen to twenty ndles, while to Winchester is over twenty-five miles. These 
locations and distances were important especiallv during the davs of the 
Civil War. 

Martinsburg, Harper's Ferry and Winchester have been prominent points 
for the initiation or beginning of certain movements which radiated from 
them as a center. From the first began the great strike of 1877; from the 
second the foray of John Brown which brought the slaverv conflict from the 
plains of Kansas to the mountains of Virginia. Tiie part of the third 
will be sho^^n later. l?ut it is the second that we will notice in this corncc- 


THE PExy.s YL 1 .1 \i\-(ji:ir]i. \ \. 

tion. In June, 1S59, John Brown and sons, then known as "Smith & Sous " 
appeared in ChamborsJiurg and after a time appeared at Hagerstown nnd 
later in the neighborhood of Harper's Ferry, renting Mhat was known as 
the farm on the Maryhind side of the Potomac, some five mile=* 
distant from Harper's Ferry. They traversed and acquainted themselves 
with the country- in all directions and actually acquired a better knowledrre 
of it than the native inhabitants. '^ 

His object, as all the world now knows, was "to carrj- the war into 
Africa "-to meet slavery on its own ground, to make the institution inse- 

. \ 

Vt*ti^k.,lM.^ ^^t,fi^ 

"•^ *--*^ —iPlffnl 


By specia. porniis.sion of tlic '■\VonM\n& Home Compatiiou." 

cure and thus unprofitable. The ^[ecca of Freedom had within the last 
decade, especially been removed from Mason and Dixon's line beyond the 
Canadian border. The north star had been the pillar of fire which by 
night guided the fugitive to the land of ja-omise. 

While this was an a^enue that in the aggregate led large numbers to 
freedom, yet the soul of John Brown chafed with impatience to do a stroke 
for humanity Mhich would reverberate down through the ages. We can 
recall how mad the undertaking then seemed, but we, too, recall how in less 
than four years the legions of the Xorth went South to the strain of "Glory, 
Ghiry Hallelujah.'- Xo other song reached its popularity with the soldiers 
of the Civil War— whole regiments ?inging it on tlio march. 

YORK TO HARl'in?-S FERRY. 'Slli 

Brown was a man of striking individuality, austere in manner, and tena- 
cious in his convictions. Jle held that to eompioiniso with error was an 
inconsistency that was un[)ardona]ih'. He believed that Truth should grap- 
ple with error and that in the end it had nothing to fear in the encounter. 
Whatever we may think of Jcihn Brown's methods, the world has long 
since acknowledged his sincerity and bravery. Moral heroes in a world 
affected by compromises are none too plentiful and when one is found who 
stands for principle, even at the expense of life and reputation, he is sure 
to be canonized in the pages of histor}'. Or as Eugene Ware in his 
"Rhymes of Iron-quilT ' beautifully says: 

"All merit conies from braving the unequal; 
All glory comes from daring to begin. 
Fame loves the State that, reckless of the sequel, 
Fights long and well, whether it lose or win. 
■ ***** * 

John Brown of Kansas, 
He dared liegiu. 

- He lost, 
But losing, won. '' 

With twenty-one followers as a forlorn hope he entered the arena and 
when summoned to surrender he exclaimed: "I prefer to die here." Colonel 
Washington, one of his hostages, said "that Brown, witli one son dead by 
his side and another dying, he felt the [lulse of his dying sun with oue hand, 
and held his rifle in the other. When that pulse was stdled he straightened 
out his limbs, took otf his trapjiings and remarkeil to me, 'This is the 
third son I have lost in this cause.' " 

During the fight Brown wore the sword taken from Colonel Washington, 
which tradition said had been given l>y Frederick the Great to George 

This sword Washington was ordered to surrender to the colored man, 0. 
P. Anderson, who in the slave code was but a "thing,"' aad the act was to 
teach slaveholders the signiticance of the newly found manhood by the 
"thing." If there was niadness in these actions there was method in 
them. But the end came and with it Colonel Robert E. Ltn?, whose marines 
stormed the engine liouse and overpowered its brave defenders. It is 
significant that Tee five years later surrendered his own sword to General 
Grant at Apiioinattdx. 

The demeanor of Brnwn when i-aiituted. an<l thmugh his trial and during 
his coutinen:ent before execution arrested the attention of tlie world, by his 
utterances an<l the words he left on record. Efforts were made to save him 
from his fate, but without avail. Before the execution Edmund Clarence 
Steilmau in his [njeni "John Brown of Osawatomie, " had made an appeal 
to the Virginians to exercise mercy in tiieir own interests, as the death of 
Brown would be sure to eiy for vengeance. 
"But, Virginians, don't do it, for I tell you that the tlagon 

Filled witli bl I of old lit\.un\ o|V-priiig was first poured In- South- 
ern hands; 


THE i'r:\\>!yL i '. i v/. {-cerm. \ x. 

Anrl.oacli drop of oM Bvo^vn's life v,.ins. like the re,l goro of the clra<^on 
May spriiicr up a vengeful fury, bis.sin^ thr.u,oh your slave worn L-uiis! 

And Old I^rown, 
Osawatoinie Bruwii, 

May trouble you more than ever when you've nailed his cotTin down." 

Prophetic words that came true five years later! 

To all efforts to save him, whether thi^ough the plea of irresponsibilitv or 
by pardon, or rescue, the old hero turned a deaf ear. He considered him'self 
he dech,red, "worth inconceivably more to be hung in this cause than to 
be used m any other way." He further added, "1 expcx-t nothing but to 
endure hardship, l,ut I expect to a.ddeve a great victorv even though it be 
like the last victory of Samson." But Virginia demanded "the pound 
of flesh, an.l wuh John Wilke.s Booth as one of the guards around the scaf- 
fold Brown paid the forfeit. In five years Booth became a red handed 
murderer of the Nation's Head, but retribution was swift in the hands of 
Boston Corbett. 

From all sections in the Xorth came words of praise or censure From 
across the sea came the medal sent by Va-tor Hugo, Louis Blane and others 
to Brown s family, which is now jealously guarded by the Kansas Histori- 
cal bociety, which has inscribed upon it : 

To the memory of 

Legally assassinated at Charlestown, December 2, 1859, and to those of his ' 
bons^and of His Companions, Dead Victims of their Devotion to the Cause 
of Liberty of the Blacks." 

John Brown was buried at his home in the Adirondacks in New York at 
the great boulder he loved so well in life, by his request. Since then eleven 
of his twenty-one followers have been re-interred there also, aloncrside of 
their old leader. The John Brown home has now passed into the^are of 
the State. 

Thus ended one of the most tragic and noted episodes in American 



TIlROrClT the united and energetic work of the present generation of 
JX^Long's several annual fanyly reunions have been held and con- 
siderable genealogical data unearthed, that, but for this fresh 
stimulus and combined ettort, should have been lost. 

Yet a number of desirable points remain thus far unexplored. It is not 
absolutely certain what was the locality whence the original immigrant 
came; nor the particular history of same family immediately preceding their 
departure from the old world; nor the exact time and port of embarkation; 
nor the history of same ancestor preceding his taking up of land in what is 
DOW Berks county, Pa. From that time on (June, 173S), the genealogical 
stream can be tolerably clearly traced — the family tree outlined into its 
outbranching ramifications. 

But it is cjuite dear from name, physical features and religious faith, that 
the family shared the blood, the reverses and exjieriences of the French 
Huguenots, who were cruelly driven from their native country towards the 
close of the seventeenth ccniury to find temporary refuge in the mountain 
fastnesses of Protestant Switzerland and the Palatinate. Here their Re- 
formed faith was developed and their French speech mixed with, and 
exchanged for tlie Palatine dialect, which the large German emigration 
brought to and perpetuated in Eastern Pennsylvania. Indeed this is all 
historically claimed. (See Stapleton's " :Memoirs of the Huguenots," p. 

It is known, too, that the original ancestor, or ancestors, entered Amer- 
ica by the port of New York and took up temporary abode in that province 
before coming to Pennsylvania. Was it in the seaport city, at New 
Rochelle, where n;any French Huguenots settled and named the colony after 
the. storm center of the old France, or up the Hudson, where a large colony 
of Germans had settled in 1710? (The Military Records of the State of 
New York, between years 17S3-]S'21, show a number of DeLongs to have 
been in service from that State.) 

Doubtless moved by the permanent settlement of many of his countrymen, 
from among the Huguenots and Palatines in the townships of Oley and 
Maxatawny, then Philadelphia, now Berks county, Pa., it is known that 
Peter DeLong, regarded by present descendants as the original American 
ancestor, came to settle in this section of Pennsylvania in the year 173S. 
There are records in the General Land Offices of the Stale, showing that 
on the 27th of June of thi,^ year (1738), a patent was granted said Peter 
DeLong for 1S7 acres of land, situated where the present village of Bowers 
Station is located, on the Fast Penu Branch of the Philadelphia and Reading 
Railroad, about sixteen miles northeast of Reading, Pa. This tract was sur- 
veyed in 1740. It was a wise choice, showing native shrewdness and fore- 
sight. The soil is rich, the land level, doubtless well timbered at that time, 
as still at this la i day it contains a grove of about sLs acres of stout and 


kingly oaks; and the clear anJ beautiful Sauoon oreek, rising in the hills 
to the south, floueil through the tract on its \Yay to the Antelaunee or 
Maiden creek, towards the north, which in turn is swallowed up by the 
Schuylkill just above Reading. We give here a diagram of the DeLong 
Homestead Plot, as copied by Rev. \V. F. DeLoug, of Annnville, Pa., from 
the State's Records at Harrisburg: 

610 E 2S4 

1003^ Acbres— MICH. D. LONG 


Henry E. Adams 





By virtue of a warrant dated the 27th day of June, 173S, surveyed the 
16th day of April. 1740, to Peter Long, the above described tract of land, 
situated between Oley and Maxatawny in the County of Philadelphia, con- 
taining 1S6 acres and 105 perches, with the allowance of 6 per cent., pr. 
Edw. Scull. The 100 7-8 acres Returned, Sec,, '25 Xo\ ember, 1785, for 
Michael DeLong in part of ye above. 

Pi.T£R Long, 1S5 acres. 17 a. 43 per., 3 June, 1S2S. 

Phila. Co. S3 a., 28 per., 10 July, 1S2S. 

100 7-8 acres, 25 Nov., 17S5. Fees, $1.50. 

In October, 1759, towards the close of his life, this pious Reformed 
Huguenot gave of his land two acres for church purposes, as is plain from 
the following quaint document, written originally in Geraian Script, and 
carefully preserved among the archives of the DeLong 's Church, which, un- 
der separate pastorates, has survived a century and a half and whose flock 
still containing many lineal descendants, now worships in the fourth or fifth 



Maxata\vny Township, Oct. 8, 1759. 
"\Yir unterschreibcr, Peter DeLoBg un meine ehlige Ilausfrau, Eva Eliza- 
beth DeLong, bekenncu hierniit uiid in krat't unserer eigenen handunters- 
chrift dass wir an die Eeformirte Gcmeinde gesehenkt und (iberhissen haben 
niimlich zwei Acher lant dass eine Evangelisehe Keforniirte Kirclie und 
Schulhaus daraiif soil gebaut werden, und liegt dieses land an unserer 
Plantashe wo wir albereits wohnen in Maxatawny Township, in Berks 
County, einseitz Andreas Haak, andrcrseitz "ihm lang selbsten, " und soli 
dieses lant nieht nur auf eine kurze Zeit iibcr lassen und gersohenket sein, 
sondern so lang Sonn und Mond am Ilimmel scheinen und die AVasser-tiiisse 
ihrec lauf haben dass weder wir noch unsere erber kein recht . . . daran 
zusuchen noch zu fodern haben, sondern gleich einem andern gemeinde glied. 
Pies aber ohnzerbrechlieh und zu bekraftigen haben wir uns bei zeugen 
eigenhiindig untcrschrieben. 


Eva Elizabeth Delongh. 


Ihr Handzeig. 

Heinkig Luckenbill, 
Jacob Gieadix. 

It is significant that a long list of staunch F'rotestaut heralds of the cross 
has sprung from the loins cf this plain, but God-fearing and persecuted, 
defender and promoter of the faith. They have not all borne his name, nor 
subscribed to the Eeformed tenets of faith, but, without ecclesiastical and 
doctrinal hair-splitting, which characterized that day, they have gone on, in 
several dift'erent communions, taking high rank among the promoters of our 
Master's common Kingdom. 

Towards the end of his life Peter DeLong made a will, from the German 
text of which the following is a translation. The same was copied verbatim 
from the county records at Eeading. 


Translation from the German Original of the last H'ill and Testament of 

of Peter DeLangh. 

In the name ci the Lord, Amen — -T, Peter De Lang, of ^laxatawny, in 
Berks Co., as it pleases God to lay me down in sickness, and not knowing 
how soon God shall call me out of this world, and am yet, God be thanked, 
in good understanding and memory, I hereby will thus order my goods and 
movables, and that in the presence of two witnesses, as follows: 

First, my three sons, to wit, John and Heinrich and Jacob, shall have my 
right in the land which I bought of the Secretary and shall pay for the same 
in my name and shall divide it regularly among them and John shall give 
Jacob one acre of bis meadow. 



Secornlly, this is my uill that uiy two sons, to wit, Michael and Abra- 
ham, shall have my right in my dwelling plaoc, but all my estate, as well 
the improvements as the movables, shall come into an appraiseineiit and my 
wife, Eva Elisabita, shall, as Executrix, keep all in her hands, as there are 
yet four children, to wit, Michael, Barbara, and Abraham, and Frederich, in 
their minority. But my son, Jacob, shall have before the appraisement, 
one cow, two swine, two sheep, but after the death of my aforesaid wife, 
my four children, to wit, :\Iichael and Barbara and Abraham and Frederich, 
each have four pounds of money before hand, and the remainder shall be 
equally divid-i-d between all my children. But if my aforesaid wife shall 
marry again she shall have no more than her third part, to require which 
I herewith conclude and seal and subscribe with my own hand and declare 
this to be my last Will and Testament. Done 1st December, 1756. 

Witness: Pyeter De Laxgh. 

Cheistiax Heinkich. 

JusTACs Urbax. 


From the different records of will, church books, tomb-stone inscriptions, 
family Bibles and baptismal certificates, the following genealogical table 
has been constructed: 



Died in i:ko 


» 2 3 4 5 6 7 


= - z : ^ 



Of this family a scion returnea to Brooklyn, N. Y., about the beginning 
of last century and prospered in the mercantile business. His octogenarian 
son has written several most interesting letters of family greeting and 
reminiscence to the friends gathered in their annual reunions. Of this 
branch came the illustrious Lieutenant George W. DeLong, leauer of the 
ill-fated Jeanette, in its Polar expedition, uhose T^idow has graced the 
assembled DeLougs in family reunion with her presence during the Summer 
of 1901. 


Many of the older and younger generations of DeLongs lie buried on 
the burial plots near the DeLong -'s church. The original ancestor's tomb 
and that of his wife are doubtless here, but are either unmarked, or their 
tombstone inscriptions have btx^ome illegible. Several of his sons' tombs 
here are marked with appropriate stones. Being especially interested in 
my own line, I have copied that of Michael and his wife as follows: 


der Liebe fur 

B.^RBAKA DeLong, 

geborne Bollebach uml Ehegatlin 


Michael DeLoxg. 

Ul geboren den L^ilen Juli. 1756. 

Starb dm ISten Junnuar, 1S32. 

Ihr alter uar 

75 Jahr, 6 Monatr. 


ruhen die Gebeine von dem 

Michael DeLong. 

£r wurde gtboren 

den 26 November, im Jahr 1739, 

uiid ist ge.'iforben 

del 2i;cen Tag ilarlz, im 

Jnhr 1S19. 

Ist alt warden 7'J Jahren, I, Monale. 

As these were the writer's great-grandparents, the parents of my grand- 
father, David DeLong, whose later life furnished me with many vivid and 
cherisbe.1 childhood memories, special interest was taken in this ancient 
tomb,^ when a year ago I visited this Macpelah of DeLong sepulchres, i 
have in my possession the baptismal certificate of our grandfather, and, as 
this is a connecting link in our line of ancestry with this old stem, I give 
here a transcript of it (in English letters): 



This Border is filled with hand-painted designs in wai 

David DeLano- 

Hat das I.iclit dipser wit erblicket oiid ist 
vou Christlithen Eltcrn gehure.i in der 
rennsylvanien in Korks County in Jfaxatawnv 
Xownship Im Jahr des Herrn 1790, den (-ten Mal- 
Monats, und ist gotauft worden den ii May ITso 
Sein vater ist der Erbare Michael i>eLaii?, und 
seine Mutter Barbara. Die Taulzeugen sind David 
DeLang und seine Fran Barbara-- Wurde fon- 
firruirt durch lln : llenrich Jlelfrieh im Jahr 1S05 

A similar certificate, also in my hands, tells the life storj of his wife ' 
iTis ^"!'r "■ '''\'''''^^-^-^ ^'^--r, daughter of Edward Clauser, nj 
Ins wife, Susanna, a born Liess. She was born March 25, 1791 and died 

ary 1^, ISSo, aged 91 years, 10 months and 21 da vs. Cxrandfather had 

llToat: 't I' ''^'l' '''^' ""'''''' ''' ''''' ^^^' '' years 5 ^on'ths 
and .0 days. Both are buned in the old Unionville (Nefls P. O) grave- 
yard and have appropriate touib-stcnes. And across the wav, in he new 

she the daugh er ot Davtd and Catharine DeLcng. Their tombs are marked 
and indicate hat he died November 20, 1S90, aged 76 years, G months and 
1 day; she July 22, 1896, aged SO years, 11 months and -^0 davs 

bur ris'"ilh'to"T'f ' "'"' °' '"^'" ''^^^^""^' "^"'^Ses, deaths and 
thro Ih T:. ^°^"'P^^^^- ^' ^^- ^--"'y. -.^7 yet be published 

through the energy ot the younger scions of it. 


From the Will of the original ancestor, it s-eems evident what disposition 
was made Of the original estate upon his daith in 1760. However, in 17S5. 
Michael, by the payn.eut of 45 pounds, secured a portion of the same, which 
seems o have had a shaky title, as same is reconveyed by Orphans' Court. 
For sattstacfon of u.etabers of this famtiy we publish this document. 


Patent 2. 
Michael Dj; Long, 

(Exa) The Supreme Executive Council of the Commonwealth of Pa. 
To all to xvhom these presents shall come, Greeting : 

Know ye that in consideration of the monies paid by Peter Eong (alias 
DeLong) to the late Proprietaries at the granting the warrant hereinafter 
mentioned and of the further sum of 45 pounds lawful money paid by 
Michael DeLong into the Eeoeivers General olTico of this Couunonwealth, 
being the arrearage of purchase money and interest due thereon, there is 
granted by the said Commonwealth unto the said Peter DeLong a certain 
tract of land called Sommerville, situated in ^Laxatawny township, formerly 
Philadelpnia Co., now in the county of Berks, beginning at a corner-stone 
in the line of Daniel Hock's land, thence by the same to Henry Grimm's 
land south 10 degrees, east 2S4 perches to a part in the line of Christian 
Zeivert's (Seibert's) land, thence by the same north 20 degrees, east 59 
perches and seven-tenth to a cornerstone of laud belonging to the heirs of 
Abraham DeLong. thence by the same north 10 degrees, west 101 perches to 
a post, north S degrees, east 8 perches, to a post north 10 degrees, west 
20 perches, to a post south SO degrees, west 8 perches, to a post and north 
10 degrees and one-half west, 103 perches to a corner-stone of Daniel Hock 's 
land, thence by the same south 80 degrees, west 58 perches and eight-tenths 
to the place of beginning; containing 100 acres and 7-8 of an acre, and al- 
lowance of six per cent, for roads, etc., with the appurtenances (which said 
tract is part of a larger tract which was surveyed by virtue of a warrant 
dated the 27th day of June, 1738, granted to the said Peter Long, alias 
DeLong, who died intestate, whereupon the same was ordered by the Or- 
phans Court to his son, the said ^Michael DeLong, to have and to hold the 
said tract or parcel of land, with the appurtenances unto the said INIichael 
and his heirs, to the use of him, the said ^Michael DeLong, h:s 
heirs and assignees forever, free and clear of all restrictions and 
reservation as to monies, royalties, quit rents or otherwise, excepting 
and reserving only the fifth part of all gold and silver ore for the use of 
this Commonwealth to be deli\ered at the pits mouth clear of all charge. In 
witness whereof the Honorable Charles Biddle, Esq., in Pres. of the Su- 
preme Executive Council, hath hereto set his hand and caused the State seal 
to be herewith affixed in council the 2Gth of November, 1785, and of the 
Commonwealth the tenth. 

Attest: John Armstrong, Sec. Enrolled 28th Nov., 1785. 

Chas. Biddle, V. P. (.<;). 

The Court and Commonwealth Eecords have been thoroughly searched by 
the aforesaid Rev. W. F. DeLong, and he has found and copied records of 
conveyances of other parts of same original tract as follows: 

Patent Book P, No. 4, p. 143, Nov. 26, 1785, to John DeLong 20 1-8 acres., 
The tract was called "John's Fancy." This is same date of above con- 
veyance to Michael I'eLong. 

Patent Book H, N\'. 2.1, p. 493, June 3, 1S2S, to James Bower, 17 acres, 
43 perches. After him the {nx-soiit villa-e wiis named. Bowers. 


Patent Book H, No. '2(;, p. So, July 10, 1828, to Henry Grim, S3 acres aD<l 
28 perches of the same original tract.- 

Patent Book, Vol. 11, No. 26, p. 293, a conveyance June 2, 1829, to Peter 
Hamsher, of a 20-acre tract, originally secured by Peter DeLong on 30th 
Jan., 1755, by warrant. Situated in Eockland township and adjoining 
lands of Adam Luckenbill, Henry Wertz, Jacob Pa'n-rand. 

As far as is known to the writer the oldest house on this tract is that 
now occupied b}' James DeLong, a son of Franklin DeLong, who was a son 
of Joseph DeLong, who was grandson of the original settler, Peter DeLong. 
This house stand.s a little to the east of Bowers and was built by Joseph 
DeLong in ISll. 

And now let all who have DeLong blood in their arteries remember that 
n-hen they travel past Bowers Station they are genealogically on hallowed 
ground, and may they take off their hat, if not their shoes, in token of the 
sturdy pioneer, who ihere, nearly one and three-quarters of a century 
ago, as a religious refugee and a patron of liberty, of life and thought, 
permanently planted his home in the wilds of Penn 's forest, over which 
waved the glorious banner of religious tolerance. 


Since the foregoing was written and set in type, another DeLong Family 
Reunion held (at Kutztown Park, on August 2G, 1903). At this gath- 
ering several hundred of relatives from far and near gathered for reviewing 
history, renewing or forming acquaintance and stimulating one another in 
the good ways and purposes of hereditary family traits and virtues. There 
were attending members of the family from Boston, Mass., to Lafayette, 
Ind., and a belated comer arrived too late for the day 's festivities from 
Boulder, Colo. Letters from Appleton, Wis., and Brooklyn, N. Y., again 
cheered the assemblage and several interesting historical or genealogical 
addresses were delivered. From these it was learned that the heretofore 
supposed original American pioneer, Peter DeLong 's wife's full name was 
FiVa Elizabeth Weber, daughter of Jacob Weber, from Duchess county, N. Y., 
who in 173G settled in New Holland, Lancaster county, Pa., who came to 
America with the noted Eev. J'ishua Kocherthal in 170S. These facts were 
discovered from the contents of a deed on record in Newberg, N. Y. She 
was married to said Peter DeLong in the year 1722(?). Records of a 
certain Francis DeLong were also found as having been a resident in 
Duchess county, N. Y., as early as 171-4, who then had four sons, and must 
consequently have been married not later than 1705 to 1707, and hence born 
about 1685 in Duchess county. Was he the father of Peter DeLong? 

Then the latter was American born and the emigration of the pioneer 
DeLong is put back into the 17th century, making this a very old family. 
Following additional facts were also brought to light by an address deliv- 
ered by Rev. Calvin il. DeLong, of East Greenville, Pa., viz: 

1. • That the DeLongs come from the French nobility according to 
de Maiguey 's "Science of Heraldr}-, ' ' jmblished in Paris in 1856. 

2. That the Ketords if the Dut.-h Reformed churches of New York City 
and Kingston N. Y., h.rv'o entries (if l'>'.''l.o!ig baptisms as early as Jfis5 
f-nd then frequently fmm 1700 on to 1728. 


3. That in "First Settlers of Albany County" (N. Y.) are foun.l De- 
Lange's (Ariaautzen, Eoebel and Jeaii) born in Kaysostcr (Kochostcr .') aiiil 
date of settlement as early as 1712 and 1717. 

4. That in "Calendar of Wilis" at Albany X. Y., for years IIG'J, 1770, 
are records of DeLange wills — one Arrie DeLange, of Charlotte i>r"eiiR-t, 
Duchess county, vihose wife Mas Anne, and sons Francis, Ellas, Martin, 
Jearus, Lawrence, and daughters, Mary Crankright and Jene Isnuil. 


Already fifteen years have passed since the appearance of Prof. Seiden- 
sticker's "First Century of German Printing in America." This is the 
most complete bibliography of early Gennau book making in America. 
Notwithstanding its supposed completeness and undoubted value to students 
in Pennsylvania-German history-, the diseoveiy of many works not listed 
by either I'rof. Seidensticker or his predecessor, Prof. Hildcburn, in his 
"Issues of the Pennsylvania Press,'' have demonstrated the necessity of a 
new or revised work on this important subject. 

In this field of research no one has been more successful than Rev. A. 
Stapleton, whose work in this line should not be lost to posterity. His list 
of publications embraces some titles that nu^terially ati'ect history. As 
examples: In 1732 appears an announcement in Franklin's "Penusylvaui.a 
Gazette," that a paper would be issued in the Gemian language if sutli- 
cient encouragement were given the project. No copy of the proposed 
issue had hitherto come within the knowledge of historians, and Sower has 
generally been gi\'en credit for publishing the first German newspaper in 
the New World in 1739. 

Some years ago Dr. Stapleton discovered a copy of the Franklin paper, 
dated May, 1732, thus antedating the Sower paper by seven years. Again, 
the most recent histories and bibliographies of the Keformed Church gives 
the first appearance of the Heidelberg Catechism in America as 1762, but 
Mr. Stapleton has recently discovered a Heidelberg Catechism printed by 
Sower in 1755, thus pushing back the printing of that confession in 
America seven years. 

The number of unrecorded books, pamphlets, papers, etc., which Dr. 
Stapleton has re<20vered is over 220. It can readily be seen that the publi- 
cation of this addition to Prof. Seidensticker 's work would materially 
change its character and be a valuable acquisition to our prest'nt fund of 
knowleilge on this subject. We hope such scholars as Dr. Stapleton and 
his ilk will contribute a full list of works on this subject hitherto omitted 
for the next issue of this Magazine, and we herewith summon and com- 
mand Dr. S. to do this adilitional lalxir of love and thus contriluite to the 
knowleilge and convenience of his fellow men and add lustre to the bright- 
ness of his litorarv cro\ n. 





"History of 

Donegal Presbyterian 


Local history has recently received a marvelous 
impetus. There is something in the air that seems 
to waken up the people to the study and develop- 
ir.ent of past events at one's very feel. Many a 
devout Old Mortality has in these days taken up the mallet and chisel to re- 
trace again some Morthy and almost forgotten name upon the erasive and 
crumbling marble. Many a student has pointed his grey-goose quill to 
re-enact the deeds and exploits of such as may have, a century and more 
ago, on their very heath, nobly labored and planted and taught so that the 
feet of coming generations might have less thorns and fewer obstacles to 
encouuter as they trend the long and winding lane of life. 

This spirit has inspired Dr. J. L. Zicgler, of ^It. Joy, to bring out his 
beautiful and carefully-written book on the widely famous old Donegal Pres- 
byterian Cliurch of Lancaster County. Sixty years of closest acquaintance 
with the territory and with the history of this pioneer church has enabletl 
him to write its annals much in the way of an eye-witness. Much valuable 
data is thus given; a great many facts concerning most of the old families 
who first settled here, or once lived here, are collated; old tombstone instruc- 
tions and many genealogical sketches are drawn, with accounts of scores of 
distinguished persons descending out of this sturdy Scotch-Irish settlement, 
including the late President McKinley, made here when Pennsylvania was 
yet an infant province. Several beautiful illustrations, half-tones from 
photographs, adorn the book, which consists of 1S4 quarto pp. of fine paper, 
well-bound and gilt-edged. It is a handsome contribution to the interests 
of local historv. 

Capt. Gustavus 

The Pcnnsj-lvania Society, Sons of the Revolution, have te- 
cently issued a pamphlet in fine and elaborate style, adorned 
with half a dozen full-page illustrations, giving a sketch of 
this worthy Kevolutiouary fighter and the services he rendered to the cause 
of American Independence. The thought and its execution merit praise. 

The author, a reputed minister of the Re- 
formed Church of America, has kept his 
pen from rusting during a long and busy 
pastoral career, by frequent efl"usions, his- 
toric, religious and poetical. The volume 
before us is a book of his collected poems, which receives its name from 
the first one. It contains many a clever piece of writing, recounting the 
heroic deeds of pioneers who helped to lay the foundations of Church and 
State, and the whole is a worthy and grateful contribution to the provincial 
biographical and local history of our IVnnsylvania-German stock and de- 
serves a wide circulatic i. Octavo, 117pp. 

"Response to the Blue Juniata." 






A Word About Advcrti^inu 1!>:1 

About t he Vx'onthi'i- "Js'J 

Elfsciith Annual .Mr.'iinu I'L'nn'a-Cn' Society 1 

Groetins^s to Prince 1 Icnry 4'.» 

Pennsylvania-Germans in l-lvidence '^41 

Itovolutiunary Heroes IJun'.red IJT 

Summerin.s; 3:'7 

Vacation and Iiurotluction 14.") 


Bucher, John Conrad -'-(l 

Fritchie. Barbara o-:!'.) 

Ilenkel. (lerhanlt 'JAU 

Kunze. John < ' 'J'J 

Aiuhlouberg. John 1'. (.4 o 

]Muhlonbert:. l-^e-lerick A. C 'A 

jMuhlenher?:. Ci. Henry K 147 

Budy. Charles I'J.j 

Poetic Gi:.\rs ; 

An 1 )er I'air --'OS 

Busch uu Schtediel Ill' 

Drauss mi Deheem ; "J 14 

Die Neie Sort Dsdient'lleit 211 

Der Alt i'isherniaii . 2ijo 

Die Larning 314 

l)er Jiini und der Juli 31 V 

Der Yokel und die Luncii Boule ol'.i 

Der Goitz , L!l.'( ) 

Die Amschel o.'» 1 

Der Ferlohra Ehsel Li.j.'I 

Der Keiche ilerr im I )»ich 24 

Der Beik I'C, 

Der Alt Kerchhof C,;; 

Der Kerchegang in Alter Zeit 04 

Die guta Alti' Zeita tjG 

I>er Fiert July KUj 

Der "Gigeregee" 110 

Die Alt Cider .Muehl K.i; 

Die Welt uf \'endue IC, 1 

Die Besht Z<it HJlj 

Es Bodt A lies N"i.\ •_.,;4 


ICiii I (iMitxIicr '\';iiikcy Dui>] r>]^■, 

Ks lla.inclt Km A' _ ^>,j] 

J Jiikclir 20 

J'ah^iiarlit ; Cj 

( Prize I'olk Sone.- — ITrs-o Dahl ^.Tt'.t 

I Ial/clii;iii>;sp o_j 

.Ml. (Jii'tii.i ill AN'iiitfr ^24 

Mcr Wolla Fisha G-ii , ."....' l.»C)L' 

My Ah.v Cfik HI 

.\'<'ii .Ioin-"s Shit/ ill Alte Zoito 23 

'N Srliooiiie Altit' Jlc'inath l.',7 

Xoft'iiil) 'iklawic J59 

( ).-itliU «■ ._»t;i 

!^l'0tj"lii- Kji) 

Sflilittat'ofiia 2'-' 

Soimtaw- .Moi-ued.'^' An Der Ziegol Kerch :;o"J 

Saiirkiaut -i-,*^ 

Wit- Mor ( ; 1(H_' Ware . •. " 2IL' 

\\ atrhituiuf 21-' 

Zi'it uui LeiUi' aniuM'e Sich . _ _ (j.3 

IliNl'liUH .VI. I'll.dlUM.Vt.KS : 

J >M\vii ihe Schuylkill Valley 27 

From York ro Harper's Ferry 3.^5 

From It'Mdiii- to York n^;-.; 

1 1 i^toric York 2ir> 2'J5 

Over ihe Old Ka^lou P^oad (J7 

Over the Oley Pike 1]3 

<;r..\KALot;v : 

I>efiiiiti(jii .,•••> 

....••.. — 0'> 

Tie' OeLoiig Family 375 

.Mi^( i:i.i.a.m:ol,s : 

Birthplace of the Tele[.lioue 17j< 

Ciuioiis Ins.-riptions j,s,S 

1 'er l^w i-e Jaeyer ^yj 

•.;<'rman.s as a I'"actor j.^^) 

l[im.Mioi-])u!ikaril-Meiir^oiiire LMsciidiiie 90 

I^auclmark History of United Brerhreuism i;2i' 

I-'ist Will (jf Christopher Stump 2l'Li 

.Mountain ;Mary j-.y 

^•=""^" ^«""S ..'.'.'.'..'.'.'. 13G 

-Mary of the .Ali.uutain j-s; 

I'alatines- Church at Xewbuig «<7 

Supplemental Issue of IMLdioLrraphy y^::^ 

Trinity Churchyard 2::.5 

1 <'iiili-i,,|ie Inscriptions jj^ij 

^Vli-> Was Lugan '.' 175 

^'■'■■'K NotieKS pp. .14, (j7_ 343^ yj2. 2oS, 287, y.;G. i;si 

' " ^ '•■"■''■ -'^'"i»^ pp. 48. !h;, 1-14. 240. 2.SS. oS4 

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